[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have recently described a signal transducing molecule, 2B4, expressed on all NK and T cells that mediate non-MHC-restricted killing. The gene encoding this molecule was cloned and its nucleotide sequence determined. The encoded protein of 398 amino acids has a leader peptide of 18 amino acids and a transmembrane region of 24 amino acids. The predicted protein has eight N-linked glycosylation sites, suggesting that it is highly glycosylated. Comparison of 2B4 with sequences in the databanks indicates that 2B4 is a member of Ig supergene family, and it shows homology to murine and rat CD48 and human LFA-3. Northern blot analysis has shown at least three transcripts for 2B4 in adherent lymphokine-activated killer cells of several mouse strains and TCR-gamma/delta dendritic epidermal T cell lines but not in allospecific T cell clones. These three mRNA are the products of differential splicing of heterogeneous nuclear RNA. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA from several mouse strains revealed that 2B4 belongs to a family of closely related genes. The 2B4 gene has been mapped to mouse chromosome 1 by analysis of 2B4 expression in recombinant inbred mouse strains.
The Journal of Immunology 12/1993; 151(10):5328-37. · 5.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NK cells and IL-2-propagated splenic T cells mediate non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity. The molecules involved in this process are not well defined. We describe a novel 66-kDa cell surface molecule called 2B4 that is expressed on cells that mediate non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity. All resting and rIL-2 cultured NK cells and a significant number of T cells cultured in high doses of rIL-2 are 2B4+. In fresh as well as cultured spleen cells, all non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity is contained within the 2B4+ population. In addition to defining cells capable of non-MHC-restricted killing, the 2B4 molecule is also involved in modulation of their function. In the presence of anti-2B4, the lytic activity of cultured NK cells and non-MHC-restricted T cells against a wide variety of FcR- and FcR+ targets is greatly augmented. Anti-2B4 is also able to transduce other signals in IL-2-activated NK cells such as IFN-gamma secretion and granule exocytosis. In addition, 2B4+ T cells can specifically lyse the 2B4 hybridoma cells. Unlike many other activation and adhesion molecules (such as murine CD2, LFA-1, and CD16), 2B4 expression is restricted to cells that mediate NK-like killing. Conversely, highly activated T cells that do not express 2B4 do not mediate non-MHC-restricted killing. Together these data suggest that the 2B4 molecule is likely to be a part of a receptor complex or a component of signal-transducing complex on cells that mediate non-MHC-restricted killing.
The Journal of Immunology 08/1993; 151(1):60-70. · 5.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nature of TCR gamma and delta gene rearrangements in 4- to 6-week-old scid thymocytes was examined by using the polymerase chain reaction technique, cloning, and DNA sequencing. Analysis of 78 sequences indicates that TCR gamma and delta gene rearrangements in scid mice generally resemble those in thymocytes from normal young adult mice. V gamma 1, V gamma 2, and V gamma 5 rearrangements are heterogeneous, with extensive N region addition and nucleotide excision from the recombining coding segments. In addition, homogeneous and fetal-like V gamma 3, V gamma 4, and V delta 1 rearrangements are observed. These rearrangements are currently difficult to interpret but may be significant with respect to whether certain homogeneous joints in normal mice are due to cellular selection or to the rearrangement process. scid TCR gamma and delta gene nucleotide sequences also reveal direct V-J delta joining, inter-(V-J-C gamma) cluster joining, and the possibility of inversional rearrangement at the gamma locus. Short sequence homologies may contribute to V(D)J recombination and to the rescue of blocked coding joints.
The Journal of Immunology 01/1992; 147(12):4351-9. · 5.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between NK cell and T cell progenitors was investigated by using mice with severe combined immune deficiency (scid). Scid mice are devoid of mature T and B cells because they cannot rearrange their Ig and TCR genes. However, they have normal splenic NK cells. Thymus of scid mice, although markedly hypocellular, contains cells that lyse YAC-1, an NK-sensitive tumor cell. By flow cytometry, two populations of cells were identified in the scid thymus. Eighty percent of the cells were Thy-1+, IL-2R(7D4)+, J11d+, CD3-, CD4-, CD8- whereas the remaining were IL-2R-, J11d-, CD3-, CD4-, and CD8-. By cell sorting, all NK activity was found in the latter population, which is phenotypically similar to splenic NK cells. To determine if the thymus contains a bipotential NK/T progenitor cell, J11d+, IL-2R+ cells were cultured and analyzed for the generation of NK cells in vitro. These cells were used because they resemble 15-day fetal and adult CD4- CD8- thymocytes that are capable of giving rise to mature T cells. Cultured J11d+ thymocytes acquired non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity, but in contrast to mature NK cells, the resulting cells contained mRNA for the gamma, delta, and epsilon-chains of CD3. This suggests that J11d+ cells are early T cells that can acquire the ability to kill in a non-MHC-restricted manner, but which do not give rise to NK cells in vitro. The differentiative potential of scid thymocytes was also tested in vivo. Unlike bone marrow cells, scid thymocytes containing 80% J11d+ cells failed to give rise to NK cells when transferred into irradiated recipients. Together these results suggest that mature NK cells reside in the thymus of scid mice but are not derived from a common NK/T progenitor.
The Journal of Immunology 03/1990; 144(3):796-803. · 5.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our studies with scid mice have clarified the relationship between T cells and NK cells. C.B-17 scid mice have normal frequency of transplantable NK progenitors in their bone marrow which develop into fully functional NK cells. Spleens of scid mice contain mature NK cells which are phenotypically and functionally indistinguishable from NK cells found in normal mice. These cells retain their TCR genes in germline configuration and do not transcribe the CD3 genes. Thus, NK cells are distinct from the earliest identifiable cells committed to the T-lineage. In addition to the spleen, the thymus of scid mice also contains mature NK cells. These cells constitute a small proportion of the thymus cell population and can be clearly distinguished from the majority of cells, which have the phenotype and molecular characteristics of very early T-lineage cells. There is no evidence that NK cells within the thymus are derived in situ from a common NK/T precursor. Together these data support the hypothesis that NK cells form an independent lineage.
Current topics in microbiology and immunology 02/1989; 152:47-52. · 3.47 Impact Factor