[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe lung function findings in overweight children and adolescents without respiratory disease.
This was a cross-sectional study involving male and female overweight children and adolescents in the 8-18 year age bracket, without respiratory disease. All of the participants underwent anthropometric assessment, chest X-ray, pulse oximetry, spirometry, and lung volume measurements. Individuals with respiratory disease were excluded, as were those who were smokers, those with abnormal chest X-rays, and those with an SpO2 = 92%. Waist circumference was measured in centimeters. The body mass index-for-age Z score for boys and girls was used in order to classify the individuals as overweight, obese, or severely obese. Lung function variables were expressed in percentage of the predicted value and were correlated with the anthropometric indices.
We included 59 individuals (30 males and 29 females). The mean age was 11.7 ± 2.7 years. Lung function was normal in 21 individuals (35.6%). Of the 38 remaining individuals, 19 (32.2%), 15 (25.4%), and 4 (6.7%) presented with obstructive, restrictive, and mixed ventilatory disorder, respectively. The bronchodilator response was positive in 15 individuals (25.4%), and TLC measurements revealed that all of the individuals with reduced VC had restrictive ventilatory disorder. There were significant negative correlations between the anthropometric indices and the Tiffeneau index in the individuals with mixed ventilatory disorder.
Lung function was abnormal in approximately 65% of the individuals evaluated here, all of whom were overweight. Obstructive ventilatory disorder and positive bronchodilator response predominated.
Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia: publicacao oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia 04/2014; 40(2):134-41.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of atopy and to evaluate clinical, laboratory, and radiological profiles in patients with COPD.
This was a cross-sectional study involving outpatients with stable COPD (defined by the clinical history and a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 70% of the predicted value). The patients completed a questionnaire regarding clinical characteristics and atopy, after which they underwent nasal lavage cytology, skin prick testing, chest X-rays, arterial blood gas analyses, and determination of total serum IgE.
Of the 149 subjects studied, 53 (35.6%), 49 (32.8%), and 88 (59.1%) presented with nasal eosinophilia, a positive skin prick test result, and symptoms of allergic rhinitis, respectively. Correspondence analysis confirmed these findings, showing two distinct patterns of disease expression: atopy in patients with COPD that was less severe; and no evidence of atopy in those with COPD that was more severe (reduced FEV1 and hyperinflation). There was a statistically significant association between nasal eosinophilia and a positive bronchodilator response.
Using simple and reproducible methods, we were able to show that there is a high frequency of atopy in patients with COPD. Monitoring inflammation in the upper airways can be a useful tool for evaluating respiratory diseases in the elderly and in those with concomitant asthma and COPD, a clinical entity not yet fully understood.
Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia: publicacao oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia 06/2013; 39(3).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the efforts made worldwide to reduce the number of cases of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) constitutes an important public health issue. Around 440,000 new cases of MDR-TB are estimated annually, although in 2008 only 7% of these (29,423 cases) were notified. The laboratory tests for diagnosing resistance may be phenotypic (based on culture growth in the presence of drugs) or genotypic (i.e. identification of the presence of mutations that confer resistance). The urgent need for a rapid means of detecting resistance to anti-TB drugs has resulted in the development of many genotypic methods over recent years. The treatment of MDR-TB is expensive, complex, prolonged (18-24 months) and associated with a higher incidence of adverse reactions. Some basic principles must be observed when prescribing an adequate treatment regimen for MDR-TB: (a) the association of at least four drugs (three of which should not have been used previously); (b) use of a fluoroquinolone; and (c) use of an injectable anti-TB drug. In Brazil, the therapeutic regimen for MDR-TB has been standardized and consists of five drugs: terizidone, levofloxacin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and an aminoglycoside (streptomycin or amikacin). Pulmonary resection is an important tool in the coadjuvant treatment of MDR-TB. While a recent meta-analysis revealed an average cure rate of MDR-TB of 69%, clinical studies are currently being conducted with new drugs and with drugs already available on the market but with a new indication for TB, with encouraging results that will enable more effective treatment regimens to be planned in the future.
The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases 03/2013; · 1.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New scientific articles about tuberculosis (TB) are published daily worldwide. However, it is difficult for health care workers, overloaded with work, to stay abreast of the latest research findings and to discern which information can and should be used in their daily practice on assisting TB patients. The purpose of the III Brazilian Thoracic Association (BTA) Guidelines on TB is to critically review the most recent national and international scientific information on TB, presenting an updated text with the most current and useful tools against TB to health care workers in our country. The III BTA Guidelines on TB have been developed by the BTA Committee on TB and the TB Work Group, based on the text of the II BTA Guidelines on TB (2004). We reviewed the following databases: LILACS (SciELO) and PubMed (Medline). The level of evidence of the cited articles was determined, and 24 recommendations on TB have been evaluated, discussed by all of the members of the BTA Committee on TB and of the TB Work Group, and highlighted. The first version of the present Guidelines was posted on the BTA website and was available for public consultation for three weeks. Comments and critiques were evaluated. The level of scientific evidence of each reference was evaluated before its acceptance for use in the final text.
Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia: publicacao oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia 10/2009; 35(10):1018-48.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Community-acquired pneumonia continues to be the acute infectious disease that has the greatest medical and social impact regarding morbidity and treatment costs. Children and the elderly are more susceptible to severe complications, thereby justifying the fact that the prevention measures adopted have focused on these age brackets. Despite the advances in the knowledge of etiology and physiopathology, as well as the improvement in preliminary clinical and therapeutic methods, various questions merit further investigation. This is due to the clinical, social, demographical and structural diversity, which cannot be fully predicted. Consequently, guidelines are published in order to compile the most recent knowledge in a systematic way and to promote the rational use of that knowledge in medical practice. Therefore, guidelines are not a rigid set of rules that must be followed, but first and foremost a tool to be used in a critical way, bearing in mind the variability of biological and human responses within their individual and social contexts. This document represents the conclusion of a detailed discussion among the members of the Scientific Board and Respiratory Infection Committee of the Brazilian Thoracic Association. The objective of the work group was to present relevant topics in order to update the previous guidelines. We attempted to avoid the repetition of consensual concepts. The principal objective of creating this document was to present a compilation of the recent advances published in the literature and, consequently, to contribute to improving the quality of the medical care provided to immunocompetent adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia.
Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia: publicacao oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia 07/2009; 35(6):574-601.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate how pulmonologists view the impact that asthma and COPD has on their patients, as well as how they treat these diseases.
Survey including 227 pulmonologists participating in the VI Brazilian Asthma Conference, II Brazilian COPD Conference and II Brazilian Smoking Conference, all of which were held in 2007.
According to the answers given by the pulmonologists, COPD is a public health problem of equal or greater importance than asthma, and COPD causes various disruptions in the lives of patients and their family members. When prescribing an inhalation device, pulmonologists feel that simplicity of use is more important than is the cost. There was a slight preference for the Aeroliser and Diskus systems. The budesonide-formoterol combination was the therapeutic regimen most often cited for the continued treatment of the symptomatic asthma, whereas tiotropium bromide was the most often cited medication for the treatment of patients with COPD. Selection of the therapeutic regimen for asthma and COPD is primarily influenced by the results of therapeutic trials published in the literature.
The opinions of pulmonologists on the topics under study are in concordance with data in the specialized literature.
Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia: publicacao oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia 05/2009; 35(4):301-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of latent and active TB among detainees in a prison hospital in Bahia, Brazil.
A cross-sectional study with prospective data collection was carried out comprising 237 inmates in the Bahia State Prison Hospital between July 2003 and April 2004. A standardized questionnaire was applied and completed by medical students. The detainees were systematically submitted to the following tests: tuberculin skin test, chest X-ray (anteroposterior), sputum smear microscopy and culture for mycobacteria. The events of interest were active TB and latent TB.
The mean age of the participants was 36.6 years, and 89.9% were male. Smoking and alcohol consumption were reported by 70.0% and 43.9% of the inmates, respectively. A history of treatment for TB was reported by 11.3% of the inmates. Of the inmates evaluated, 36.3% reported cough and 31.4% reported expectoration. Other less common symptoms were asthenia (in 26.2%), weight loss (in 23.1%), loss of appetite (in 17.7%), fever (in 11.3%) and hemoptysis (in 6.7%). Of the 86 inmates tested, none presented positive HIV serology. The prevalence of latent TB was 61.5% (96 of the 156 inmates submitted to tuberculin skin tests), whereas that of active TB was 2.5% (6 of the 237 inmates evaluated). The presence of cough was a determinant of active TB (prevalence ratio = 8.8; 95% CI: 1.04-73.9; p = 0.025).
Active and latent TB are highly prevalent among inmates hospitalized in the Bahia State Prison Hospital. Our findings justify the need to implement public policies specifically directed towards the control of TB in this population.
Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia: publicacao oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia 02/2009; 35(1):63-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the advent of the AIDS pandemic, tuberculosis (TB) has been recognized as one of the most important opportunistic infections in HIV-infected individuals. The host granulomatous response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is critically impaired, and HIV-infected individuals with latent M. tuberculosis infection are estimated to have a 10% per year risk of developing TB. This comprises both reactivational disease and newly acquired exogenous infections. HIV-associated immunodeficiency tends to modify the presentation of TB. Progressive immunodeficiency is associated with an increased incidence of radiographically atypical pulmonary TB, and extrapulmonary and disseminated disease. A high index of suspicion for TB should always be maintained during investigation of febrile HIV-infected patients; source isolation should be maintained pending results of investigations. On identification of mycobacteria in clinical samples, the relative likelihood of M. tuberculosis vs non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection (e.g. M. avium–intracellulare) must be assessed pending culture and speciation. The bacteriological response to antituberculosis treatment is not significantly affected by HIV status, and mycobacterial drug resistance is not associated with HIV-infection per se. Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) increases immune responses to M. tuberculosis, thereby reducing the risk of TB. However, concurrent administration of HAART and antituberculosis drugs is complicated by pharmacokinetic interactions of rifamycins with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors. Furthermore, the early stages of HAART may be complicated by immune reconstitution syndrome, in which rapid restoration host inflammatory responses to mycobacteria may lead to the manifestation of previously subclinical TB or clinical deterioration of existing TB.
Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia: publicacao oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia 11/2008; 34(10):753-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in patients with cystic fibrosis treated at a referral center in the state of Bahia, Brazil.
A cross-sectional study, with prospective data collection, carried out at the Cystic Fibrosis Referral Center of Bahia of the Octavio Mangabeira Specialized Hospital. We evaluated 74 patients diagnosed with cystic fibrosis, older than six years of age, treated between December 9, 2003 and March 7, 2005. We analyzed the following variables: gender, age, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, pharmacodynamic response, chest X-ray findings, facial sinus X-ray findings, wheezing, cultures for Aspergillus spp., total immunoglobulin E (IgE), specific IgE for Aspergillus fumigatus and immediate skin test reactivity to A.fumigatus antigen.
Of the 74 patients, 2 were diagnosed with ABPA. We found total IgE levels > 1,000 IU/mL in 17 (23%), positive immediate skin reactivity to A. fumigatus antigen in 19 (25.7%) and wheezing in 60 (81.1%).
The prevalence of ABPA was 2.7%. The high levels of total IgE, high incidence of wheezing and high rate of immediate skin test reactivity to A. fumigatus antigen suggest that these patients should be carefully monitored due to their propensity to develop ABPA.
Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia: publicacao oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia 11/2008; 34(11):900-6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive disease in the European (Caucasian) population, with an incidence of 1:2000 to 1:8000. The deltaF508 mutation (66%) is predominant among more than 1300 different mutations of the CFTR gene. The population of the state of Bahia, in northeastern Brazil, is highly admixed (mainly African and Portuguese descendants), and so far, no study has been carried out to assess the molecular basis of CF in this population. We determined the deltaF508 mutation frequency in 503 individuals from the general population of Salvador, the capital of the state of Bahia, and in 144 CF patients from several cities in Bahia. In the general population samples we found 4 individuals heterozygous for the deltaF508 mutation (allele frequency of 0.4%). This frequency was lower than that found in the state of Rio de Janeiro, in southeastern Brazil, and similar to that reported for the state of Paraná, in the far south. In the CF patients we found 9 heterozygous individuals and 8 homozygous individuals (allele frequency of 8.68%) for the deltaF508 mutation. This frequency is considerably lower than the average frequency of CF in the world population and in the Brazilian CF population of European ancestry (47%). These data could be explained by the intense admixture among the population in Bahia, and they suggest a heterogeneous molecular basis for CF in this area of Brazil.
Human Biology 07/2007; 79(3):293-7. · 1.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance, particularly multiresistance, is a crucial issue in the control of tuberculosis (TB). This study estimated the prevalence of primary and acquired anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from hospitalized patients, to identify the risk factors for resistance, and to evaluate the its impact on hospital mortality for tuberculosis. Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from 217 patients hospitalized for TB were analyzed. Subjects were recruited sequentially at a TB reference hospital in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil from July 2001 to July 2003. Multiresistant (MR) strains were defined as strains resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid. Of a total of 217 strains isolated, 41 (19.0%, 95%CI: 14.1-24.5%) were resistant to at least one drug. Prevalence of primary resistance was 7.0% (10/145), while a prevalence of 43.1% (31/72) was found for acquired resistance. Primary resistance to one drug alone was found in 2.1% (3/145) and acquired monoresistance in 5.6% (4/72). Prevalence of MR strains in general was 14.3% (31/217), of which 4.2% (6/145) consisted of primary MR and 34.7% (25/72) of acquired MR. Three strains showed resistance to more than one drug, but were not classified as MR. In the multivariate analysis, abandoning treatment remained strongly associated with resistance (adjusted OR: 7.21; 95%CI: 3.27-15.90; p<0.001) following adjustment for 3 potential confounders (gender, alcohol dependence and HIV-infection). An association was found between resistance and mortality from tuberculosis, even after adjustment for HIV status, age, sex and alcohol dependence (adjusted OR: 7.13; 95%CI: 2.25-22.57; p<0.001). High prevalences of resistance, principally acquired resistance including MR, were found in patients hospitalized for TB in Bahia. This finding was strongly associated with having abandoned treatment, and confirmed the need to standardize the procedure for requesting sensitivity tests in this population at the time of hospital admission.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV infection is an important risk factor for the development of tuberculosis (TB), and also affects its morbidity and mortality. This study estimated the prevalence of HIV infection in patients hospitalized for TB in Bahia (in northeastern Brazil) and to evaluate its impact on in-hospital mortality. A total of 375 patients with TB, admitted consecutively to a TB reference hospital in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil), were evaluated between July 2001 and July 2003. Anti-HIV serology was performed in all patients irrespective of clinical and/or epidemiological data suggestive of HIV infection. Death during hospitalization was the principal event-dependent variable. Mean age of patients was 41.4 +/- 16.2 years and the male/female ratio was 3.4:1.0. The prevalence of HIV infection was 8.8% (95%CI: 6.2-12.0%). Patients in the HIV-positive group were younger than those in the HIV-negative group (37.1 versus 41.9 years; p=0.05). In-hospital mortality was 10.9% for the whole group (95%CI: 9.4-15.9%), but was significantly greater in the HIV-positive group compared to the HIV-negative group (27.3% versus 9.4%; RR=2.9; 95%CI: 1.5-5.6; p=0.002). The prevalence of HIV infection in patients hospitalized for TB in Bahia (northeastern Brazil) is relatively high (8.8%) and mortality is significantly higher (2.9-fold) in the HIV-positive group. These findings justify carrying out HIV testing, as recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, in all TB patients, particularly those requiring hospitalization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors present a case from a 59 years old white female Brazilian patient, based in Salvador-Bahia, Brazil's northeastern side area, who experienced irritative cough and progressive dyspnea, and, after 18 months, was admitted to a hospital with respiratory insufficiency. The physical exam showed diffuse rales in both hemithoraces. Initial leukogram showed 14,400 cells/microL with 14% of eosinophils and chest X-ray showed peribronchovascular infiltrate, predominating in the lower half of the lung fields, and small opaque nodules. The high-resolution computed tomography scan of the chest (HRCT) presented compatible pattern with airways disease, especially from the small airways, with air trapping, tree sprouting images, central lobular nodules and bronchiectasis, making the results compatible with bronchiolitis and bronchiectasis. The transbroncho biopsy unveiled granulomatous lesion with necrosis, where was noticed a structure compatible to a parasitic case, and the research of the parasite eggs in the sputum was positive to paragonimus. After the praziquantel use, the patient presented a thick ferruginous expectoration and the result for BAAR examination was positive. The PCR exam and the sputum culture confirmed M. tuberculosis, and then the treatment for M. tuberculosis was initiated. The authors warn that this infection may have been a consequence of economics globalization process, where the importation of parasitized crustaceans might be the cause. However, there is the need of an accurate examination for the possibility of paragonimus specimens in this area of Brazil.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive disease in the European (Caucasian) population, with an incidence of 1:2,000 to 1:8,000. The ΔF508 mutation (66%) is predominant among more than 1,300 different mutations of the CFTR gene. The population of the state of Bahia, in northeastern Brazil, is highly admixed (mainly African and Portuguese descendants), and so far, no study has been carried out to assess the molecular basis of CF in this population.We determined the ΔF508 mutation frequency in 503 individuals from the general population of Salvador, the capital of the state of Bahia, and in 144 CF patients from several cities in Bahia. In the general population samples we found 4 individuals heterozygous for the ΔF508 mutation (allele frequency of 0.4%). This frequency was lower than that found in the state of Rio de Janeiro, in southeastern Brazil, and similar to that reported for the state of Paraná, in the far south. In the CF patients we found 9 heterozygous individuals and 8 homozygous individuals (allele frequency of 8.68%) for the ΔF508 mutation. This frequency is considerably lower than the average frequency of CF in the world population and in the Brazilian CF population of European ancestry (47%). These data could be explained by the intense admixture among the population in Bahia, and they suggest a heterogeneous molecular basis for CF in this area of Brazil.
Human Biology 01/2007; 79(3):293-297. · 1.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A tuberculosis (TB) referral hospital in the state of Bahia, north-eastern Brazil.
To evaluate the association between serum albumin at admission and in-hospital deaths due to TB.
A prospective cohort study of 373 patients hospitalised with TB. Samples were systematically collected from all patients at hospital admission for measurement of serum albumin levels. In-hospital death was the study endpoint. Univariate analysis was used to evaluate the association between serum albumin at admission and mortality from TB, and multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounding variables.
The average age of the 373 patients was 41.1 years (+/-15.2); 77.2% (288/373) were male; 45 eventually died in hospital (in-hospital death rate 12.1%, 95%CI 9.0-15.7). Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of low serum albumin levels (< or =2.7 g/dl) was strongly and independently associated with in-hospital death due to TB (adjusted OR 3.38, 95%CI 1.51-7.59; P = 0.001), even after adjusting for potentially confounding variables identified in the univariate analysis (age, comorbidities, TB-human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] coinfection and history of previous default from treatment).
Our results highlight the importance of measuring serum albumin levels at admission to hospital as an indicator of the prognosis for patients hospitalised with TB.
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 01/2007; 10(12):1360-6. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM), especially Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC), has been considered responsible for human disease, especially in HIV patients. Nevertheless, it has been diagnosed in immunocompetent elderly men, frequently with previous pulmonary disease: chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), complications of tuberculosis, pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiectasis. We relate the case of a female patient, 51 years old, with continuously acid fast bacilli (AFB) smears and with three previous treatments, which were conducted at the multiresistant tuberculosis (MRTB) service. MAC was identified in the sputum culture, and she received treatment for one year. The posterior sputum exams were negative. The cavity lesions observed in the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were reduced, and some of the nodule lesions became bronchiectasis, even after the end of treatment. We agree with the literature reports that indicate that MAC is the cause of bronchiectasis. It is necessary to identify the type of mycobacteria in immunocompetent individuals with positive AFB smears that do not become negative with tuberculosis treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis is one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. Only 68% of the estimated new tuberculosis (TB) cases in Brazil are diagnosed. Our aim was to determine the risk of infection among household contacts.
Cohort of tuberculin-negative household contacts followed for 12 months.
Household contacts of randomly selected index acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive TB cases were evaluated through clinical examination, thorax X-ray, tuberculin, AFB smear and culture. Contacts with a negative response to the tuberculin test (less than 10 mm diameter) were retested after 90 days. Tuberculin reversal (used as a parameter of infection risk) was defined as an increase of at least 10 mm from the last measurement.
269 household contacts were followed. The prevalence of disease in this population was 3.7%. The prevalence of infection after the 12-month follow-up period was 63.9%. The risk of infection was 31.1% within 120 +/- 48 days.
Household contacts of AFB positive tuberculosis patients have a very high prevalence and risk of tuberculosis infection. TB preventive or therapeutic measures directed towards this group should be implemented in Brazil.