Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge

São Paulo State University, San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Publications (139)122.81 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The search for alternative therapies for oral candidiasis is a necessity and the use of medicinal plants seems to be one of the promising solutions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effects of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia on Candida albicans. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of M. alternifolia were determined by the broth microdilution assay. For the in vivo study, twelve immunosuppressed mice with buccal candidiasis received topical applications of M. alternifolia with MBEC. After treatment, yeasts were recovered from the mice and quantified (CFU/mL). Mice were killed for morphologic analysis of the tongue dorsum by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: The MIC of M. alternifolia was 0.195% and the MBEC was 12.5%. Treatment with M. alternifolia achieved a 5.33 log reduction in C. albicans and reduced the microscopic lesions of candidiasis. CONCLUSIONS: M. alternifolia oil at a 12.5% was effective to eradicate a C. albicans biofilm formed in vitro and to reduce yeasts of C. albicans in an immunosuppressed mouse model.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12/2014; 14(1):489. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Arctium lappa L. extract on Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. In addition, the cytotoxicity of this extract was analyzed on macrophages (RAW 264.7).
    Archives of oral biology. 05/2014; 59(8):808-814.
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    ABSTRACT: Candida albicans is classified into different serotypes according to cell wall mannan composition and cell surface hydrophobicity. Since the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) depends on the cell wall structure of microorganisms, the objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity of in vitro biofilms of C. albicans serotypes A and B to antimicrobial PDT. Reference strains of C. albicans serotype A (ATCC 36801) and serotype B (ATCC 36802) were used for the assays. A gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (660 nm) was used as the light source and methylene blue (300 μM) as the photosensitizer. After biofilm formation on the bottom of a 96-well microplate for 48 h, each Candida strain was submitted to assays: PDT consisting of laser and photosensitizer application (L + P+), laser application alone (L + P-), photosensitizer application alone (L-P+), and application of saline as control (L-P-). After treatment, biofilm cells were scraped off and transferred to tubes containing PBS. The content of the tubes was homogenized, diluted, and seeded onto Sabouraud agar plates to determine the number of colony-forming units (CFU/mL). The results were compared by analysis of variance and Tukey test (p < 0.05). The two strains studied were sensitive to PDT (L + P+), with a log reduction of 0.49 for serotype A and of 2.34 for serotype B. Laser application alone only reduced serotype B cells (0.53 log), and the use of the photosensitizer alone had no effect on the strains tested. It can be concluded that in vitro biofilms of C. albicans serotype B were more sensitive to PDT.
    Lasers in Medical Science 04/2014; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adhesion and colonization of the oral cavity by Candida albicans is an initial step in candidosis. Orthodontic and other oral appliances seem to favor candidal presence. The aim of this work was to compare the presence of Candida species in saliva, their adherence to oral epithelial cells, and the levels of anti-C. albicans IgA in children with or without orthodontic appliances. This study included 30 children 5 to 12 years old (9.1 ± 1.7 years old) who were users of removable orthodontic devices for at least 6 months and 30 control children of similar ages (7.7 ± 1.5 years old). The presence of yeast species in the saliva was evaluated by microbiological methods. Candida species were identified using phenotypic methods. Anti-C. albicans IgA levels in saliva were analyzed by ELISA. The yeasts adhering to oral epithelial cells were assessed by exfoliative cytology. No statistically significant differences were observed for saliva yeast counts and anti-C. albicans IgA levels between the studied groups. Children with orthodontic devices exhibited more yeast cells adhering to oral epithelial cells and a higher percentage of non-albicans species relative to the control group. In conclusion, orthodontic appliances may favor the adherence of Candida to epithelial cells but do not influence the presence of these yeasts in saliva, and the levels of anti-C. albicans IgA do not correlate with yeast adherence or presence of Candida in the oral cavity.
    Brazilian oral research 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium essential oils (EOs) compared to 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on multi-species biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. The biofilms were grown in acrylic disks immersed in broth, inoculated with microbial suspension (106 cells/mL) and incubated at 37°C / 48 h. After the biofilms were formed, they were exposed for 5 minutes to the solutions (n = 10): C. aurantium EO, C. limonum EO, 0.2% CHX, 1% NaOCl or sterile saline solution [0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl)]. Next, the discs were placed in sterile 0.9% NaCl and sonicated to disperse the biofilms. Tenfold serial dilutions were performed and the aliquots were seeded onto selective agar and incubated at 37°C / 48 h. Next, the number of colony-forming units per milliliter was counted and analyzed statistically (Tukey test, p ≤ 0.05). C. aurantium EO and NaOCl inhibited the growth of all microorganisms in multi-species biofilms. C. limonum EO promoted a 100% reduction of C. albicans and E. coli, and 49.3% of E. faecalis. CHX was less effective against C. albicans and E. coli, yielding a reduction of 68.8% and 86.7%, respectively. However, the reduction of E. faecalis using CHX (81.7%) was greater than that obtained using C. limonum EO. Both Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium EOs are effective in controlling multi-species biofilms; the microbial reductions achieved by EOs were not only similar to those of NaOCl, but even higher than those achieved by CHX, in some cases.
    Brazilian oral research 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: An essential factor to the virulence of the genus Candida is the ability to produce enzymes and this may be crucial in the establishment of fungal infections. AIM:This study investigated in vitro enzymatic activities of Candida species and their virulence in an in vivo Galleria mellonella experimental model. METHODS: Twenty-four clinical strains of Candida spp. isolated from the human oral cavity were evaluated, including the following species: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. norvegensis, C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii. All Candida strains were tested in vitro for production of proteinase and phospholipase. The Candida strains were also injected into Galleria mellonella larvae to induce experimental candidiasis, and after 24 hours, the survival rate was assessed. RESULTS: Phospholipase and proteinase activity were observed in 100% of the C. albicans strains. In the non-albicans species, proteinase and phospholipase activity were observed in 25 and 43% of the studied strains, respectively. The most pathogenic Candida species in G. mellonella were C. albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. lusitaniae, whereas C. glabrata was the least virulent species. Furthermore, a positive significant correlation was found between both enzymatic activities with virulence in G. mellonella. CONCLUSIONS: The virulence of Candida strains in G. mellonella is related to the quantity of proteinases and phospholipases production of each strain.
    Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences 09/2013; 12(3):199-204.
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    ABSTRACT: Candida albicans is an opportunistic yeast that can cause oral candidosis through the formation of a biofilm, an important virulence factor that compromises the action of antifungal agents. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of rose bengal (RB)- and eosin Y (EY)-mediated photodynamic inactivation (PDI) using a green light-emitting diode (LED; 532 ± 10 nm) on planktonic cells and biofilms of C. albicans (ATCC 18804). Planktonic cultures were treated with photosensitizers at concentrations ranging from 0.78 to 400 μM, and biofilms were treated with 200 μM of photosensitizers. The number of colony-forming unit per milliliter (CFU/mL) was compared by analysis of variance and Tukey's test (P ≤ 0.05). After treatment, one biofilm specimen of the control and PDI groups were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The photosensitizers (6.25, 25, 50, 200, and 400 μM of EY, and 6.25 μM of RB or higher) significantly reduced the number of CFU/mL in the PDI groups when compared to the control group. With respect to biofilm formation, RB- and EY-mediated PDI promoted reductions of 0.22 log10 and 0.45 log10, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the two photosensitizers reduced fungal structures. In conclusion, EY- and RB-mediated PDI using LED irradiation significantly reduced C. albicans planktonic cells and biofilms.
    Lasers in Medical Science 09/2013; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Evaluating the ability of different auxiliary chemicals (1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine gel and 12% propolis extract) to neutralize cytotoxic effects of LTA of Enterococcus faecalis in root canals, analyzing the production of nitric oxide and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) by macrophages. Method: Forty single-rooted roots (16 mm) were used. The canals were prepared to working length (15 mm) and distributed in 4 microplates. After sterilization (Co60 gamma radiation), the root canals were inoculated with 10 uL of E. faecalis LTA (repeated 3 times every 24 hours). The instrumentation was performed with five titanium nickel rotary instruments and, according to the irrigant, the specimens were divided into four groups (n=10): NaOCl) 1% sodium hypochlorite; CLX) 2% chlorhexidine gel; PRO) 12% glycolic extract of propolis; CONTROL) physiologic saline. The collect was performed immediately after instrumentation. Macrophages (RAW 264.7) were activated with collected samples and, after 24 hours, the supernatants were used to verify the production of nitric oxide (Griess reagent) and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA). The results were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey test, 5%. Result: NaOCl, PRO and CLX groups showed statistically lower values of nitric oxide in relation to the CONTROL group (p<0.05). NaOCl and PRO groups had lower values of IL-1β and IL-6, being similar with each other (p> 0.05) and different from CLX and CONTROL (p<0.05). All groups showed similar results of TNF-α production (p>0.05). Conclusion: Sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine gel and propolis extract were able to neutralize the different cytotoxic effects of LTA in root canals, however, propolis extract and sodium hypochlorite were the most effective.
    Annual Meeting of the IADR Continental European Division 2013; 09/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate in vivo the antimicrobial action of 12% propolis glycolic extract compared with 1% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gel used as irrigant during treatment of root canals with primary infection and periapical lesions. The identification of the microorganisms related to the infections was also investigated. Method: Thirty teeth with pulp necrosis and periapical lesions were selected. The root canals were instrumented and divided into 3 groups (n=10), according to the irrigant used during instrumentation: NaOCl- 1% sodium hypochlorite; CLX- 2% chlorhexidine gel; and PRO- 12% propolis glycolic extract. Three samples were taken from root canals: S1) immediately after coronary opening; S2) after instrumentation; S3) after 14 days of dressing (calcium hydroxide + propylene glycol). The samples were seeded in different culture media, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. DNA was extracted from canal samples and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results were submitted to statistical tests of Kruskal Wallis and Dunn (5%). Result: Microbial growth was observed in 100% of the S1. There was a decrease in quantity of microorganisms in S2 and S3 in relation to S1 (p<0.05) for all irrigation substances evaluated. Among the microorganisms identified, the most common species were Parvimonas micra, Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Prevotella nigrescens. Conclusion: The 12% propolis glycolic extract might be indicated as irrigant in the treatment of teeth with primary endodontic infections and periapical lesions, since it showed similar antimicrobial activity of 1% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gel. The most prevalent species were Parvimonas micra, Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Prevotella nigrescens.
    Annual Meeting of the IADR Continental European Division 2013; 09/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: In the oral cavity, C. albicans and non-albicans species reside in a complex and dynamic structure called biofilm. The objective of this study was investigate the expression of genes TEC-1 and EFG-1 of C. albicans at 24 and 48 hours in mixed biofilms with C. krusei by PCR in Real Time. Method: Standardized suspension of C. albicans (ATCC 18804) at a concentration of 107 cells/mL was added to wells of 24-well plates, and incubated under shaking at 37°C for 90 min. Subsequently was added C. krusei (ATCC 6258) at the same concentration. The plates containing the two micro-organisms were incubated under shaking at 37°C for 48h. After the passed time, removed the entire contents of the well and added to 1 mL of Trizol RNA extraction. This was measured and transcribed by Kit SuperScript ™ III First-Strand Synthesis Supermix for qRT-PCR (Invitrogen) and cDNA obtained was frozen at -20 ˚ C. For Real-Time amplification used the kit SYBR® Green qPCR Supermix-UDG (Invitrogen) with primers for genes TEC-1 and EFG-1 were normalized by the housekeeping Actin-1 gene. Result: The target genes, TEC-1 and EFG-1obtained a significant reduction in gene expression in different time in heterotypic biofilms in relation to monotypic (p <0.05). Conclusion: The reduction obtained in gene expression in heterotypic biofilms suggests an antagonistic/competitive relationship of C.krusei when associated with C. albicans.
    Annual Meeting of the IADR Continental European Division 2013; 09/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: C. albicans is the predominant species associated with mucosal and systemic fungal infections. Nevertheless, the epidemiology of yeast infection is rapidly evolving and non-albicans Candida species have emerged as important pathogens, occurring both singly or in mixed species infections, often with C. albicans. Then, this study evaluated the interactions of C. albicans with C. glabrata and C. krusei in the experimental mixed candidiasis using invertebrate and vertebrate models hosts. Method: Single or mixed experimental candidiasis were induced in Galleria mellonella larvae and immunosuppressed mice by inoculation of homotypic or heterotypic microbial suspensions of the strains C. albicans ATCC 18804, C. glabrata ATCC 90030 and C. krusei ATCC 6258. Experimental candidiasis in the invertebrate model of G. mellonella was evaluated by the survival rate using Log-rank test. On the other hand, experimental candidiasis in the immunosuppressed mice model was studied in the oral cavity by counting of CFU/mL and the data were analysed by ANOVA and Tukey test. Result: In the G. mellonella model, 100% of the larvae died within 18 h of single infection with C. albicans. However, when G. mellonella larvae were infected by heterotypic microbial suspension, 100% of mortality occurred 96 and 72 h after the mixed infection by C. albicans - C. krusei (p=0.0001) and C. albicans - C. glabrata (p=0.0001) respectively. The number of C. albicans (CFU/mL) recovered from the oral cavity of the immunosuppressed mice was higher for the single infection (5.75 log10) compared to mixed infections with C. glabrata (5.46 log10, p=0.014) or C. krusei (5.32 log10,p=0.014). Conclusion: In both hosts models studied, single infection by C. albicans was more intense than mixed infections of C. albicans with non-albicans Candida species, suggesting that C. albicans established competitive interactions with C. glabrata and C. krusei during the development of experimental candidiasis.
    Annual Meeting of the IADR Continental European Division 2013; 09/2013
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    ABSTRACT: With the emergence of strains resistant to conventional antibiotics, it is important to carry studies using alternative methods to control these microorganisms causing important infections, such as the use of products of plant origin that has demonstrated effective antimicrobial activity besides biocompatibility. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of plant extracts of Equisetum arvense L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Punica granatum L. and Stryphnodendron barbatimam Mart. against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata, and to analyze the cytotoxicity of these extracts in cultured murine macrophages (RAW 264.7). Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts was evaluated by microdilution method based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), M7-A6 and M27-A2 standards. The cytotoxicity of concentrations that eliminated the microorganisms was evaluated by MTT colorimetric method and by quantification of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta and TNF-alpha) using ELISA. In determining the minimum microbicidal concentration, E. arvense L., P. granatum L., and S. barbatimam Mart. extracts at a concentration of 50 mg/mL and G. glabra L. extract at a concentration of 100 mg/mL, were effective against all microorganisms tested. Regarding cell viability, values were 48% for E. arvense L., 76% for P. granatum L, 86% for S. barbatimam Mart. and 79% for G. glabra L. at the same concentrations. About cytokine production after stimulation with the most effective concentrations of the extracts, there was a significant increase of IL-1beta in macrophage cultures treated with S. barbatimam Mart. (3.98 pg/mL) and P. granatum L. (7.72 pg/mL) compared to control (2.20 pg/mL) and a significant decrease of TNF-alpha was observed in cultures treated with G. glabra L. (4.92 pg/mL), S. barbatimam Mart. (0.85 pg/mL), E. arvense L. (0.83 pg/mL), and P. granatum L. (0.00 pg/mL) when compared to control (41.96 pg/mL). All plant extracts were effective against the microorganisms tested. The G. glabra L. extract exhibited least cytotoxicity and the E. arvense L. extract was the most cytotoxic.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 08/2013; 13(1):208. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This clinical study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of 1-visit versus 2-visit root canal treatment in removing endotoxins and cultivable bacteria from primarily infected root canals. Forty-eight primarily infected root canals were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups: G1, 1% NaOCl; G2, 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel; G3, 1% NaOCl + Ca(OH)2; and G4, 2% CHX gel + Ca(OH)2 (all, n = 12). G1 and G2 involved 1-visit treatment, whereas G3 and G4 involved 2-visit treatment with the placement of Ca(OH)2 medication for 14 days. Samples were collected before and after root canal procedures. A chromogenic LAL assay test was used to quantify endotoxins. Culture techniques were used to determine bacterial counts. Endotoxins and cultivable bacteria were detected in 100% of the initial samples. All treatment protocols were effective in reducing bacterial load from infected root canals: G1 (1% NaOCl, 99.97%), G2 (2% CHX gel, 99.75%), G3 (1% NaOCl + Ca(OH)2, 99.90%), and G4 (2% CHX gel + Ca(OH)2, 96.81%), respectively (P < .05). No differences were found in bacterial load reduction when comparing 1-visit and 2-visit treatment groups, irrespective of the irrigant tested (P > .05). Higher median percentage values of endotoxin reduction were achieved in the 2-visit treatment groups (G3, 98.01% and G4, 96.81%) compared with 1-visit treatment groups (G1, 86.33% and G2, 84.77%) (all P < .05). Both 1-visit and 2-visit root canal treatment protocols were effective in reducing bacteria and endotoxins, but they were not able to eliminate them in all root canals analyzed. Furthermore, 2-visit root canal treatment protocols were more effective in reducing endotoxins than 1-visit root canal treatment protocols.
    Journal of endodontics 08/2013; 39(8):959-64. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Control of cross-contamination between dental offices and prosthetic laboratories is of utmost importance to maintain the health of patients and dental office staff. The purpose of this study was to evaluate disinfection protocols, considering antimicrobial effectiveness and damage to the structures of prostheses. Solutions of 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate, 50% vinegar and sodium perborate were evaluated. Specimens were contaminated in vitro with standardized suspensions of Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis spores. Disinfection by immersion for 10min was performed. Final counts of microorganisms were obtained using the plating method. Results were statistically compared by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Dunn's test. The surface roughness of 40 specimens was analyzed before and after 10 disinfection cycles, and results were compared statistically using Student's t test. The solution of 50% vinegar was as effective as 1% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine against C. albicans, E. coli and S. mutans. The sodium perborate solution showed the lowest antimicrobial effectiveness. Superficial roughness increased after cycles in 1% sodium hypochlorite (p=0.02). Solutions of 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine and 50% vinegar were effective for the disinfection of heat-polymerized acrylic specimens. Sodium hypochlorite increased the superficial roughness.
    Journal of infection and public health. 06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to isolate, quantify, identify, and compare opportunistic microorganisms (Candida and Staphylococcus genera and Enterobacteriaceae/Pseudomonadaceae families) from prosthesis-fitting surfaces, the hard palate, and mouth rinses of individuals wearing removable maxillary prosthesis with (50) and without (50) lesions of denture stomatitis (DS). The strains were collected and identified using phenotypic, biochemical and molecular tests. The counts of microorganisms were significantly higher in the group of individuals with DS (P < 0.05). C. albicans was the most frequently isolated yeast species in both groups, following by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Six isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis. S. aureus and S. epidermidis were the most frequent Staphylococcus species in both groups. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the predominant species in both groups. The association between Candida spp. and bacteria isolated in this study with DS suggests that these microorganisms may play important roles in the establishment and persistence of this disease.
    Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease 06/2013; · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Candida genus expresses virulence factors that, when combined with immunosuppression and other risk factors, can cause different manifestations of oral candidiasis. The treatment of mucosal infections caused by Candida and the elucidation of the disease process have proven challenging. Therefore, the study of experimentally induced oral candidiasis in rats and mice is useful to clarify the etiopathology of this condition, improve diagnosis, and search for new therapeutic options because the disease process in these animals is similar to that of human candidiasis lesions. Here, we describe and discuss new studies involving rat and mouse models of oral candidiasis with respect to methods for inducing experimental infection, methods for evaluating the development of experimental candidiasis, and new treatment strategies for oral candidiasis.
    Virulence 05/2013; 4(5). · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biofilm formation is one of the most important attributes for virulence in Candida species and contributes to increased resistance to antifungal drugs and host immune mechanisms. These features have led to the development of several methodologies to reproduce a sessile community in vitro that can be used to study the development of a biofilm, its interaction with other microorganisms and the environment, and its susceptibility to available antifungal agents and also to search for new therapy strategies. The purpose of this review is to describe the most commonly used methods to study Candida biofilms in vitro, to discuss the benefits and limitations of the different methods to induce biofilm formation, and to analyse the architecture, viability and growth kinetics of Candida biofilms.
    Mycoses 05/2013; · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This clinical study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of one- versus two-visit root canal treatment in removing endotoxins and cultivable bacteria from primarily infected root canals with apical periodontitis.Method: Forty root canals with primary endodontic infection and apical periodontitis were selected. Root canals were randomly divided into 4 groups as follow: 1-visit – GI, 1% NaOCl (n=10); GII, 2% CHX-gel (n=10); 2-visit – GIII, 1% NaOCl + calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] (n=10) medicament; and GIV, 2% CHX-gel + [Ca(OH)2] medicament (n=10). In the 2-visit groups, canals were medicated with calcium hydroxide for 14 days. Samples were collected before (s1) and after chemomechanical preparation (s2), and after root canal medication (s3). The limulus amebocyte lysate assay was used to quantify endotoxins and the number of colony-forming-units (CFU) was determined by culture techniques. Result: At the baseline samples (s1), endotoxins and cultivable bacteria were detected in 100% of the samples investigated (40/40). No case was completely free of endotoxins or cultivable bacteria, at all different sampling times. In the 1 visit-groups, endotoxin was reduced to a median percentage value of 86.33 (GI) whislt 58.77 (GII) (p<0.05). In the 2 visit-groups, endotoxin was reduced to a median percentage value of 97.01 (GIII) and 88.81 (GIV) (p<0.05). Regardless the irrigant tested, higher levels of endotoxin reduction were achieved in the 2 visit-groups when compared to 1 visit-groups (p<0.05). Regarding bacterial reduction, no statistical significant differences were found when comparing all groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: The 2-visit protocol by using an interappointment medication with calcium hydroxide improved the removal of endotoxins from primarily infected teeth when compared to 1-visit protocol.
    IADR/AADR/CADR General Session and Exhibition 2013; 03/2013
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    ABSTRACT: has emerged as one of the most important pathogens in healthcare-associated infections worldwide due to its intrinsic and acquired resistance to many antibiotics, including vancomycin. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is an alternative therapeutic platform that is currently under investigation for the control and treatment of infections. PDT is based on the use of photoactive dye molecules, widely known as photosensitizer (PS). PS, upon irradiation with visible light, produces reactive oxygen species that can destroy lipids and proteins causing cell death. We employed (the greater wax moth) caterpillar fatally infected with to develop an invertebrate host model system that can be used to study the antimicrobial PDT (alone or combined with antibiotics). In the establishment of infection by in , we found that the death rate was dependent on the number of bacterial cells injected into the insect hemocoel and all strains tested were capable of infecting and killing . Antibiotic treatment with ampicillin, gentamicin or the combination of ampicillin and gentamicin prolonged caterpillar survival infected by ( = 0.0003, = 0.0001 and = 0.0001, respectively). In the study of antimicrobial PDT, we verified that methylene blue (MB) injected into the insect followed by whole body illumination prolonged the caterpillar survival ( = 0.0192). Interestingly, combination therapy of larvae infected with vancomycin-resistant , with antimicrobial PDT followed by vancomycin, significantly prolonged the survival of the caterpillars when compared to either antimicrobial PDT ( = 0.0095) or vancomycin treatment alone ( = 0.0025), suggesting that the aPDT made the vancomycin resistant strain more susceptible to vancomycin action. In summary, provides an invertebrate model host to study the antimicrobial PDT and to explore combinatorial aPDT-based treatments.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e55926. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    Archives of Health Investigation. 01/2013; 2(Spec 1):39.

Publication Stats

774 Citations
122.81 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2014
    • São Paulo State University
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2002–2013
    • Universidade de Taubaté
      • Departamento de Odontologia
      Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil
    • University of São Paulo
      • Faculdade de Odontologia (FO) (São Paulo)
      Ribeirão Preto, Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • 2010–2011
    • CEP America
      Emeryville, California, United States
  • 2004–2011
    • University of Campinas
      Conceição de Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2008–2009
    • Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
      • Department of Stomatology
      Santa Maria, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
    • Fatec Sao Jose dos Campos
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2003–2006
    • Universidade do Vale do Paraíba
      • Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento
      São José dos Campos, Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil