[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two centrifugal pumps, the RotaFlow (Maquet, Jostra Medizintechnik AG, Hirrlingen, Germany) and Levitronix CentriMag (Levitronix LCC, Waltham, MA, USA), used in central or peripheral veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support systems have been investigated, in terms of double-center experience, as treatment for patients with refractory cardiogenic shock (CS). Between January 2006 and December 2012, 228 consecutive adult patients were supported on RotaFlow (n = 213) or CentriMag (n = 15) ECMO, at our institutions (155 men; age 58.3 ± 10.5 years, range: 19–84 years). Indications for support were: failure to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass in the setting of postcardiotomy (n = 118) and primary donor graft failure (n = 37); postacute myocardial infarction CS (n = 27); acute myocarditis (n = 6); and CS on chronic heart failure (n = 40). A peripheral ECMO setting was established in 126 (55.2%) patients while it was established centrally in 102 (44.7%). Overall mean support time was 10.9 ± 9.7 days (range: 1–43 days). Eighty-four (36.8%) patients died on ECMO. Overall success rate, in terms of survival on ECMO (n = 144), weaning from mechanical support (n = 107; 46.9%), bridge to mid-long-term ventricular assist device (n = 6; 2.6%), and bridge to heart transplantation (n = 31; 13.5%), was 63.1%. One hundred twenty-two (53.5%) patients were successfully discharged. Stepwise logistic regression identified blood lactate level and MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB) relative index at 72 h after ECMO initiation, and number of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) transfused on ECMO as significant predictors of mortality on ECMO (P = 0.010, odds ratio [OR] = 2.94; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10–3.14; P = 0.010, OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.014–3.721; and P = 0.011, OR = 2.69; 95% CI = 1.06–4.16, respectively). Central ECMO population had significantly higher rate of continuous veno-venous hemofiltration need and bleeding requiring surgery events compared with the peripheral ECMO setting population. No significant differences were seen by comparing the RotaFlow and CentriMag populations in terms of device performance. At follow-up, persistent heart failure with left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤40% was a risk factor after hospital discharge. Patients with a poor hemodynamic status may benefit from rapid central or peripheral insertion of ECMO. The blood lactate level, CK-MB relative index, and PRBCs transfused should be strictly monitored during ECMO support. In addition, early ventricular assist device placement or urgent listing for heart transplant should be considered in patients with persistent impaired LVEF after ECMO.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently, ventricular assist device (VAD) or total artificial heart (TAH) mechanical support provides an effective treatment of unstable patients with advanced heart failure. We report our single-center experience with mechanical circulatory support therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 19-year-old man affected with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome that was unresponsive to medical treatment was successfully weaned without anticoagulation therapy from venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) because of life-threatening bleeding. The patient received venovenous ECMO with double peripheral cannulation. Heparin infusion was discontinued on day 10 for severe bleeding from thoracic and mediastinal drainages until the ECMO was removed. The weaning was performed while keeping the blood flow unchanged, only gas flows were gradually decreased. The patient was discontinued from ECMO and extubated after pulmonary function improved. Based on this single experience, management and weaning without any anticoagulant agent might be possible.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 05/2012; 94(1):e1-3. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is used routinely in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery to prevent or treat low-cardiac-output syndrome and to reduce perioperative mortality. The insertion and management of IABP carry the risk of major vascular complications. The authors reviewed their database to ascertain the incidence of IABP-related severe complications.
A retrospective study.
A teaching hospital.
Ten thousand three hundred sixty-five patients scheduled for elective or emergency cardiac surgery over a 12-year period at a single center.
Four hundred twenty-three patients received an IABP perioperatively. Careful preoperative screening for peripheral arterial disease, strict postoperative control, and the sheathless insertion technique to spare the arterial flow to the lower limb were performed routinely.
The use of a perioperative IABP was 0.7% at the beginning of the observation period in 1999 and 7.3% in 2010, showing a fluctuating trend. Two patients (0.47%) died of direct complications, arterial wall damage and bleeding. Immediate surgical exploration and control of bleeding were followed by multiple-organ failure and death. Vascular complications, leading to lower-limb ischemia, occurred in 4 of 423 patients (0.94%). All of them underwent urgent vascular surgery and survived. Local sepsis occurred in 2 other patients (0.47%).
These data indicate that an IABP is a valuable option in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery even if not devoid of intrinsic risks for vascular complications (0.94%), septic complications (0.47%) and mortality (0.47%).
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 03/2012; 26(4):604-7. · 1.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The novel Permanent Life Support (PLS; Maquet, Jostra Medizintechnik AG, Hirrlingen, Germany) as peripheral veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support system has been investigated as treatment for patients with refractory cardiogenic shock (CS). Between January 2007 and July 2011, 73 consecutive adult patients were supported on peripheral PLS ECMO system at our institution (55 men; age 60.3 ± 11.6 years, range: 23-84 years). Indications for support were failure to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass in the setting of postcardiotomy (n = 50) and primary donor graft failure (n = 8), post-acute myocardial infarction CS (n = 12), and CS on chronic heart failure (n = 3). Mean support time was 10.9 ± 7.6 days (range: 2-34 days). Overall, 26 (35.6%) patients died on ECMO. Among survivors on ECMO, 44 (60.2%) patients were successfully weaned from support, and three (4.1%) were switched to a mid-long-term ventricular assist device. Thirty-three (45.2%) were successfully discharged. The following variables were significantly different if survivors and nonsurvivors on ECMO were compared: age (P = 0.04), female gender (P < 0.01), cardiopulmonary resuscitation before ECMO (P < 0.01), lactate level before ECMO (P = 0.01), number of platelets, fresh frozen plasma units, and packed red blood cells (PRBCs) transfused during ECMO support (P = 0.03, P = 0.02, and P < 0.01), blood lactate level (P = 0.01), and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB) relative index 72 h after ECMO initiation (P < 0.001), and multiple organ failure on ECMO (P < 0.01). Stepwise logistic regression identified blood lactate level and CK-MB relative index at 72 h after ECMO initiation, and number of PRBCs transfused on ECMO as significant predictors of mortality on ECMO (P = 0.011, odds ratio [OR] = 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-3.12; P = 0.012, OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.026-2.531; and P = 0.012, OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.02-5.21; respectively). Patients with an initial poor hemodynamic status could benefit by rapid peripheral installation of PLS ECMO. The blood lactate level, CK-MB relative index, and PRBCs transfused should be strictly monitored during ECMO support.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Large use of allogeneic red blood cell concentrates (RBCc), albeit necessary in major surgery, may influence patients' outcome.
We introduced an integrated strategy including patients' evaluation and supplementation associated with autologous blood collection and saving to support major elective surgery at our hospital since 2008. After 2 years of stabilization of this approach, we analyzed the results obtained in 2010 in terms of allogeneic blood usage and reduction of transfusion of stored RBCc.
Analyzing 2010 results we found that usage of total autologous RBCc units was increased by 2.2 folds, of "not stored" autologous RBCc units by 2.4 folds and of allogeneic RBCc unit transfusion reduced by 65%. The significant reduction in the number of transfused allogeneic RBCc units associated with the use of "fresher" blood could prevent patients' complications due to immunomodulation and biologic/metabolic disregulation.
Transfusion and Apheresis Science 12/2011; 45(3):281-5. · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction receive inotropic and mechanical circulatory support with an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) during the perioperative phase of cardiac surgery. The authors performed the first comparison of levosimendan versus an IABP in patients with poor left ventricular function undergoing cardiac surgery.
A case-matched study.
A teaching hospital.
Twenty-two heart failure patients scheduled to undergo elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery with or without concomitant mitral surgery.
Eleven patients received levosimendan at a dose of 0.1 μg/kg/min for 24 hours without an initial bolus. The control group, also 11 patients, received a preoperative IABP. The intensive care unit stay was the major endpoint of this study. Biochemical, hemodynamic, and echocardiographic data were collected together with the time on mechanical ventilation and 30-day mortality.
The length of intensive care unit stay was reduced in patients receiving levosimendan (median, 2.5; range, 1-3 days) compared with those receiving an IABP (median, 5; range, 3-6 days; p = 0.01). No deaths occurred in the levosimendan group; 1 patient died in the intra-aortic balloon pump group.
Patients receiving levosimendan had a shorter duration of intensive care stay than peers who received a preoperative IABP. The findings of this pilot study should be investigated further in a large randomized controlled study.
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 05/2011; 25(4):632-6. · 1.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is a serious complication with potential fatal consequences, classified as early or late PVE, depending on whether typical symptoms occur within or later than 12 months from surgery. The incidence of early PVE is under 1%, but it carries high morbidity and mortality rates. There are few reported cases in literature of PVE due to Corynebacterium Jeikeium even though it is present in normal skin flora particularly in hospitalized patients. Corynebacterium species are, in fact, recognized as uncommon agents of endocarditis and little is known regarding species-specific risk factors and the outcome in this kind of endocarditis. Described is an unusual case report of a 57-year-old man who had early aortic PVE due to Corynebacterium Jeikeium infection complicated by dehiscence of the prosthesis, complete atrio-ventricular block, perforation of the interventricular septum and septic shock. Prompt diagnosis, choice of daptomycin as antibiotic therapy although it has only been approved by the European Medicine Agency (EMEA) for right-sided endocarditis and timely open heart surgery, resulted in a successful outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : Video-assisted minimally invasive mitral valve surgery can be performed through different approaches. The aim of the study was to report our early results and compare the external transthoracic aortic clamping with the endoaortic balloon occlusion techniques according to our experience.
: Between January 2000 and March 2010, 138 patients (103 women, aged 58.4 ± 10.2 years) underwent video-assisted mitral valve surgery through a right thoracotomy. Cardiopulmonary bypass was instituted by femoral arterial and bicaval cannulation with active venous drainage and normothermia; cardioplegic arrest achieved with intermittent blood cardioplegia. In group A (93 patients, 68 women, aged 58.8 ± 7.8 years, 72 MV replacement, 21 MV repair), aortic clamping was achieved using the external transthoracic aortic clamp. In group B (45 patients, 35 women, aged 58.1 ± 11.4 years, 33 MV replacement, 12 MV repair), aortic clamping was achieved with endoaortic balloon occlusion.
: Intraoperative procedure-associated problems were experienced in one patient (0.7%) in group A (one conversion to sternotomy for pleural adhesions and bad exposure). At a mean follow-up of 36 ± 18 months, 135 patients (97.8%) were in New York Heart Association class I to II, with satisfactory echocardiographic follow-up. In group A, two patients had noncardiac-related deaths. No perioperative deaths were observed in both groups. There were four (2.8%) transient ischemic attacks and one (0.7%) peripheral ischemic event (group A) during the early postoperative period. Mitral valve repair patients had a 5-year freedom from reoperation of 100% in both groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding preoperative variables, such as age, sex, New York Heart Association class, and left ventricular ejection fraction (P > 0.05). Postoperative levels of myocardial cytonecrosis enzymes (MB fraction, creatine kinase, and troponine I) as well as operative time, extracorporeal circulation, and aortic cross-clamping times or ventilation and intensive care unit times were not significantly different between the two groups (P > 0.05). More microembolic events were observed in group A than in group B (total 143.4 ± 30.6 per patient vs 78.9 ± 28.6 per patient) by means of continuous automated intraoperative transcranial Doppler evaluations (P < 0.05) applied to part of population.
: Both techniques proved safe and comparable with low risk of morbidity and mortality. Patients undergoing endoclamp technique resulted to be less subject to embolism.
Innovations Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery 11/2010; 5(6):413-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac output (CO) is a parameter usually requested to assess hemo dynamic status of patient and efficacy of therapy especially in critically ill patients. This paper, in line with other research activities and new market availability, intends to correlate a parameter derived from data already acquired in standard patient monitoring (systemic arterial pressure--Pas) in order to identify CO trends and, more generally, to obtain information on the efficiency of cardiovascular system of the patient in examination. Attention has been focussed on patients undergoing abdominal aneurysm aortic (AAA) surgery with combined anaesthesia (epidural and light general). Awake correlation was found between maximum value of Pas time derivative, max (dPas/dt), and CO measured with thermodilution method on 56 measurements on 10 patients. To evaluate further diagnostic capability of max (dPas/dt), we compare its trend with other parameters but no statistical significant results have been obtained. Therefore the target parameter can be profitably used in the examined patients to monitor CO trend and, in correlation with other parameters, as a sign of efficiency of the cardio circulatory system.
Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing 05/2004; 18(2):81-7. · 0.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Italy no nosocomial infection surveillance database has been established despite the fact that a decrease of nosocomial infection rates was one of the priorities of the Italian National Health Plan 1998--2000. Heart surgery operations are the most frequent high risk procedures in western countries. Active surveillance was performed at the heart surgery wards of two Italian hospitals (Rome and Catania, Southern Italy) in accordance with the methods described for the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System of the USA. In both hospitals surgical site infections (SSIs) were the most frequently encountered type of nosocomial infections, accounting for 57.2% in Rome and 50% in Catania, and SSI rates in coronary artery bypass grafts with both chest and donor site incisions, calculated by risk index equal to 1, were above the 90th percentile for the NNIS System. The urinary catheter-associated urinary tract infection (UTI) rate (5.8%) in Catania exceeded the 90th percentile for the NNIS System, while the device-associated UTI (1.6%), bloodstream (4.1%) and pneumonia (8.0%) rates, from the hospital in Rome, did not. All device utilization ratios were lower than the 10th percentile for the NNIS System. Our study demonstrated that the NNIS methodology is applicable to Italian hospitals, although with some limitations mainly regarding the minimal surveillance duration required for significant interhospital comparison, and highlighted the need of a national comparison of surveillance data as benchmark.
Annali di igiene: medicina preventiva e di comunità 01/2004; 16(6):735-43.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients undergoing surgical repair of aortic dissection, false lumen perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass may produce central nervous system damage, myocardial ischemia, aortic rupture, and death. We describe a method to detect false lumen perfusion at the beginning of retrograde aortic perfusion that may prevent these complications.
Sonicated albumin microbubbles (8 mL) were injected through a side branch of the extracorporeal circulation line to detect true lumen and/or false lumen perfusion of the thoracic aorta at the beginning of cardiopulmonary bypass. Transesophageal echocardiography was used to image aortic perfusion.
The study was performed in a cardiac surgery theater.
A total of 27 consecutive patients undergoing operation for Type I aortic dissection were studied.
All patients underwent surgical repair of aortic dissection and retrograde aortic perfusion through one femoral artery.
Patients were divided into three groups: Group I, those having adequate true lumen perfusion: brisk appearance and washout of contrast in the true lumen with no, poor, or delayed opacification of the false lumen; Group II, those having mixed true lumen and false lumen perfusion: simultaneous opacification of both lumens; Group III, those having inappropriate false lumen perfusion: same criteria as for adequate true lumen perfusion applied to the false lumen. The true lumen was perfused in 13 patients, both lumens in 11 patients, and false lumen alone in three patients. In these three patients, cannulation was repeated through the contralateral femoral artery with restoration of true lumen perfusion; the first patient died of diffuse cerebral ischemic damage and renal failure, another one experienced temporary postoperative monoparesis, and the last had no neurologic sequelae.
Contrast echocardiography allows immediate detection of retrograde aortic perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass and may help prevent neurologic complications and death in patients with Type I dissection.
Critical Care Medicine 07/2000; 28(6):1841-6. · 6.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the pulmonary vessel endothelium in the removal of circulating osteocalcin, by measuring the osteocalcin levels in serum from pulmonary and radial artery blood from 39 patients undergoing aorto-coronary bypass. Because of the discrepancies between methods of measurement, two methods were used. Significant differences were observed in group A (n = 18), tested with heterologous radioimmunoassay (2.85 +/- 0.67 microg l-1 in the pulmonary versus 2.69 +/- 0.67 microg l-1 in the radial artery serum, P<0.001) and in group B (n = 21), tested with a two-site immunoradiometric assay (5.22 +/- 1.46 versus 4.93 +/- 1.36 microg l-1, P<0.01). The percentage differences were -5.54 +/- 4.76% (P<0.001) in group A and -4.99 +/- 8.13% (P<0.01) in group B; the comparison between the percentage differences was not significant. These different osteocalcin concentrations between the two vascular compartments were considered a marker of osteocalcin degradation. Therefore, the study seems to demonstrate that, as well as kidney, liver and bone, the lung is a relevant site of osteocalcin catabolism. The proteolytic activity of pulmonary vessel endothelium seems to involve about 5% of the circulating peptide.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postoperative pulmonary hypertension increases the mortality risk in cardiac surgery. We have used central venous prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and left atrial norepinephrine (NE) infusion to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) patients with refractory postoperative pulmonary hypertension.
Observational, nonrandomized study.
Department of Cardiac Surgery in a university hospital.
We studied 10 nonconsecutive American Society of Anesthesiologists III and New York Heart Association class III-IV patients with postoperative pulmonary hypertension and low cardiac output syndrome preventing separation from CPB.
Patients received right atrial PGE1 (31.5 +/- 6.26 ng/kg/min) and left atrial NE (0.11 +/- 0.02 microg/kg/min) infusion. Hemodynamic data were obtained before CPB (T0), after CPB under maximal inotropes and vasodilator infusion (T1), 10 mins (T2) and 12 hrs (T3) after PGE1 and NE infusion, and 48 hrs after withdrawal of PGE1 and NE (T4).
All patients were successfully weaned from CPB and survived. The biatrial infusion of PGE1 and NE caused a dramatic reduction in mean pulmonary artery pressure (from 42.8 +/- 5.1 mm Hg at T1 to 28.5 +/- 2.6 mm Hg at T2 and 20.5 +/- 2.0 mm Hg at T4), pulmonary vascular resistance index (from 1158 +/- 269 dyne x sec/cm5 x m2 at T1 to 501 +/- 99 dyne x sec/cm5 x m2 at T2 and 246 +/- 50 dyne x sec/cm5 x m2 at T4), and pulmonary-to-systemic vascular resistance index ratio (from 0.61 +/- 0.17 at T1 to 0.20 +/- 0.04 at T2 and 0.11 +/- 0.03 at T4). Cardiac index increased from 1.7 +/- 0.2 L/min/m2 at T1 to 2.3 +/- 0.2 L/min/m2 at T2 and 2.9 +/- 0.1 L/min/m2 at T4.
In patients with refractory postoperative pulmonary hypertension, the combined administration of low-dose PGE1 in the right atrium and NE in the left atrium is an effective means to wean patients from cardiopulmonary bypass.
Critical Care Medicine 11/1999; 27(10):2180-3. · 6.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether ECC may produce regional liberation of inflammatory mediators capable of inducing vascular effects and organ damage.
Comparative study [corrected].
Cardiac surgery department in a University hospital.
Fifteen patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, group A) and ten patients operated for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (controls, group B) have been studied.
Levels of Interleukin 1beta (IL1), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF), Interleukin 6 (IL6), and Endothelin 1 (ET1) were measured in pulmonary capillary, arterial, and venous blood and in bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) before, during and after extracorporeal circulation (ECC) or surgical intervention.
TNF-alpha (never >35 pg/ml) and IL1beta (range 20-300 pg/ml) values did not change over time for both groups. IL6 concentrations in all samples of group A increased between five and twenty fold, during and after ECC (from 3-5 pg/ml up to 240 pg/ml, p<0.001). This trend was similar in controls after surgical stress. Endothelin 1 was always undetectable in the BAL fluid, with a modest, but significant increase in pulmonary capillary blood of group A, after ECC, (from 11+/-4 pg/ml to 18+/-5 pg/ml, p<0.001). This increment correlated well with the PVR increase, but was transient and after 24 hours, ET1 values returned to baseline levels. Mean values of ET1 increased also in controls, but not significantly.
ECC may induce ET1 liberation in pulmonary circulation with transient pulmonary vasoconstriction, but wihout intra-alveolar release, or lung damage. Augmented concentrations of IL6 probably express a response to surgical procedure rather than an effect exclusively related to ECC.
The Journal of cardiovascular surgery 09/1999; 40(4):487-94. · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both aprotinin and gentamicin-vancomycin antibiotic prophylaxis have been used widely in cardiac surgery to prevent bleeding and infections, respectively. As the drugs are excreted almost entirely by glomerular filtration, we investigated their action on renal function when administered either separately or together. To increase consistency, we measured serum concentrations of creatinine and cystatin C, a new marker of glomerular filtration rate, that many recent studies have shown to be more sensitive than serum creatinine. One hundred patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were allocated randomly to one of four groups: group A received antibiotic prophylaxis with cefamandole and no aprotinin; group B received cefamandole and high-dose aprotinin; group C received antibiotic prophylaxis with gentamicin and vancomycin, but no aprotinin; and group D received both high-dose aprotinin and gentamicin-vancomycin antibiotic prophylaxis. Data from 84 patients, for whom data collection was complete, were analysed. In the first week after operation, mean serum concentrations of cystatin C and creatinine either remained constant or decreased slowly in all groups, except for group D. In group D, both markers increased gradually from postoperative day 2 onwards. The increase in cystatin C was significant on postoperative day 5 (from mean 1.02 (SD 0.11) mg litre-1 before operation to 1.35 (0.32) mg litre-1; P < 0.05), reaching a peak on postoperative day 7 (1.45 (0.35) mg litre-1; P < 0.05), while the increase in creatinine concentration was significant on postoperative day 6 (from 1.05 (0.16) mg dl-1 before operation to 1.29 (0.34) mg dl-1; P < 0.05). We conclude that simultaneous administration of high-dose aprotinin and prophylactic use of gentamicin with vancomycin increased serum concentrations of cystatin C and creatinine in the first postoperative week in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 04/1999; 82(4):531-6. · 4.24 Impact Factor