[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left atrial volume (LAV) is a predictor of prognosis in patients with heart failure.
We aimed to evaluate the determinants of LAV in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).
Ninety patients with DCM and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction ≤ 0.50 were included. LAV was measured with real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (eco3D). The variables evaluated were heart rate, systolic blood pressure, LV end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume and ejection fraction (eco3D), mitral inflow E wave, tissue Doppler e´ wave, E/e´ ratio, intraventricular dyssynchrony, 3D dyssynchrony index and mitral regurgitation vena contracta. Pearson´s coefficient was used to identify the correlation of the LAV with the assessed variables. A multiple linear regression model was developed that included LAV as the dependent variable and the variables correlated with it as the predictive variables.
Mean age was 52 ± 11 years-old, LV ejection fraction: 31.5 ± 8.0% (16-50%) and LAV: 39.2±15.7 ml/m2. The variables that correlated with the LAV were LV end-diastolic volume (r = 0.38; p < 0.01), LV end-systolic volume (r = 0.43; p < 0.001), LV ejection fraction (r = -0.36; p < 0.01), E wave (r = 0.50; p < 0.01), E/e´ ratio (r = 0.51; p < 0.01) and mitral regurgitation (r = 0.53; p < 0.01). A multivariate analysis identified the E/e´ ratio (p = 0.02) and mitral regurgitation (p = 0.02) as the only independent variables associated with LAV increase.
The LAV is independently determined by LV filling pressures (E/e´ ratio) and mitral regurgitation in DCM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Cardiovascular urgencies are frequent reasons for seeking medical care. Prompt and accurate medical diagnosis is critical to reduce the morbidity and mortality of these conditions. Objective: To evaluate the use of a pocket-size echocardiography in addition to clinical history and physical exam in a tertiary medical emergency care. Methods: One hundred adult patients without known cardiac or lung diseases who sought emergency care with cardiac complaints were included. Patients with ischemic changes in the electrocardiography or fever were excluded. A focused echocardiography with GE Vscan equipment was performed after the initial evaluation in the emergency room. Cardiac chambers dimensions, left and right ventricular systolic function, intracardiac flows with color, pericardium, and aorta were evaluated. Results: The mean age was 61 +/- 17 years old. The patient complaint was chest pain in 51 patients, dyspnea in 32 patients, arrhythmia to evaluate the left ventricular function in ten patients, hypotension/dizziness in five patients and edema in one patient. In 28 patients, the focused echocardiography allowed to confirm the initial diagnosis: 19 patients with heart failure, five with acute coronary syndrome, two with pulmonary embolism and two patients with cardiac tamponade. In 17 patients, the echocardiography changed the diagnosis: ten with suspicious of heart failure, two with pulmonary embolism suspicious, two with hypotension without cause, one suspicious of acute coronary syndrome, one of cardiac tamponade and one of aortic dissection. Conclusion: The focused echocardiography with pocket-size equipment in the emergency care may allow a prompt diagnosis and, consequently, an earlier initiation of the therapy.
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia 10/2014; DOI:10.5935/abc.20140158 · 1.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Previous investigation showed that the volume-time curve technique could be an alternative for endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff management. However, the clinical impact of the volume-time curve application has not been documented. The purpose of this study was to compare the occurrence and intensity of a sore throat, cough, thoracic pain, and pulmonary function between these 2 techniques for ETT cuff management: volume-time curve technique versus minimal occlusive volume (MOV) technique after coronary artery bypass grafting.
A total of 450 subjects were randomized into 2 groups for cuff management after intubation: MOV group (n = 222) and volume-time curve group (n = 228). We measured cuff pressure before extubation. We performed spirometry 24 h before and after surgery. We graded sore throat and cough according to a 4-point scale at 1, 24, 72, and 120 h after extubation and assessed thoracic pain at 24 h after extubation and quantified the level of pain by a 10-point scale.
The volume-time curve group presented significantly lower cuff pressure (30.9 ± 2.8 vs 37.7 ± 3.4 cm H2O), less incidence and intensity of sore throat (1 h, 23.7 vs 51.4%; and 24 h, 18.9 vs 40.5%, P < .001), cough (1 h, 19.3 vs 48.6%; and 24 h, 18.4 vs 42.3%, P < .001), thoracic pain (5.2 ± 1.8 vs 7.1 ± 1.7), better preservation of FVC (49.5 ± 9.9 vs 41.8 ± 12.9%, P = .005), and FEV1 (46.6 ± 1.8 vs 38.6 ± 1.4%, P = .005) compared with the MOV group.
The subjects who received the volume-time curve technique for ETT cuff management presented a significantly lower incidence and severity of sore throat and cough, less thoracic pain, and minimally impaired pulmonary function than those subjects who received the MOV technique during the first 24 h after coronary artery bypass grafting.
Respiratory care 06/2014; 59(11). DOI:10.4187/respcare.02683 · 1.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The variability of ventricular arrhythmias (VA) among different days of the week is not well detected by one-day Holter monitoring.
To evaluate whether there are differences in VA distribution pattern during long recording period.
The EKG was recorded for 14h per day during 7days by Holter system in 34 consecutive pat ventricular couplets and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) recording from patients provided graphic data. We applied the Hurst method (H Coefficient) which evaluates whether a repetitive phenomenon is random or not. When the H is >0.5 and <1 means it is not random and implies a long-term memory effect. Considering the arrhythmic variability, the data were also analyzed by repetitive ANOVA comparing incidence of arrhythmias among the days.
Isolated PVCs and ventricular couplets during 98h recording provided graphic of the occurrence. A trend of increasing and decreasing of arrhythmias was observed which looks erratic. The H coefficient, however, was significantly >0.5 for all patients. Repeated ANOVA showed statistic difference among days in 31 patients with isolated PVCs; in 26 with ventricular couplets and 19 with NSVT when analyzed per hour during week days (p < 0.05).
PVCs, ventricular couplets and NSVT are not a random phenomenon. Our data suggest the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias had no similarity among the days, making unlikely that a single Holter recording for 24h may capture this phenomenon.
Journal of electrocardiology 02/2014; 47(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2014.02.002 · 1.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is better than antiarrhythmic drug therapy for the primary and secondary prevention of all-cause mortality and sudden cardiac death in patients with either coronary artery disease or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. This study aims to assess whether the ICD also has this effect for primary prevention in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC).
In this randomized (concealed allocation) open-label trial, we aim to enroll up to 1,100 patients with CCC, a Rassi risk score for death prediction of ≥10 points, and at least 1 episode of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia on a 24-hour Holter monitoring. Patients from 28 centers in Brazil will be randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive an ICD or amiodarone (600 mg/d for 10 days, then 200-400 mg/d until the end of the study). The randomization sequence will be generated by computer, and the members of the committees responsible for end point validation and data analysis will be blinded to study assignment. The primary end point is all-cause death, and enrolment will continue until 256 patients have reached this end point. Key secondary end points include cardiovascular death, sudden cardiac death, hospitalization for heart failure, and quality of life. We expect follow-up to last 3 to 6 years, and data analysis will be done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01722942.
CHAGASICS is the first large-scale trial to assess the benefit of ICD therapy for the primary prevention of death in patients with CCC and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, who have a moderate to high risk of death.
American heart journal 12/2013; 166(6):976-982.e4. DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2013.08.027 · 4.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitral regurgitation (MR) is common in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). It is unknown whether the criteria for MR classification are inadequate for patients with DCM.
We aimed to evaluate the agreement among the four most common echocardiographic methods for MR classification.
Ninety patients with DCM were included. Functional MR was classified using four echocardiographic methods: color flow jet area (JA), vena contracta (VC), effective regurgitant orifice area (ERO) and regurgitant volume (RV). MR was classified as mild, moderate or important according to the American Society of Echocardiography criteria and by dividing the values into terciles. The Kappa test was used to evaluate whether the methods agreed, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between the absolute values of each method.
MR classification according to each method was as follows: JA: 26 mild, 44 moderate, 20 important; VC: 12 mild, 72 moderate, 6 important; ERO: 70 mild, 15 moderate, 5 important; RV: 70 mild, 16 moderate, 4 important. The agreement was poor among methods (kappa=0.11; p<0.001). It was observed a strong correlation between the absolute values of each method, ranging from 0.70 to 0.95 (p<0.01) and the agreement was higher when values were divided into terciles (kappa = 0.44; p < 0.01) CONCLUSION: The use of conventional echocardiographic criteria for MR classification seems inadequate in patients with DCM. It is necessary to establish new cutoff values for MR classification in these patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: EnSiteNavx electroanatomic mapping system is widely used in radiofrequency (RF) atrial fibrillation ablation, helping the creation of linear lesions. However, the correspondence of the virtual line created by EnSite with the pathological lesion has not yet been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: to assess the continuousness of Ensite-guided virtual lines in a swine model. METHODS: we performed RF ablation linear lesions (8mm and irrigated catheters tips) in both atria of 14 pigs (35Kg) guided by the EnSite. The animals were sacrificed 14 days post-ablation for macroscopic and histological analysis. RESULTS: a total of 23 lines in the right atrium and 21 lines in the left atrium were created in 14 animals. The medium power, impedance and temperature applications were 56 W, 54 ºC and 231 Ω for the 8mm tip, and 39W, 37ºC, 194 Ω for the irrigated tip catheter, respectively. All (100%) lines were identified on the epicardial and endocardial surfaces, denoting transmurality. At macroscopic examination, lesions were extensive and pale, continuous, with 3.61 cm long and 0.71 cm deep. The transmurality of the lesions was confirmed by microscopy. There was a correlation in the location of the lines at the virtual map and the anatomical lesions in 21 of 23 (91.3%) of the right atrium and 19/21 (90.4%) of the left atrium. CONCLUSION: In this model, the lines created in the virtual map by EnSiteNavX system correspond to continuous transmural linear lesions in anatomical specimen, suggesting that this method is suitable for linear ablation of atrial fibrillation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Strong associations have been reported among sleep duration, hypertension, obesity, and cardiovascular mortality. The authors hypothesize that sleep duration may play a role in OSA severity. The aim of this study is to analyze sleep duration in OSA patients.
Patients who underwent overnight polysomnography were consecutively selected from the Sleep Clinic of Universidade Federal de São Paulo database between March 2009 and December 2010. All subjects were asked to come to the Sleep Clinic at 8:00 a.m. for a clinical evaluation and actigraphy. Anthropometric parameters such as weight, height, hip circumference, abdominal circumference, and neck circumference were also measured.
One hundred thirty-three patients were divided into four groups based on total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, and wake after sleep onset: very short sleepers (n = 11), short sleepers (n = 21), intermediate sleepers (n = 56), and sufficient sleepers (n = 45). Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was higher in very short sleepers (50.18 ± 30.86 events/h) compared with intermediate sleepers (20.36 ± 14.68 events/h; p = 0.007) and sufficient sleepers (23.21 ± 20.45 events/h; p = 0.02). Minimal and mean arterial oxygen saturation and time spent below 90 % oxygen saturation exhibited worse values in very short sleepers. After adjustment for gender, age, AHI, and body mass index, mean oxygen saturation was significantly associated to total sleep time (p = 0.01).
In conclusion, the present study suggests that sleep duration may be associated to low mean oxygen saturation in OSA patients.
Sleep And Breathing 10/2012; 17(2). DOI:10.1007/s11325-012-0774-3 · 2.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive and non-invasive tests have been used to identify the risk of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with chronic Chagas' heart disease (CCHD). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) using the delayed enhancement (DE) technique can be useful to select patients with global or segmentary ventricular dysfunction, with high degree of fibrosis and at higher risk for clinical VT.
To improve the identification of predictors of VT in patients with CCHD.
This study assessed 41 patients with CCHD [30 (72%) males; mean age, 55.1 ± 11.9 years]. Twenty-six patients had history of VT (VT group), and 15 had no VT (NVT group). All patients enrolled had DE and segmentary ventricular dysfunction. In each case, the following variables were determined: left ventricular volume; percentage of ventricular wall thickness impairment in each segment; and DE distribution.
No statistical difference regarding the DE volume between both groups was observed: VT group = 30.0 ± 16.2%; NVT group = 21.7 ± 15.7%; p = 0.118. The probability of VT was greater in the presence of two or more contiguous transmural fibrosis areas, and that was a predictive factor of clinical VT (RR 4.1; p = 0,04). Agreement between observers was 100% regarding that criterion (p < 0.001).
The identification of two or more segments of transmural DE by use of CMRI is associated with the occurrence of clinical VT in patients with CCHD. Thus, CMRI improved risk stratification in the population studied.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate respiratory muscle strength, oxygenation and chest pain in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) using internal thoracic artery grafts comparing pleural drain insertion site at the subxyphoid region versus the lateral region.
Forty patients were randomized into two groups in accordance with the pleural drain site. Group II (n = 19) -pleural drain exteriorized in the intercostal space; group (SI) (n = 21) chest tube exteriorized at the subxyphoid region. All patients underwent assessment of respiratory muscle strength (inspiratory and expiratory) on the pre, 1, 3 and 5 postoperative days (POD). Arterial blood gas analysis was collected on the pre and POD1. The chest pain sensation was measured 1, 3 and 5 POD.
A significant decrease in respiratory muscle strength (inspiratory and expiratory) was seen in both groups until POD5 (P <0.05). When compared, the difference between groups remained significant with greater decrease in the II (P <0.05). The blood arterial oxygenation fell in both groups (P <0.05), but the oxygenation was lower in the II (P <0.05). Referred chest pain was higher 1, 3 and 5 POD in the II group (P <0.05). The orotracheal intubation time and postoperative length of hospital stay were higher in the II group (P <0.05).
Patients submitted to subxyphoid pleural drainage showed less decrease in respiratory muscle strength, better preservation of blood oxygenation and reduced thoracic pain compared to patients with intercostal drain on early OPCAB postoperative.
Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 03/2012; 27(1):103-9. DOI:10.5935/1678-9741.20120015 · 0.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the high prevalence and clinical importance of atrial fibrillation (AF), there is no Brazilian study describing the clinical profile of patients with AF and the most used treatment strategy (rhythm control vs. rate control).
Assess the most common treatment on AF in an outpatient specialized clinic for management of AF. In addition, the clinical profile of the population studied was provided.
Cross-sectional study assessing the most used strategy for atrial fibrillation control in 167 patients. The clinical profile was also described. A standardized form was used for data collection and statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 13.0 software.
In This high risk population for thromboembolic events (61% had CHADS(2) ≥ 2), 54% of patients had paroxysmal or persistent AF, 96.6% were on vitamin K antagonists or acetylsalicylic acid, and 76.6% on beta-blocker (rate control 81,2% x rhythm control 58,8%; p < 0.05). Heart rate control was the most used strategy (79.5% x 20.5%; p < 0.001). A statistical tendency towards more patients with ventricular dysfunction (15.2% x 2.9%; p = 0.06), CHADS(2) ≥ 2 (60.5% x 39.5%; p = 0.07) and heart valve diseases (25.8% x 11.8%; p = 0.08) was observed in the heart rate control group.
In this high risk population for thromboembolic events, the rate control strategy was the most used.
Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 02/2012; 98(3):195-202. · 1.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article summarizes the "1st Guidelines of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology on Processes and Skills for Education in Cardiology in Brazil," which can be found in full at: <http://publicacoes.cardiol.br/consenso/2011/diretriz-tec.asp>. The guideline establishes the education time required in Internal Medicine and Cardiology with Specialization through theoretical and practical training. These requirements must be available at the center forming Specialists in Cardiology and the Cardiology contents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to assess the effect of naproxen versus placebo on prevention of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center trial of 161 consecutive patients undergoing CABG surgery, patients received naproxen 275 mg every 12 hours or placebo at the same dosage and interval over 120 hours immediately after CABG surgery. The primary outcome was the occurrence of atrial fibrillation in the first 5 postoperative days.
The incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation was 15.2% (12/79) in the placebo versus 7.3% (6/82) in the naproxen group (P=.11). The duration of atrial fibrillation episodes was significantly lower in the naproxen (0.35 hours) versus placebo group (3.74 hours; P=.04). There was no difference in the overall days of hospitalization between placebo (17.23±7.39) and naproxen (18.33±9.59) groups (P=.44). Intensive care unit length of stay was 4.0±4.57 days in the placebo and 3.23±1.25 days in the naproxen group (P=.16). The trial was stopped by the data monitoring committee before reaching the initial target number of 200 patients because of an increase in renal failure in the naproxen group (7.3% vs 1.3%; P=.06).
Postoperative use of naproxen did not reduce the incidence of atrial fibrillation but decreased its duration, in a limited sample of patients after CABG surgery. There was a significant increase in acute renal failure in patients receiving naproxen 275 mg twice daily. Our study does not support the routine use of naproxen after CABG surgery for the prevention of atrial fibrillation.
The American journal of medicine 11/2011; 124(11):1036-42. DOI:10.1016/j.amjmed.2011.07.026 · 5.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rate control is an acceptable alternative to rhythm control in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation (AF).
The aim of this study of AF patients was to understand the correlation between their exercise capacity and both heart rate (HR) and HR variation index during exercise.
The exercise capacity of 85 male patients with chronic AF was measured using a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX). Within this population, we compared the exercise tolerance of patients with a normal chronotropic response (maximal HR 85%-115% that of the maximal age-predicted HR during CPX) to those whose HR response exceeded this range. Two similar comparisons were made by dividing the subject population according to (1) whether or not their HR variation index (HRVI) during CPX exceeded 10 bpm/min, and (2) whether their HR during the 6-minute walk test exceeded 110 bpm.
Patients with an HRVI not over 10 bpm/min showed higher maximal oxygen uptake compared to patients with a higher HRVI (26.7 ± 6.1 vs 22.8 ± 4.8 mL O(2) /kg/min, P = 0.002) and a longer distance walked during CPX (705.6 ± 200.3 vs 520.9 ± 155.5 m, P<0.001). No other significant influence on exercise capacity was seen. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that both the body mass index and the HRVI during CPX were independent predictors of the maximal oxygen uptake.
Better HRVI control on CPX was correlated with better exercise capacity in patients with chronic AF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Much has been achieved in one century after Carlos Chagas' discovery. However, there is surely much to be done in the next decades. At present, we are witnessing many remarkable efforts to monitor the epidemiology of the disease, to better understand the biology of the T. cruzi and its interaction with human beings as well as the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of the complications in the chronic phase, and deal more appropriately and effectively with late cardiac and digestive manifestations. Although the vector and transfusion-derived transmission of the disease has been controlled in many countries, there remains a pressing need for sustained surveillance of the measures that led to this achievement. It is also necessary to adopt initiatives that enable appropriate management of social and medical conditions resulting from the migration of infected individuals to countries where the disease formerly did not exist. It's also necessary to standardize the most reliable methods of detection of infection with T. cruzi, not only for diagnosis purposes, but more crucially, as a cure criterion. The etiological treatment of millions of patients in the chronic stage of the disease is also to be unraveled. A renewed interest in this area is observed, including prospects of studies focusing on the association of drugs with benznidazole. We also wait for full evidence of the actual effectiveness of the etiological treatment to impact favorably on the natural history of the disease in its chronic phase. Eventually, cardiologists are primarily responsible for improving the clinical management of their patients with Chagas' disease, judiciously prescribing drugs and interventions that respect, as much as possible, the peculiar pathophysiology of the disease, wasting no plausible therapeutic opportunities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complexity of reentrant circuits related to ventricular tachycardias decreases the success rate of radiofrequency ablation procedures.
To evaluate whether the epicardial mapping with multiple electrodes carried out simultaneously with the endocardial mapping helps in ablation procedures of sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with nonischemic heart disease.
Twenty-six patients with recurrent sustained VT, of which 22 (84.6%) presenting chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy, 2 (7.7%) with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and 2 with right ventricular arrhythmogenic dysplasia (RVAD), were submitted to epicardial mapping with two or three microcatheters, with 8 electrodes each, simultaneously to the conventional endocardial mapping. A catheter with a 4-mm tip was used for the ablation by radiofrequency (RF) carried out during the induced VT.
Of the 33 induced VT, 25 were mapped and 20 had their origin defined. Eleven had epicardial and 9 had endocardial origin. The programmed ventricular stimulation did not induce sustained VT in 11 (42.0%) of the 26 patients after the ablation. Events such as VT recurrence and death occurred in 10.0% of the patients submitted to successful ablation and in 59.0% of the unsuccessful cases, during a mean ambulatory follow-up of 357 ± 208 days.
Subepicardial circuits are frequent in patients with nonischemic heart disease. The epicardial mapping with multiple catheters carried out simultaneously with the endocardial mapping contributes to the identification of these circuits in a same procedure.