[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: EnSiteNavx electroanatomic mapping system is widely used in radiofrequency (RF) atrial fibrillation ablation, helping the creation of linear lesions. However, the correspondence of the virtual line created by EnSite with the pathological lesion has not yet been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: to assess the continuousness of Ensite-guided virtual lines in a swine model. METHODS: we performed RF ablation linear lesions (8mm and irrigated catheters tips) in both atria of 14 pigs (35Kg) guided by the EnSite. The animals were sacrificed 14 days post-ablation for macroscopic and histological analysis. RESULTS: a total of 23 lines in the right atrium and 21 lines in the left atrium were created in 14 animals. The medium power, impedance and temperature applications were 56 W, 54 ºC and 231 Ω for the 8mm tip, and 39W, 37ºC, 194 Ω for the irrigated tip catheter, respectively. All (100%) lines were identified on the epicardial and endocardial surfaces, denoting transmurality. At macroscopic examination, lesions were extensive and pale, continuous, with 3.61 cm long and 0.71 cm deep. The transmurality of the lesions was confirmed by microscopy. There was a correlation in the location of the lines at the virtual map and the anatomical lesions in 21 of 23 (91.3%) of the right atrium and 19/21 (90.4%) of the left atrium. CONCLUSION: In this model, the lines created in the virtual map by EnSiteNavX system correspond to continuous transmural linear lesions in anatomical specimen, suggesting that this method is suitable for linear ablation of atrial fibrillation.
Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 06/2013; · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Strong associations have been reported among sleep duration, hypertension, obesity, and cardiovascular mortality. The authors hypothesize that sleep duration may play a role in OSA severity. The aim of this study is to analyze sleep duration in OSA patients. METHODS: Patients who underwent overnight polysomnography were consecutively selected from the Sleep Clinic of Universidade Federal de São Paulo database between March 2009 and December 2010. All subjects were asked to come to the Sleep Clinic at 8:00 a.m. for a clinical evaluation and actigraphy. Anthropometric parameters such as weight, height, hip circumference, abdominal circumference, and neck circumference were also measured. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-three patients were divided into four groups based on total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, and wake after sleep onset: very short sleepers (n = 11), short sleepers (n = 21), intermediate sleepers (n = 56), and sufficient sleepers (n = 45). Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was higher in very short sleepers (50.18 ± 30.86 events/h) compared with intermediate sleepers (20.36 ± 14.68 events/h; p = 0.007) and sufficient sleepers (23.21 ± 20.45 events/h; p = 0.02). Minimal and mean arterial oxygen saturation and time spent below 90 % oxygen saturation exhibited worse values in very short sleepers. After adjustment for gender, age, AHI, and body mass index, mean oxygen saturation was significantly associated to total sleep time (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the present study suggests that sleep duration may be associated to low mean oxygen saturation in OSA patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Late lesion extension may be involved in the genesis of delayed radiofrequency (RF) effects. Because RF lesion is thermally mediated, we hypothesized that induction of heat shock response (thermotolerance) would modulate lesion healing. We evaluated the effects of thermotolerance on the dimensions and remodeling of RF lesions in a rat model of heart failure. METHODS: Wistar rats (weight 300 g) subjected to heat stress (n = 22, internal temperature of 42 °C for 10 min) were compared to controls (n = 22, internal temperature of 37 °C for 10 min). After 48 h (peak of HSP70 myocardial concentration), a modified unipolar RF lesion (customized catheter, tip 4.5 mm in diameter; 12 W; 10 s) was created on the left ventricular free wall. Animals were sacrificed 2 h (n = 10 per group) and 4 weeks (n = 12 per group) after ablation for lesion analysis. An echocardiogram was obtained at 4 weeks. RESULTS: There was no difference between groups regarding the size of acute (controls 27 ± 2 vs. treated 27 ± 3 mm(2)) and chronic lesions (controls 17 ± 1 vs. treated 19 ± 1 mm(2)). Histology of lesions did not differ between groups. The echocardiogram revealed dilation of the cavities and moderate systolic dysfunction without difference between groups. Acute lesion dimensions were similar between control and treated animals over time (ablation undertaken 3, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after hyperthermia) and also using a conventional ablation catheter (50 °C; 15 W; 10 s). CONCLUSION: Thermotolerance does not reduce the size or remodeling of RF lesions in the rat myocardium.
Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology 10/2012; · 1.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sleep is an important factor in the maintenance of cardiovascular integrity. It seems that cardiovascular injury and sleep impairment is another chicken or egg puzzle and we hypothesized that the higher the cardiovascular risk factors the higher the sleep impairment. Therefore, the goal of this study is to analyze the sleep profile of a general population based on cardiovascular risk stratification.
This population-based survey used a probabilistic three-stage cluster sample of Sao Paulo inhabitants to represent the population. A sample size of 1056 volunteers was defined in order to allow for prevalence estimates with 3% precision. From the 1101 selected and interviewed participants, a complete full-night polysomnogram (PSG) was performed in 1042 participants as well as clinical evaluation and blood samples analyses to assess Framingham risk score.
Nine hundred four subjects were classified according the Framingham score and were included in the analyses. A total of 91.7% were classified as a low risk, 5.8% in the intermediate, and 2.4% in the high risk groups according to Framingham score. All polisomnographic parameters were different between groups, except those related to REM sleep parameters. AHI were greater in the high risk compared to the intermediate and low risk groups (23.9 ± 2.8; 17.7 ± 1.8; 7.2 ± 0.5, respectively, p<0.001), as well as a lower total sleep time in minutes (295.3 ± 16.2; 338.4 ± 10.2; 347.4 ± 2.6, respectively, p=0.01). Sleep efficiency in percentage also exhibits a reduction between groups (67.6 ± 2.5; 78.4 ± 1.6; 82.9 ± 0.4, respectively, p<0.001). After adjustment for confounder factors age (p<0.001) and sleep efficiency (p=0.06) remained strongly associated with high risk population.
High Framingham risk score was associated with poor sleep efficiency and aging.
Sleep Medicine 04/2012; 13(6):577-82. · 3.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive and non-invasive tests have been used to identify the risk of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with chronic Chagas' heart disease (CCHD). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) using the delayed enhancement (DE) technique can be useful to select patients with global or segmentary ventricular dysfunction, with high degree of fibrosis and at higher risk for clinical VT.
To improve the identification of predictors of VT in patients with CCHD.
This study assessed 41 patients with CCHD [30 (72%) males; mean age, 55.1 ± 11.9 years]. Twenty-six patients had history of VT (VT group), and 15 had no VT (NVT group). All patients enrolled had DE and segmentary ventricular dysfunction. In each case, the following variables were determined: left ventricular volume; percentage of ventricular wall thickness impairment in each segment; and DE distribution.
No statistical difference regarding the DE volume between both groups was observed: VT group = 30.0 ± 16.2%; NVT group = 21.7 ± 15.7%; p = 0.118. The probability of VT was greater in the presence of two or more contiguous transmural fibrosis areas, and that was a predictive factor of clinical VT (RR 4.1; p = 0,04). Agreement between observers was 100% regarding that criterion (p < 0.001).
The identification of two or more segments of transmural DE by use of CMRI is associated with the occurrence of clinical VT in patients with CCHD. Thus, CMRI improved risk stratification in the population studied.
Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 03/2012; 98(5):421-30. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate respiratory muscle strength, oxygenation and chest pain in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) using internal thoracic artery grafts comparing pleural drain insertion site at the subxyphoid region versus the lateral region.
Forty patients were randomized into two groups in accordance with the pleural drain site. Group II (n = 19) -pleural drain exteriorized in the intercostal space; group (SI) (n = 21) chest tube exteriorized at the subxyphoid region. All patients underwent assessment of respiratory muscle strength (inspiratory and expiratory) on the pre, 1, 3 and 5 postoperative days (POD). Arterial blood gas analysis was collected on the pre and POD1. The chest pain sensation was measured 1, 3 and 5 POD.
A significant decrease in respiratory muscle strength (inspiratory and expiratory) was seen in both groups until POD5 (P <0.05). When compared, the difference between groups remained significant with greater decrease in the II (P <0.05). The blood arterial oxygenation fell in both groups (P <0.05), but the oxygenation was lower in the II (P <0.05). Referred chest pain was higher 1, 3 and 5 POD in the II group (P <0.05). The orotracheal intubation time and postoperative length of hospital stay were higher in the II group (P <0.05).
Patients submitted to subxyphoid pleural drainage showed less decrease in respiratory muscle strength, better preservation of blood oxygenation and reduced thoracic pain compared to patients with intercostal drain on early OPCAB postoperative.
Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 03/2012; 27(1):103-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms implicated in the genesis of delayed radiofrequency (RF) effects remain unclear, but may be related to extension of the lesion beyond the region of coagulative necrosis. The role of apoptosis in this process has not been previously reported. We assessed whether RF promotes apoptosis in the region surrounding acute ablation lesions in a rat model.
Wistar rats (n=30; weight 300 g) were anesthesized, the chest was opened, and the heart was exposed. A modified unipolar RF ablation (custom catheter 4.5-mm-tip diameter, 12 Watts, 10 seconds) was undertaken on the left ventricular anterolateral epicardial surface and the chest was closed. After 2 hours, animals were killed for histological (hematoxylin and eosin, TdT-mediated dUTP Nick End-Labeling [TUNEL] assay) and immunohistochemical (anti-BAD and anti-caspase 3 antibodies) analysis (n=18). Additional animals (n=12) were sacrificed at 2 (n=3), 24 (n=3), 48 (n=3), and 72 hours (n=3) after ablation exclusively for anti-BAD Western Blotting analysis.
Lesions were characterized by well-defined regions of coagulative necrosis. In 18/18 (100%) animals, TUNEL assay revealed positive luminescent reaction cells in the region surrounding the lesion, extending up to 2 mm from the border zone. However, microscopic evaluation of the nuclei and immunohistochemical and anti-BAD Western Blotting analysis were negative in all (100%) rats. Thus, positive TUNEL reaction in the periphery of the ablation lesion likely reflects nonspecific DNA damage.
RF ablation does not promote apoptosis in the periphery of the myocardial lesion. This finding may have implications for the elucidation of late lesion extension following RF ablation.
Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 01/2012; 35(4):449-55. · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to assess the effect of naproxen versus placebo on prevention of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center trial of 161 consecutive patients undergoing CABG surgery, patients received naproxen 275 mg every 12 hours or placebo at the same dosage and interval over 120 hours immediately after CABG surgery. The primary outcome was the occurrence of atrial fibrillation in the first 5 postoperative days.
The incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation was 15.2% (12/79) in the placebo versus 7.3% (6/82) in the naproxen group (P=.11). The duration of atrial fibrillation episodes was significantly lower in the naproxen (0.35 hours) versus placebo group (3.74 hours; P=.04). There was no difference in the overall days of hospitalization between placebo (17.23±7.39) and naproxen (18.33±9.59) groups (P=.44). Intensive care unit length of stay was 4.0±4.57 days in the placebo and 3.23±1.25 days in the naproxen group (P=.16). The trial was stopped by the data monitoring committee before reaching the initial target number of 200 patients because of an increase in renal failure in the naproxen group (7.3% vs 1.3%; P=.06).
Postoperative use of naproxen did not reduce the incidence of atrial fibrillation but decreased its duration, in a limited sample of patients after CABG surgery. There was a significant increase in acute renal failure in patients receiving naproxen 275 mg twice daily. Our study does not support the routine use of naproxen after CABG surgery for the prevention of atrial fibrillation.
The American journal of medicine 11/2011; 124(11):1036-42. · 5.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rate control is an acceptable alternative to rhythm control in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation (AF).
The aim of this study of AF patients was to understand the correlation between their exercise capacity and both heart rate (HR) and HR variation index during exercise.
The exercise capacity of 85 male patients with chronic AF was measured using a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX). Within this population, we compared the exercise tolerance of patients with a normal chronotropic response (maximal HR 85%-115% that of the maximal age-predicted HR during CPX) to those whose HR response exceeded this range. Two similar comparisons were made by dividing the subject population according to (1) whether or not their HR variation index (HRVI) during CPX exceeded 10 bpm/min, and (2) whether their HR during the 6-minute walk test exceeded 110 bpm.
Patients with an HRVI not over 10 bpm/min showed higher maximal oxygen uptake compared to patients with a higher HRVI (26.7 ± 6.1 vs 22.8 ± 4.8 mL O(2) /kg/min, P = 0.002) and a longer distance walked during CPX (705.6 ± 200.3 vs 520.9 ± 155.5 m, P<0.001). No other significant influence on exercise capacity was seen. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that both the body mass index and the HRVI during CPX were independent predictors of the maximal oxygen uptake.
Better HRVI control on CPX was correlated with better exercise capacity in patients with chronic AF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prophylactic corticosteroids have been reported to attenuate the increase in C-reactive protein (CRP) and the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) both after heart surgery and AF ablation. We tested the impact of a single prophylactic corticosteroid dose on ultrasensitive CRP 24 h and 14 days after extensive linear atrial ablation (8 mm or 3.5 irrigated tip) guided by electroanatomical mapping (NavX) in pigs with normal hearts.
Pigs (n = 19; 35 kg) were divided into three groups: corticoid (n = 7), atrial ablation with administration of 500 mg methylprednisolone intravenous at anaesthetic induction; control (n = 7), atrial ablation only; and sham (n = 5), surgical procedure without ablation. Troponin and CRP were measured before, 24 h and 14 days after the procedure. After sacrifice, lesions were analysed macroscopically and histologically. Linear lesions were created in the right (n = 23) and left (n = 21) atrium of 14 animals, with no difference between groups. In all groups there was elevation of troponin and CRP 24 h after ablation, with a return to baseline values after 14 days. However, CRP levels of the control, corticoid, and sham groups were similar at all three time points analysed (baseline P = 0.52, 24 h P = 0.21, 14 days P = 0.66). Histological analysis did not show any difference between corticoid and control groups.
In this model, extensive biatrial RF ablation, per se, does not promote systemic inflammation. The use of a prophylactic single corticoid dose before ablation did not prevent systemic inflammation or alter the healing of the lesions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for several cardiovascular conditions including increased cardiovascular mortality. It is therefore essential to know the major cardiovascular effects of sleep-disordered breathing during a clinical evaluation.
To analyze the cardiovascular characteristics of patients with OSA.
Patients underwent baseline polysomnography and were consecutively selected from the database of the Sleep Institute between March 2007 and March 2009. All patients were instructed to attend the clinic for blood collection, physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiogram, spirometry, cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a treadmill and transthoracic echocardiography. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee and recorded at http://clinicaltrials.gov/ under number: NCT00768625.
We analyzed 261 patients and 108 controls. The main characteristics of patients with OSA were: obesity, hypertension, low plasma levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and increased left atrial diameter compared with controls (3.75 ± 0.42; 3.61 ± 0.41, p = 0.001), respectively. These associated characteristics correspond to a 16.6 increase in the likelihood of OSA regardless of reporting any symptoms of this disorder, such as sleepiness or snoring.
In the sample studied, the mostly found cardiovascular profile of patients with OSA was: obesity, hypertension, low plasma levels of HDL and left atrial diameter increased.
Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 03/2011; 96(4):293-9. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for a number of cardiovascular conditions. Although homocysteine (Hcy) and cysteine (Cys) are regarded as cardiovascular risk factors, few studies have analyzed Hcy and Cys plasma concentrations in patients with OSA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Hcy and Cys in OSA in comparison with subjects without OSA and to determine the possible influence of obesity on these variables.
Patients who submitted to polysomnography studies were recruited to engage in an 8-h fasting period for blood sample withdrawal, physical examination, ECG, and echocardiogram. A subgroup of lean patients with OSA (BMI < 25 kg/m(2)) were analyzed to rule out the influence of obesity. Fifteen patients were randomly assigned to participate in a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) protocol to assess the influence of OSA treatment on the obtained measurements.
A total of 75 patients and 75 control subjects matched for age and sex were analyzed. The Cys plasma levels were higher in patients with OSA compared with control subjects (490.16 ± 67.00 μmol/L vs 439.81 ± 76.12 μmol/L, respectively, P < .01); however, the Hcy plasma levels did not differ between groups. Cys plasma levels were also higher in the OSA lean subgroup when compared with lean control subjects (484.21 ± 71.99 μmol/L vs 412.01 ± 70.73 μmol/L, respectively, P = .009). There was a significant decrease of Cys plasma levels after 6 months of CPAP effective therapy.
Cys is a potential biomarker of OSA in obese and nonobese patients and is reduced after effective OSA treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Corticosteroids attenuate late growth of radiofrequency (RF) lesions in the thigh muscle of infant rats. We sought to assess the impact of these drugs on the late growth of RF lesions in immature swine myocardium and to determine the electroanatomical mapping (EAM) characteristics of these lesions.
Radiofrequency (60°C; 60 s) lesions were created in the right atrium (n = 2) and ventricle (n = 2) of 14 piglets (age 65 days; weight 5 kg) and 3 adults. Piglets were divided into: controls (n = 7) and treated (n = 7), receiving hydrocortisone (10 mg/kg iv after RF) and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day) for 29 days. After 8 months, animals were sacrificed for histological analysis. In four piglets, endocardial and epicardial voltage EAM were performed. In infant groups, the dimensions of atrial (11 ± 5 vs. 13 ± 7 mm) and ventricular (12 ± 3 vs. 11 ± 3 mm) lesions were similar. In adults, atrial (6 ± 1 mm) and ventricular (6 ± 1 mm) lesions were smaller. In controls, ventricular lesions depicted dense fibrosis and multiple strands of fibrous tissue extending from the lesion into normal muscle. Treated piglets revealed scars exhibiting less dense fibrosis with predominance of fibroadipose tissue and less collagen proliferation. Large atrial and ventricular low-voltage areas corresponding to the macroscopic lesions were identified in all animals.
Radiofrequency lesions in infant pigs reveal late growth and invasion of normal muscle by intense collagen proliferation. Corticosteroids do not prevent late enlargement of the lesions but modulate the fibrotic proliferation. The expressive growth of the lesion may generate low-voltage areas detectable by EAM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The corticosteroids limit the late growth of the lesions by radiofrequency (RF) on the rats' infants' thighs, but the effects on the pubescent and adult rats are unknown.
Evaluate the effects of the corticosteroids in the healing of the lesions by RF on the rats' thighs muscles in different age groups.
Ablation was performed on the thigh muscle of 30 rats (1 lesion per animal): infants (30 days old, weight 73 g, n = 10), pubescents (60 days old, weight 230 g, n = 10) and 10 adults (90 days old, 310 g, n = 10), subdivided in control and treated groups, that received Hydrocortisone (10 mg/kg IM post-RF) and Betametasone (3.5 mg/kg IM, twice a week, for 29 days). The rats were sacrificed 60 days after the ablation for hystopathological and planimetric analysis with specified software (ImageJ).
In the infant, pubescent and adult groups, the weight gain in the follow up did not differ between the control and the treated ones. In the control group, the lesions of the infants and pubescents were superior (p = 0.01) to the adults'. The treatment reduced the size of the lesion in the infants (5.58+0.61 mm² vs 4.02+0.23 mm(2); p < 0.01) and pubescents (5.20+0.47 mm(2) vs 4.16+0.48 mm(2); p < 0.01), but not in the adults (4.44+0.50 mm(2) vs 4.79+0.53 mm(2), p = NS). Infant and pubescent treated groups presented lower collagen deposition and less fibrotic bands invading the healthy tissue from the central fibrosis area, and forming lesions with remarkably more reduced dimensions than their controls. There were no differences in the adult groups.
The corticosteroids seem to reduce the late growth of lesion, in addition to attenuate the fibrotic proliferation in the infant and pubescent rats.
Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 08/2010; 95(2):207-14. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the association between heart disease associated with noncompaction of the left ventricular myocardium (NCLVM) and chronic Chagas' heart disease (CCHD) in a patient with heart failure, ischemic stroke and cardiac arrhythmia. Images typical of NCLVM and CCHD were documented by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI).
Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 07/2010; 95(1):e4-6. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stricto sensu post-graduation in Brazil was implemented in 1965 to increase university professors' teaching quality and to prepare full, independent researchers. The brazilian share in ISI publications has increased significantly since then, but little information is available on postgraduate quality.
To review 29 years of the postgraduate programs in cardiology at the Federal University of São Paulo and to analyze master and doctorate graduates' characteristics regarding their origin, publications and subsequent career.
We developed a questionnaire to evaluate 168 postgraduates who produced 196 theses (116 master's and 80 doctorate) over the period 1975-2004 and contacted 95.9% of them. Information on publications were obtained through the usual science databases.
30% of graduates came from the North-Northeast-Central West regions and only 50% returned to their original area. Mean age at admission was 32.5 and 34.9 years old for master and doctorate students, respectively; average program duration was, respectively, 39.0 and 43.2 months and approximately 50% went through it without any grants. Thesis publications throughout these 29 years averaged 36.5% for master's and 61.9% for doctorate, but any publishing afterwards occurred in 70.2 and 90.6% of the cases. The average impact factor of the published theses was 1.3 for master's degree and 3.1 for doctorate programs with 65.5% and 87.5% of Qualis A, respectively. Currently, there are graduates in 17 states of the country and 12 have became full professors.
Although the stricto sensu program, especially the master's degree program, has many areas that need improvement, they seem to be contributing to improve professional quality and the number of brazilian indexed publications.
Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 03/2010; 94(4):500-6. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current criteria for rate control in atrial fibrillation (AF) treatment are empirical and based on a small amount of scientific data.
This study was designed to analyze the influence of heart rate (HR, measured by the 6-minute walk test [6MWT] and 24-hour Holter monitoring) on quality of life (QoL).
A total of 89 male patients with chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) and resting HR < 90 bpm were included. QoL (assessed by the Short Form-36 Health Survey [SF-36] questionnaire) was compared among 3 groups of patients classified by HR testing results: group 1 had HR < or = 110 bpm on 6MWT and < or = 80 bpm on Holter monitor; group 2 had HR in the target area by 1 but not both tests; and group 3 had HR > 110 bpm on 6MWT and > 80 bpm on Holter monitor.
There were significant differences among the 3 groups in physical and mental component summary scores (285.9 +/- 73.9; 276.6 +/- 80.8; 230.3 +/- 91.0, P = .035; and 319.8 +/- 70.2; 294.7 +/- 76.0; 255.0 +/- 107.1, P = .026, respectively).When the methods were analyzed separately, there was a significant difference on QoL in physical and mental summary scores in patients with maximal HR < or = 110 bpm on 6MWT in comparison with HR > 110 bpm (P = .04 and P = .01, respectively) and in the physical summary score in patients with average HR < or = 80 bpm on Holter monitor in comparison with HR > 80 bpm (P = .02).
Holter monitoring and 6MWT should be performed as complementary methods to better predict QoL.