A. Hoszowski

Państwowy Instytut Weterynaryjny, Puławy, Lublin Voivodeship, Poland

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Publications (43)31.98 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Further characteristics of S. Kentucky epidemic clone ST198 is provided.•S. Kentucky-specific high-level quinolone resistance mechanism is identified.•Sequence of a conjugative plasmid of IncA/C family is revealed.•The plasmid bears blaCTX-M-25 and an integron with a novel cassettes array.
    Veterinary Microbiology 10/2014; · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • Dariusz Wasyl, Andrzej Hoszowski, Magdalena Zając
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    ABSTRACT: The study was focused on characterisation of quinolone resistance mechanisms in Salmonella isolated from animals, food, and feed between 2008 and 2011. Testing of Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations revealed 6.4% of 2680 isolates conferring ciprofloxacin resistance. Simultaneously 37.7% and 40.8% were accounted for, respectively, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin Non Wild-Type populations. Amplification and sequencing of quinolone resistance determining region of topoisomerases genes in 44 isolates identified multiple amino-acid substitutions in gyrA at positions Ser83 (N = 22; →Leu, →Phe, →Tyr), Asp87 (N = 22; → Asn, →Gly, →Tyr) and parC (Thr57Ser, N = 23; Ala141Ser, N = 1). No relevant mutations were identified in gyrB and parE. Twelve patterns combining one or two substitutions were related to neither serovar nor ciprofloxacin MIC. In 92 isolates suspected for plasmid mediated quinolone resistance two qnr alleles were found: qnrS1 (or qnrS3; N = 50) and qnrB19 (or qnrB10; N = 24). Additionally, two isolates with chromosomally encoded mechanisms carried qnrS1 and qnrS2. All tested isolates were negative for qnrA, qnrC, qnrD, qepA, aac(6’)-Ib-cr. Both chromosomal and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance determinants were found in several Salmonella serovars and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis was used to assess phylogenetic similarity of selected isolates (N = 82). Salmonella Newport was found to accumulate quinolone resistance determinants and the serovar was spreading clonally with either variable gyrA mutations, qnrS1/S3, or qnrB10/B19. Alternatively, various determinants are dispersed among related S. Enteritidis isolates. Antimicrobial selection pressure, multiple resistance determinants and scenarios for their acquisition and spread make extremely difficult to combat quinolone resistance.
    Veterinary Microbiology 07/2014; · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (1,4,[5],12:i:-), a worldwide emerging pathogen, has been occurring in Poland since 2008. Characterization of swine, cattle, geese, food, feed and human isolates obtained in the years 2011-2012 by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, antimicrobial resistance typing with microbroth dilution method was performed for the evaluation of their epidemiological importance for human public and animal health. The prevalence of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium in Poland has recently increased and its proportion to classical biphasic variants reached 15.5% in 2012. The isolates revealed microbiological resistance to at least one tested compound and ten resistance profiles were found. The most frequent profile covered resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracycline. Fourteen XbaI-PFGE profiles with an overall similarity of 52.4% were noted. Most of the isolates were classified to two PFGE profiles showing a 95.4% similarity. Finding of monophasic S. Typhimurium originating from people within the same XbaI-PFGE profile comprising also swine and cattle isolates indicate a possible role of animal sources in the spread of this pathogen.
    Medycyna weterynaryjna 02/2014; 70:117-121. · 0.20 Impact Factor
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    D. Wasyl, A. Hoszowski, M. Zając
    10/2013: pages 199 - 236; Państwowy Instytut Weterynaryjny - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy., ISBN: 9788389946614
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to define genetic diversity of reptilian Salmonella enterica serovar (S.) Kentucky isolates and their epidemiological relations to the ones from poultry, food, and environmental origin in Poland. Between 2010 and 2012 twenty-four S. Kentucky isolates derived from snakes (N=8), geckos (N=7), chameleons (N=4), agamas (N=1), lizard (N=1), and environmental swabs taken from reptile exhibition (N=3) were identified. They were characterized with antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentration testing, XbaI-PFGE and MLST typing. The profiles compared to S. Kentucky available in BioNumerics local laboratory database (N=40) showed 67.3% of relatedness among reptile isolates. Three genetic lineages were defined. The first lineage gathered 20 reptile isolates with 83.4% of similarity and wild-type MICs for all antimicrobials tested but streptomycin in single case. The remaining three reptilian and one post-exhibition environment S. Kentucky isolates were clustered (87.2%) with isolates originating from poultry, mainly turkey, food, and environment and presented variable non-wild type MICs to numerous antimicrobials. The third S. Kentucky lineage was composed of two isolates from feed (96.3%). The results suggest diverse sources and independent routes of infection. Most of the isolates belonged to reptile-associated clones spread both horizontally and vertically. Simultaneously, PFGE profiles and MLST type indistinguishable from the ones observed in poultry point out carnivore reptiles as possible vector of infection with multidrug and high-level ciprofloxacin resistant (MIC≥8mg/L) S. Kentucky. Public awareness and education are required to prevent potential reptile-associated S. Kentucky infections in humans.
    Veterinary Microbiology 08/2013; · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • Magdalena Zając, Andrzej Hoszowski, Dariusz Wasyl
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    ABSTRACT: Since Salmonella serotyping according to the White-Kauffmann-Le Minor scheme fails to identify rough and atypical serological variants, this study aimed at improving serovar identification with the commercially available Premi®Test Salmonella Assay. The array was validated against a set of Salmonella reference strains (n = 27) and field isolates of known serological structure (n = 112) showing up to 97.8% congruent results. Its diagnostic suitability was further verified with random field isolates (n = 52; 100% congruence). For 'rough' isolates (n = 54) and those with antigen expression failure (n = 19) the assay showed, respectively, 98.1% and 73.7% of serovar recognition. It considerably improved diagnostic capacity while typing troublesome isolates such as those failing to express flagellar antigens or showing autoagglutination. The method offers lower labour time compared to the traditional serotyping and does not require a broad range of diagnostic sera.
    Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 07/2013; · 0.80 Impact Factor
  • M. Zając, A. Hoszowski, D. Wasyl
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    ABSTRACT: DOI: 10.1556/AVet.2013.028
    Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 01/2013; 61(3 or 4). · 0.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli (N = 3430) isolated from slaughtered broilers, laying hens, turkeys, swine, and cattle in Poland has been run between 2009 and 2012. Based on minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) microbiological resistance to each of 14 tested antimicrobials was found reaching the highest values for tetracycline (43.3%), ampicillin (42.3%), and ciprofloxacin (39.0%) whereas the lowest for colistin (0.9%), cephalosporins (3.6 ÷ 3.8%), and florfenicol (3.8%). The highest prevalence of resistance was noted in broiler and turkey isolates, whereas it was rare in cattle. That finding along with resistance patterns specific to isolation source might reflect antimicrobial consumption, usage preferences or management practices in specific animals. Regression analysis has identified changes in prevalence of microbiological resistance and shifts of MIC values. Critically important fluoroquinolone resistance was worrisome in poultry isolates, but did not change over the study period. The difference (4.7%) between resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid indicated the scale of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance. Cephalosporin resistance were found in less than 3.8% of the isolates but an increasing trends were observed in poultry and MIC shift in the ones from cattle. Gentamycin resistance was also increasing in E. coli of turkey and cattle origin although prevalence of streptomycin resistance in laying hens decreased considerably. Simultaneously, decreasing MIC for phenicols observed in cattle and layers isolates as well as tetracycline values in E. coli from laying hens prove that antimicrobial resistance is multivariable phenomenon not only directly related to antimicrobial usage. Further studies should elucidate the scope of commensal E. coli as reservoirs of resistance genes, their spread and possible threats for human and animal health.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2013; 4:221. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    Bulletin- Veterinary Institute in Pulawy 12/2012; 56(4):459-466. · 0.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The molecular epidemiological relationship among isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar (S.) Saintpaul, which was identified in animals, food, and humans in several EU countries, was investigated. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed a high degree of genetic diversity (82 XbaI PFGE profiles with 42.6% similarity) among 159 S. Saintpaul isolates from animals (n=91), food of animal origin (n=29), and humans (n=36) in 12 European countries during 2005 to 2009. Most frequent profiles (n=12) comprised almost 50% of the tested isolates. Profiles obtained in isolates from a single source within a particular geographical region or particular period of time were indistinguishable or closely related. Turkeys were confirmed as the major reservoir for S. Saintpaul. Indistinguishable PFGE profiles were identified in up to 19 isolates from turkey breeding and fattening flocks and food over the study period. Other animals, including food and pets, may also contribute to S. Saintpaul spread. International trade of animals and food, as well as travelling contributes to the spread of a specific clone to different geographical areas. Although control programmes in breeding turkey flocks, together with improved biosecurity, may interrupt the major transmission routes, it was concluded that S. Saintpaul will continue to represent a potential threat to human health.
    Bulletin- Veterinary Institute in Pulawy 12/2012; 56(4):459-466. · 0.37 Impact Factor
  • Dariusz Wasyl, Andrzej Hoszowski
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The epidemiological role of monophasic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium tends to increase, indicating pandemic spread. The aim of the present study was to confirm the occurrence of this serological variant in Poland and to report the first cases in Belarus and Ukraine. Genetic similarity of monophasic isolates with Salmonella Typhimurium already present in these countries was assessed. Serotyping, duplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, antibiotic resistance and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling have been used to meet the study objectives. Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium was found at low frequency in various sources along the food chain, including feed, animals, meat, and sewage sludge. The first isolates date back to 2008. The clones observed in other European countries were found, along with a number of new, unrelated genetic lineages appearing locally in three countries. Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium is claimed to replace and discontinue the domination of pentaresistant Salmonella Typhimurium. Pigs and pork are assumed to be the main vectors of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium, but their relevance for public health is limited.
    Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 09/2012; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Data collection on the occurrence of Salmonella along the food chain is an important element of the implementation of Salmonella control programs in EU Member States. Consequently, it is possible to evaluate the current epidemiological situation and trends of infection over time, as well as identify the sources and routes of the pathogen's spread. The article presents the occurrence of Salmonella serovars in the years 2005-2010 in Poland and shows their epidemiological significance as a cause of infections in animals. Slide agglutination was used to identify Salmonella serovars of 5264 isolates originating from animals, foods, feeds, organic fertilizers and sewage sludge. A decrease in the occurrence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in poultry was found, probably as a consequence of the implementation of national control programs in breeding flocks of Gallus gallus, laying hens, and broilers. Simultaneously, the epidemiological impact of other serovars, such as S. Mbandaka or S. Kentucky has increased. During the last six years Salmonella Typhimurium, Enteritidis and Derby were the most frequently found serovars in pigs. The swine-specific S. Choleraesuis as well as S. Bredeney, S. Goldcoast, S. Infantis, S. Hadar, S. Mbandaka and autoagglutinating isolates were found in less than 10% of investigated isolates. Serovars S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis were most prevalent in geese and ducks. Occurrence of the same Salmonella serovars in humans and animals and food might indicate their epidemiological links. There was no explicit domination of particular Salmonella serovars in isolates from feed and the environment of their production. Eight out of ten of the most prevalent Salmonella serovars for animals and humans were found in organic fertilizers and sewage sludge, which confirmed the crucial role of animal reservoirs in the circulation of this pathogen in nature. The presented epidemiological data might also be useful in laboratories for the selection of diagnostic sera for Salmonella identification and thus improve their work.
    Medycyna weterynaryjna 07/2012; 68(7):411-417. · 0.20 Impact Factor
  • D. Wasyl, A. Hoszowski
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    ABSTRACT: The first CTX-M-producing Salmonella was described in primary animal production in Poland, due to the antimicrobial resistance monitoring and control program introduced in turkeys. It was associated with the outbreak of multiresistant Salmonella Kentucky in non-diseased turkeys, foods and food production environment, but found also in municipal sewage sludge. The emergence along the food chain of clonally related strains resistant to critically important antimicrobial agents, including cephalosporins, quinolones, sulfonamides, aminoglycosides, phenicols, and tetracycline, which are used against foodborne pathogens, poses a serious public health threat.
    Food Research International 03/2012; 45(2):958–961. · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • Bull Vet Inst Pulawy. 01/2012; 56(4):in press.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was the assessment of microbiological quality of compound feed used in Poland in 2007-2010. The examinations were done at all veterinary diagnostic laboratories operating in the frame of official laboratory system. The occurrence of Salmonella sp. and counts of Enterobacteriaceae family, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, total microorganism, and fungi were assessed. Assays were done following Polish, European, and international standards. Percentage of contamination of compound feed for poultry, pigs, and cattle by Salmonella sp. ranged from 0% to 3.5%. The highest contamination level by Enterobacteriaceae bacteria were detected in wet petfood. No more than 106 cfu/g of aerobic bacteria and no more than 105 cfu/g of fungi were detected in the feed. The results of the study revealed that the microbiological quality of compound feed used in Poland in 2007-2010 was better than the quality of the feed used in 2003-2006.
    Bulletin- Veterinary Institute in Pulawy 01/2012; 56:349-354. · 0.37 Impact Factor
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    Zajac M, Hoszowski A, Wasyl D, Szulowski K
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    ABSTRACT: Salmonella is considered a natural compound of reptile gastrointestinal tract flora and the rate of asymptomatic carriers can reach 100%. The prevalence varies in tested populations and depends on many factors, such as habitat, diet, intermittent shedding, but also on the culture method used in the study. Reptiles carry a wide variety of Salmonella serotypes including those specific for cold-blooded animals, but also those belonging to Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. Salmonella in reptiles may be transmitted both horizontally by direct contact between individuals or via a contaminated environment as well as vertically. Colonized reptiles are considered a human health risk and direct contact is not a prerequisite for transmission. Infants, pregnant women, elderly and immune-compromised persons are at an increased risk for reptile-associated Salmonella infections. Detailed studies are necessary to evaluate the prevalence in pet reptile populations and potential consequences for humans.
    Medycyna weterynaryjna 06/2011; 67(6):376-379. · 0.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to provide an epidemiological characterisation of rough Salmonella strains and to evaluate their genetic relationship with some representatives of serovars noted in animals. Genome macrorestriction by means of pulsed field gel electrophoresis of 57 rough strains revealed 8 groups showing high genetic similarity to the profiles observed in Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Mbandaka, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Goldcoast, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Hadar, Salmonella Oranienburg and Salmonella Derby. Some of them showed profiles indistinguishable from the representatives of the above-mentioned serovars. These included also the most numerous group of "Salmonella Enteritidis-like" strains. This proves epidemiologic relationships within this group as well as with the reference strains, representing serovars found in animals. It was concluded that the molecular typing of rough strains provides additional epidemiological information and could sufficiently support routine Salmonella diagnostics, including autoaglutinating isolates.
    Medycyna weterynaryjna 03/2011; 67(3):194-197. · 0.20 Impact Factor
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    A . Hoszowski, D. Wasyl
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    ABSTRACT: Salmonella spp. is one of the most common causes of foodborne diseases. Infections are mainly caused by the consumption of food of animal origin contaminated with Salmonella. To date, over 2,610 serotypes have been recognised, but only several show epidemiological importance. The number of human cases caused by Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- has increased over the last decade, and they have become one of the most frequent serovars in many countries. The paper presents current knowledge on the spread, epidemiology, antimicrobial resistance and pathogenicity of Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:-, also known as monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium strains. Special attention was paid to diagnostic issues related to this particular Salmonella variant.
    Medycyna weterynaryjna 01/2011; 67(9):589-593. · 0.20 Impact Factor
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    Wasyl D, Hoszowski A, Zajac M, Skarżyńska M
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    ABSTRACT: An efficient method for cephalosporin resistance screening in E. coli isolated from healthy farm animals has been described. One hundred and twenty nine rectal swabs were streaked on MacConkey agar and selective medium supplemented with cefotaxime. Antimicrobial resistance was tested with broth microdilution and E. coil resistant to either/or cefotaxime and ceftazidime were further tested with Etest. The observed synergy of the compounds allowed confirming the presence of defined cephalosporin resistance phenotypes. The sensitivity of cephalosporin detection by the procedure with MacConkey culture reached merely 16.7% compared to the method with selective supplement medium. Extended spectrum of beta-lactamase producing isolates was found in strains isolated from 15 samples taken from turkeys, broilers, laying hens, and pigs. The ampC-type resistance was noted in E. coli from 33 samples originating from the same animal species. None of the resistance phenotypes was observed in cattle isolates. Attention is drawn to possible public health implications of slaughtered farm animals colonised with beta-lactam resistant E. coli.
    Bulletin- Veterinary Institute in Pulawy 01/2010; 54(2):147-151. · 0.37 Impact Factor
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    Medycyna Wet erynaryjna. 01/2009; 65(9):624-628.