[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), causal agent of meleira or sticky disease, is a double-stranded RNA
(dsRNA) virus which has been previously reported only in Brazil. A study was carried out in order to
verify the presence and occurrence of PMeV in Mexico. Latex samples from symptomatic and
asymptomatic papaya fruits were collected in Quintana Roo state papaya orchards, where the first
symptoms of PMeV were observed, and from 29 different municipalities located in ten papaya producer
states in Mexico. A molecular protocol based on nucleic acid extraction was used for the diagnosis and
a virus 12 Kb dsRNA distinctive band was observed in all PMeV infected plants. Around 46% of the
evaluated plants were positive for this pathogen. Presence of the virus had been confirmed in seven
states indicating the potential damage that PMeV could cause in the papaya crop in Mexico. The
molecular analysis used allowed the diagnosis of infected plants without symptoms and facilitated the
diagnosis in flowers and small papaya fruits also. The early diagnosis of PMeV will allow papaya
producers to take appropriate and timely control measures. This is the first report of Papaya meleira
virus in Mexico.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colletotrichum capsici is an important fungal species that causes anthracnose in many genera of plants causing severe economic losses worldwide. A primer set was designed based on the sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2) regions for use in a conventional PCR assay. The primer set (CcapF/CcapR) amplified a single product of 394 bp with DNA extracted from 20 Mexican isolates of C. capsici. The specificity of primers was confirmed by the absence of amplified product with DNA of four other Colletotrichum species and eleven different fungal genera. This primer set is capable of amplifying only C. capsici from different contaminated tissues or fungal structures, thereby facilitating rapid diagnoses as there is no need to isolate and cultivate the fungus in order to identify it. The sensitivity of detection with this PCR method was 10 pg of genomic DNA from the pathogen. This is the first report of a C. capsici-specific primer set. It allows rapid pathogen detection and provides growers with a powerful tool for a rational selection of fungicides to control anthracnose in different crops and in the post-harvest stage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is the common causal agent of anthracnose in papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits, and infection by this fungal pathogen results in severe post-harvest losses. In the Yucatán peninsula (Mexico) a different Colletotrichum species was isolated from papaya fruits with atypical anthracnose lesions. The DNAs from a variety of Colletotrichum isolates producing typical and atypical lesions, respectively, were amplified by PCR with C.gloeosporioides-specific primers. All isolates from typical anthracnose lesions yielded a 450 bp PCR product, but DNAs from isolates with atypical lesions failed to produce an amplification product. For further characterization, the rDNA 5.8S-ITS region was amplified by PCR and processed for sequencing and RFLP analysis, respectively, to verify the identity of the papaya anthracnose pathogens. The results revealed unequivocally the existence of two Colletotrichum species causing anthracnose lesions on papaya fruits: C. gloeosporioides and C. capsici. PCR-RFLP using the restriction endonuclease MspI reliably reproduced restriction patterns specific for C. capsici or C. gloeosporioides. The generation of RFLP patterns by MspI (or AluI or RsaI) is a rapid, accurate, and unequivocal method for the detection and differentiation of these two Colletotrichum species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular characterization of 14 strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus isolated from Agave fourcroydes (Lem.) in Yucatan, Mexico, was performed by AP-PCR analysis, PCR-RFLP of 5.8S-ITS, and complete NTS regions. A sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA was also carried out in six selected strains. The AP-PCR approach had the highest discrimination power for the molecular characterization of new henequen K. marxianus strains. PCR-RFLP of 5.8S-ITS regions did not reveal polymorphisms in this group of strains. The restriction enzyme digestion analysis of NTS region enables the separation among strains which coincides with ascospore shape groups. The molecular tools used in this article may be useful to confirm a preliminary screen of yeasts isolated from henequen without the use of growth characteristics or morpho-physiological tests.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple and easy protocol for extracting high-quality DNA from different yeast and filamentous fungal species is described. This method involves two important steps: first, the disruption of cell walls by mechanical means and freezing; and second, the extraction, isolation, and precipitation of genomic DNA. The absorbance ratios (A(260)/A(280)) obtained ranged from 1.6 to 2.0. The main objective of this procedure is to extract pure DNA from yeast and filamentous fungi, including those with high contents of proteins, polysaccharides, and other complex compounds in their cell walls. The yield and quality of the DNAs obtained were suitable for micro/minisatellite primer-polymerase chain reaction (MSP-PCR) fingerprinting as well as for the sequence of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic studies and pathogen detection in plants using molecular methods require the isolation of DNA from a large number of samples in a short time span. A rapid and versatile protocol for extracting high-quality DNA from different plant species is described. This method yields from 1 to 2 mg of DNA per gram of tissue. The absorbance ratios (A260/A280) obtained ranged from 1.6 to 2.0. A minimal presence of contaminating metabolites (as polymerase chain reaction [PCR] inhibitors) in samples and a considerable savings in reagents are characteristics of this protocol, as well as the low cost of the analysis per sample. The quality of the DNA was suitable for PCR amplification.