A M Perlick

Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Are you A M Perlick?

Claim your profile

Publications (28)81.6 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Legume plants are able to enter two different endosymbioses with soil prokaryotes and soil fungi, leading to nitrogen-fixing root nodules and to arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), respectively. We applied in silico and microarray-based transcriptome profiling approaches to uncover the transcriptome of developing root nodules and AM roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula. Several hundred genes were found to be activated in different stages of either symbiosis, with almost 100 genes being co-induced during nodulation and in arbuscular mycorrhiza. These co-induced genes can be associated with different cellular functions required for symbiotic efficiency, such as the facilitation of transport processes across the perisymbiotic membranes that surround the endosymbiotic bacteroids in root nodules and the arbuscules in AM roots. To specify promoter elements required for gene expression in arbuscule-containing cells, reporter gene fusions of the promoter of the Vicia faba leghemoglobin gene VfLb29 were studied by loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches in transgenic hairy roots. These analyses specified a 85-bp fragment that was necessary for gene expression in arbuscule-containing cells but was dispensible for gene activation in root nodules. In contrast to promoters mediating gene expression in the infected cells of root nodules, the activation of genes in AM appears to be governed by more complex regulatory systems requiring different promoter modules.
    Phytochemistry 02/2007; 68(1):8-18. · 3.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The great majority of terrestrial plants enters a beneficial arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) or ectomycorrhiza (ECM) symbiosis with soil fungi. In the SPP 1084 "MolMyk: Molecular Basics of Mycorrhizal Symbioses", high-throughput EST-sequencing was performed to obtain snapshots of the plant and fungal transcriptome in mycorrhizal roots and in extraradical hyphae. To focus activities, the interactions between Medicago truncatula and Glomus intraradices as well as Populus tremula and Amanita muscaria were selected as models for AM and ECM symbioses, respectively. Together, almost, 20.000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated from different random and suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries, providing a comprehensive overview of the mycorrhizal transcriptome. To automatically cluster and annotate EST-sequences, the BioMake and SAMS software tools were developed. In connection with the eNorthern software SteN, plant genes with a predicted mycorrhiza-induced expression were identified. To support experimental transcriptome profiling, macro- and microarray tools have been constructed for the two model mycorrhizae, based either on PCR-amplified cDNAs or 70mer oligonucleotides. These arrays were used to profile the transcriptome of AM and ECM roots under different conditions, and the data obtained were uploaded to the ArrayLIMS and EMMA databases that are designed to store and evaluate expression profiles from DNA arrays. Together, the EST- and transcriptome databases can be mined to identify candidate genes for targeted functional studies.
    Phytochemistry 02/2007; 68(1):19-32. · 3.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The large majority of plants are capable of undergoing a tight symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. During this symbiosis, highly specialized new structures called arbuscules are formed within the host cells, indicating that, during interaction with AM fungi, plants express AM-specific genetic programs. Despite increasing efforts, the number of genes known to be induced in the AM symbiosis is still low. In order to identify novel AM-induced genes which have not been listed before, 5,646 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated from two Medicago truncatula cDNA libraries: a random cDNA library (MtAmp) and a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library (MtGim), the latter being designed to enhance the cloning of mycorrhiza-upregulated genes. In silico expression analysis was applied to identify those tentative consensus sequences (TCs) of The Institute for Genomic Research M. truncatula gene index (MtGI) that are composed exclusively of ESTs deriving from the MtGim or MtAmp library, but not from any other cDNA library of the MtGI. This search revealed 115 MtAmp- or MTGim-specific TCs. For the majority of these TCs with sequence similarities to plant genes, the AM-specific expression was verified by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Annotation of the novel genes induced in mycorrhizal roots suggested their involvement in different transport as well as signaling processes and revealed a novel family of AM-specific lectin genes. The expression of reporter gene fusions in transgenic roots revealed an arbuscule-related expression of two members of the lectin gene family, indicating a role for AM-specific lectins during arbuscule formation or functioning.
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 09/2005; 18(8):771-82. · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study the further characterization of the Vicia faba leghaemoglobin promoter pVfLb29 is presented that was previously shown to be specifically active in the infected cells of root nodules and in arbuscule-containing cells of mycorrhizal roots. Using promoter studies in transgenic hairy roots of the Pisum sativum mutant RisNod24, disabled in the formation of functional arbuscules, VfLb29 promoter activity is assigned to later stages of arbuscule development. In order to narrow down the regions containing cis-acting elements of pVfLb29, the activity of five VfLb29 promoter deletions (-797/-31 to -175/-31 in relation to the start codon) fused to the gusAint coding region were tested in transgenic V. hirsuta hairy roots. The results specify a promoter region ranging from position -410 to -326 (85 bp) as necessary for gus expression in arbuscule-containing cells, whereas this segment is not involved in the nodule-specific activity. Sequence analysis of the pVfLb29 fragment -410/-326 (85 bp) revealed sequence motifs previously shown to be cis-acting elements of diverse promoters. To investigate the autonomous function of pVfLb29 regions for activation in arbuscule-containing cells, different regions of pVfLb29 from positions -410 to -198 were used to prepare chimeric promoter constructs for trans-activation studies. These fragments alone did not activate the mycorrhiza inactive promoter of the Vicia faba leghaemoglobin gene VfLb3, showing that the activation of pVfLb29 in arbuscule-containing cells is governed by a complex regulatory system that requires at least two modules located between position -410 and -31 of the VfLb29 gene.
    Journal of Experimental Botany 04/2005; 56(413):799-806. · 5.79 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transcriptome profiling based on cDNA array hybridizations and in silico screening was used to identify Medicago truncatula genes induced in both root nodules and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). By array hybridizations, we detected several hundred genes that were upregulated in the root nodule and the AM symbiosis, respectively, with a total of 75 genes being induced during both interactions. The second approach based on in silico data mining yielded several hundred additional candidate genes with a predicted symbiosis-enhanced expression. A subset of the genes identified by either expression profiling tool was subjected to quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for a verification of their symbiosis-induced expression. That way, induction in root nodules and AM was confirmed for 26 genes, most of them being reported as symbiosis-induced for the first time. In addition to delivering a number of novel symbiosis-induced genes, our approach identified several genes that were induced in only one of the two root endosymbioses. The spatial expression patterns of two symbiosis-induced genes encoding an annexin and a beta-tubulin were characterized in transgenic roots using promoter-reporter gene fusions.
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 11/2004; 17(10):1063-77. · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The MtSucS1 gene encodes a sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13) in the model legume Medicago truncatula. To determine the expression pattern of this gene in different organs and in particular during root endosymbioses, we transformed M. truncatula with specific regions of MtSucS1 fused to the gusAint reporter gene. These fusions directed an induction to the vasculature of leaves, stems, and roots as well as to flowers, developing seeds, young pods, and germinating seedlings. In root nodules, strong promoter activity occurred in the infected cells of the nitrogen-fixing zone but was additionally observed in the meristematic region, the prefixing zone, and the inner cortex, including the vasculature. Concerning endomycorrhizal roots, the MtSucS1 promoter mediated strongest expression in cortical cells harboring arbuscules. Specifically in highly colonized root sections, GUS-staining was furthermore detected in the surrounding cortical cells, irrespective of a direct contact with fungal structures. In accordance with the presence of an orthologous PsSus1 gene, we observed a comparable regulation of MtSucS1 expression in the grain legume Pisum sativum in response to microbial symbionts. Unlike other members of the MtSucS gene family, the presence of rhizobial or Glomus microsymbionts significantly altered and enhanced MtSucS1 gene expression, leading us to propose that MtSucS1 is involved in generating sink-strength, not only in root nodules but also in mycorrhizal roots.
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 11/2003; 16(10):903-15. · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Significant changes in root morphology and physiology during arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) development are likely to be controlled by specific gene expression pattern in the host plant. Until now, little was known about transcriptional changes which occur AM-exclusively; that is, they do not occur during other root-microbe associations, nor are they induced by improved phosphate nutrition. In order to identify such AM-exclusive gene inductions of Medicago truncatula, we used a pool of different RNA samples as subtractor population in a suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) experiment. This approach resulted in the identification of a number of new AM-regulated genes. None of these genes were expressed in nonmycorrhiza roots or leaves. Electronic data obtained by comparison of the cDNA sequences to expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from a wide range of cDNA libraries in the M. truncatula EST database (Gene Index, MtGI) support the mycorrhiza specificity of the corresponding genes, because sequences in the MtGI that were found to match the identified SSH-cDNA sequences originated exclusively from AM cDNA libraries. The promoter of one of those genes, MtGst1, showing similarities to plant glutathione-S-transferase (GST) encoding genes, was cloned and used in reporter gene studies. In contrast to studies with the potato GST gene PRP, MtGst 1 promoter activity was detected in all zones of the root cortex colonized by Glomus intraradices, but nowhere else.
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 05/2003; 16(4):306-14. · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A full-length cDNA obtained from a Vicia faba L. root nodule library [Plant Mol. Biol. 22 (1993) 957] which coded for the broad bean nodulin NVf32 was overexpressed in E. coli. The recombinant protein was purified under denaturing and native conditions. Native preparations were used for various enzymatic assays towards a chininase-like activity, which did not reveal any positive results. A highly specific antiserum was induced in rabbits by a preparation of denatured NVf32 protein. NVf32 could be detected only in root nodules of a minor fraction of the examined population. Though the genome of all individuals under examination contained VfNOD32 sequences, the occurrence of the protein seemed to be correlated with the presence of an additional copy of the gene. Immunohistology and Northern blotting confirmed the consistency of protein and RNA data. In nodules transcribing the VfNOD32 gene the protein accounts for up to 10% of the total protein. No detectable phenotype could be assigned to the presence of this nodulin. These data together with the well-documented homologies of NVf32 to the seed protein narbonin suggest that NVf32 does not carry out a function essential for nodule organogenesis or nitrogen fixation.
    Plant Science. 01/2002;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A full-length cDNA encoding the Viciafaba L. early nodulin VfEnod12 was isolated. The deduced protein sequence specified a 90 amino acid protein with a MW of 10 206 and contained a putative signal peptide sequence followed by PPX3 repeats characteristic of Enod12 proteins. The VfEnod12 gene was found to be expressed specifically in root nodules as early as 3 days post inoculation with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. In mature nodules, VfEnod12 transcripts were confined to the prefixing zone II. A 3.3 kb genomic fragment carrying the complete VfEnod12 coding region was isolated. No intervening sequences were identified in the coding region. A promoter fragment carrying the -692/-41 region mediated reporter gene expression in root cortical cells, nodule primordia and the prefixing zone II of transgenic Vicia hirsuta root nodules. This fragment contained a putative binding site for the transcription factor ENBP1. In contrast to the highly conserved terminal AATAA motif of the ENBP1 binding site of known Enod12 promoters, the VfEnod12 promoter was characterized by an altered terminal AATAT sequence. This alteration did not interfere with VfEnod12 promoter activity in transgenic roots and nodules of V. hirsuta.
    Plant Science 01/2001; · 4.11 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Full-length transcript sequences were isolated from broad bean root nodules, which encode a novel nodulin designated VfENOD18. The corresponding transcripts were detected in early and in late stages of nodule development and were localized exclusively in the nitrogen-fixing zone III. The VfENOD18 sequence is not only homologous to a number of ESTs from various mono- and dicotyledonous plants, but also to the ATP-binding protein MJ0577 from Methanococcus jannaschii and to a range of bacterial proteins that belong to the MJ0577 superfamily. Hence, VfENOD18 is a member of a ubiquitous family of plant proteins that might function as ATP-binding proteins or ATPases. On the genomic level, VfENOD18 genes can be divided into two groups on the basis of differences in their 5' UTRs. One group lacks the 5' UTR region including the ATG initiation codon, whereas the second group contained the complete 5' UTR region. Further upstream of this VfENOD18 gene, a retrotransposon sequence was identified. The -14/-964 VfENOD18 promoter fragment was devoid of complete organ-specific elements known from other nodulin gene promoters. Nevertheless, this region was able to mediate full promoter activity in the central region of transgenic Vicia hirsuta root nodules.
    MGG - Molecular and General Genetics 11/2000; 264(3):241-50.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A full-length cDNA encoding the broad bean (Vicia faba L.) early nodulin VfENOD5 was isolated from a nodule cDNA library. In addition to the ENOD5 homologues from other legumes the derived VfENOD5 amino acid sequence also displayed homologies to the phytocyanin-related nodulins GmENOD55-2, MtENOD16, and MtENOD20. A close inspection of the ENOD5 proteins from broad bean, pea and vetch indicated that all these nodulins possess a putative C-terminal GPI-anchor signal sequence. This novel finding supports the hypothesis that ENOD5 is an arabinogalactan protein. Tissue print hybridizations revealed that the broad bean ENOD5 gene was not only expressed in the central tissues of root nodules. In contrast to other legumes hybridizing transcripts were also be detected in a narrow zone within the peripheral nodule tissues. Sequence analysis of a genomic clone indicated the presence of a single intron interrupting the VfENOD5 coding region at a position precisely corresponding to the MtENOD16 and MtENOD20 introns.
    Plant Science 07/2000; 155(2):169-178. · 4.11 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Five transcripts encoding different members of a nodulin family with conserved cysteine clusters (Cys-X4-Asp-Cys and Cys-X4-Cys) were identified in broad bean root nodules. They displayed homologies to the early nodulins PsENOD3 and PsENOD14 and the late nodulin PsNOD6 from pea. In addition to the occurence of putative secretory signal peptides, the spatial distribution of the cysteine residues was comparable in both the broad bean and the pea nodulins. Based on tissue print hybridizations, we found that the corresponding broad bean genes VfNOD-CCP1, VfNOD-CCP3 and VfNOD-CCP5 were expressed in the interzone II–III and the nitrogen fixing zone III of mature nodules whereas the gene VfNOD-CCP4 was first induced in the prefixing zone II. A strong expression of the VfNOD-CCP2 gene only could be detected the interzone II–III region. Sequence analysis of a genomic VfNOD-CCP1 clone isolated revealed the presence of one intron seperating a first exon encoding the signal peptide from a second exon encoding the cysteine cluster domain of this nodulin. Apart from the multiple presence of the common nodulin motifs AAAGAT and CTCTT on both DNA strands of the putative VfNOD-CCP1 promoter region a sequence element resembling the organ specific element of the soybean lbc3 gene promoter was identified.
    Plant Science - PLANT SCI. 01/2000; 152(1):67-77.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have isolated and sequenced a sucrose synthase (SucS) cDNA from the model legume Medicago truncatula. This cDNA (MtSucS1) contains an ORF of 2418 bp, coding for a protein of 805 amino acids with a molecular mass of 92.29 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence shows significant homology to other plant sucrose synthases, in particular to the nodule-enhanced sucrose synthases from pea and broad bean. Northern analysis revealed that the corresponding gene shows a ten-fold higher expression level in root nodules than in uninfected root, stem and leaf tissues. SucS protein was detected in root nodules from a variety of legumes, including M. truncatula. Whereas only one SucS isoform was detectable in root nodules, an additional sucrose synthase of slightly larger molecular weight was present in uninfected root, stem and flower tissues of M. truncatula. From our expression and sequence data we infer that the MtSucS1 gene encodes a nodule-enhanced sucrose synthase in M. truncatula. Southern hybridization data indicate that MtSucS1 is a single-copy gene. An analysis of a genomic MtSucS1 sequence revealed that the gene consists of 14 exons with the start codon being located on exon II. As is common for SucS genes, the MtSucS1 gene contains a large intron of 747 bp in the 5' untranslated region. The transcriptional start of MtSucS1 was mapped and putative regulatory elements in the MtSucS1 promoter were identified.
    MGG - Molecular and General Genetics 05/1999; 261(3):514-22.
  • Helge Küster, Alfred Pühler, Andreas M Perlick
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The expression of genes encoding modular nodulins was analysed in the Vicia hirsuta and the Vicia faba system. From V. hirsuta root nodules, we isolated two families of transcript sequences designated VhNOD28/32-A and VhNOD28/32-B encoding nodulins homologous to the V. faba nodulins Nvf-28/32 and the Medicago sativa nodulin-25. The modular proteins encoded by the V. hirsuta transcript sequences consisted of N- and C-terminal unique modules flanking two types of repetitive modules. Specific repetitive modules were deleted from individual VhNOD28/32 transcripts. Southern hybridizations indicated the presence of either a small VhNOD28/32 gene family or a single copy gene comprising at least two alleles. VhNOD28/32 transcripts were expressed specifically in root nodules, where they were localized in the nitrogen-fixing zone III. In the Vicia faba system, we isolated the promoter of two alleles of the VfNOD28/32 gene by PCR-based DNA walking. The promoter sequences were similar to the promoter of the M. sativa nodulin-25 gene and contained an organ-specific element at position −68/−55 from the transcriptional start. An analysis of transgenic V. hirsuta root nodules expressing the gusAint reporter gene under the control of the two VfNOD28/32 promoters demonstrated that both promoters were active in the central region of transgenic V. hirsuta nodules.
    Plant Science - PLANT SCI. 01/1999; 149(1):1-11.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate similarities between symbiotic interactions of broad bean (Vicia faba) with rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi, plant gene expression induced by both microsymbionts was compared. We demonstrated the exclusive expression of 19 broad bean genes, including VfENOD2, VfENOD5, VfENOD12 and three different leghemoglobin genes, in root nodules. In contrast, the leghemoglobin gene VfLb29 was found to be induced not only in root nodules, but also in broad bean roots colonized by the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus fasciculatum. In uninfected roots, none of the 20 nodulin transcripts investigated was detectable. VfLb29 has an unusually low sequence homology with all other broad bean leghemoglobins as well as with leghemoglobins from other legumes. It can be regarded as a novel kind of leghemoglobin gene not described until now and the induction of which is common to symbiotic interactions of broad bean with both Rhizobium and a mycorrhizal fungus.
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 02/1997; 10(1):124-31. · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A full-length transcript sequence encoding the broad bean (Vicia faba L.) asparagine synthetase (AS) VfAS1 was isolated from a nodule cDNA library. Sequence homologies indicated that VfAS1 belonged to the glutamine-dependent type of AS enzymes. The corresponding gene was highly expressed in root nodules and at a three-fold lower level in uninfected roots. Additionally, traces of VfAS1 transcripts were detected in epicotyl and stem tissues. Tissue-print hybridizations revealed that the VfAS1 gene was strongly expressed in the nitrogen-fixing zone III of root nodules. VfAS1 transcripts were absent from the meristem, the prefixing zone II as well as from peripheral nodule tissues.
    Plant Science - PLANT SCI. 01/1997; 124(1):89-95.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A full-length cDNA encoding the broad bean lipoxygenase VfLOX1 was isolated from a nodule cDNA library. The VfLOX1 gene was strongly expressed in nodules, and only weakly in roots. VfLOX1 transcripts were localized in the nodule parenchyma and in the cells surrounding the root stele.
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 01/1997; 9(9):860-3. · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Four different transcript sequences encoding gene products with an unusually high glycine content were identified in Vicia faba root nodules. Northern blot analysis revealed a strong nodule specific expression of the corresponding genes. Time course experiments showed that two of these genes were transcribed before the onset of leghemoglobin expression and hence were designated VfENOD-GRP2 and VfENOD-GRP5, whereas the first detection of VfNOD-GRP1 and VfNOD-GRP4 transcripts coincided with the appearance of leghemoglobin transcripts in V. faba root nodules. A characteristic feature of all encoded nodulins was a hydrophobic N-terminus, which in the case of the nodulins ENOD-GRP2 and ENOD-GRP5 has the characteristics of a signal peptide. Such a structure is comparable to other plant glycine-rich proteins described as components of the plant cell wall. Based on tissue print hybridizations, we found that VfNOD-GRP1, VfENOD-GRP2 and VfNOD-GRP4 were expressed in the interzone II-III and in the whole nitrogen-fixing zone III. In contrast to VfENOD-GRP2 and VfNOD-GRP4, the signal intensity of hybridizing VfNOD-GRP1 transcripts was slightly reduced in the more proximal part of broad bean root nodules. Apart from the interzone II-III and the nitrogen fixing zone III, VfENOD-GRP5 RNA was also detected in large areas of the prefixing zone II.
    Plant Molecular Biology 12/1996; 33(1):113-123. · 3.52 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The broad bean late nodulins, Nvf-28/32, are composed of two types of repetitively occurring sequence modules flanked by unique N- and C-terminal modules. Six isoforms of these nodulins were characterized by a specific modular structure resulting from a different individual order of repetitive sequence modules. A detailed analysis of genomic PCR fragments revealed that the repetitive modules and the N-terminal unique module exactly corresponded to exons, whereas the C-terminal module was specified by two exons. Since those exons encoding the repetitive modules missing in specific Nvf-28/32 isoforms were consistently present within genomic sequences, a post-transcriptional generation of VfNOD28/32 transcripts specifying six Nvf-28/32 nodulins was concluded. Using tissue-print hybridizations, these transcripts were localized in the interzone II-III and the nitrogen-fixing zone III of root nodules. From this and from cDNA-cDNA hybridizations demonstrating a comparable timing of expression of VfNOD28/32 and of leghemoglobin transcripts in root nodules, a function of the modular nodulins Nvf-28/32 in late developmental stages of broad bean nodules was inferred.
    MGG - Molecular and General Genetics 11/1996; 252(6):648-57.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A system for the inducible destruction of plant tissues based on the deacetylation of the non-toxic compound N-acetyl-L-phosphinothricin (N-ac-Pt) has been developed. The argE gene product of Escherichia coli, representing a N-acetyl-L-ornithine deacetylase was identified to remove the acetyl-group from N-ac-Pt giving the cytotoxic compound L-phosphinothricin (Pt, glufosinate). Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants constitutively expressing the argE gene were constructed. No effect of the bacterial N-acetyl-L-ornithine deacetylase on plant growth and reproduction could be traced. However, application of N-ac-Pt on leaves of the transgenic plants led to the formation of necrotic areas due to the release of Pt. Additionally, due to the uptake of the N-ac-Pt by roots, transgenic shoots grown on medium containing N-ac-Pt bleached within 6-7 days and finally died. Untransformed controls showed no reaction to high amounts of N-ac-Pt applied, either under sterile or under unsterile conditions. In order to construct inducible male-sterile plants, the argE coding region was fused to a DNA fragment carrying sequences homologous to the tobacco TA29 promoter, known to function exclusively in the tapetum. Owing to the tapetum-specific expression of the chimeric gene the application of N-ac-Pt led to empty anthers resulting in male-sterile plants. The sanity of the female reproductive part of the male-sterile flowers could be demonstrated by cross-pollination. Without N-ac-Pt treatment the plants turned out to be completely fertile making fertility restoration in the F1 generation superfluous. The system presented is easy to handle and might be applicable to a wide range of crop plants.
    The Plant Journal 07/1996; 9(6):809-18. · 6.58 Impact Factor