ABSTRACT: Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological pain relief method. It is an auxiliary method and not intended to replace other techniques.
To perform a systematic review assessing the effectiveness of TENS compared to no TENS treatment or placebo with the following outcomes: pain relief (primary outcome), analgesic requirements, duration of labor, the mother's satisfaction, type of delivery and fetal repercussions (secondary outcomes).
The Pubmed, LILACS and Scielo databases were searched for randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials published between 1966 and 2008 using the keywords 'TENS', 'Labor', 'Labor pain' and 'obstetric labor'. The selection of eligible items and assessment of methodological quality were performed independently by two researchers. Random effects meta-analysis was performed for studies that were sufficiently homogeneous.
Nine studies involving a total of 1076 pregnant women were included. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in pain relief during labor (pooled RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.72 to 1.65) or the need of additional analgesia (pooled RR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.74 to 1.08). There was no evidence that TENS interfered in any of the outcomes except the mothers' desire to use TENS in future deliveries.
The use of TENS had no impact on mother or child and no influence on labor. According to the results of this review, there is no evidence that TENS reduces the use of additional analgesia.
Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia 06/2011; 15(3):175-84. · 0.44 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To describe and to compare MIP and MEP in primigravidae and nulligravidae in the 20-29 year age bracket and paired by age.
We included 120 primigravidae with low obstetric risk (5th-40th week of gestation) and 40 nulligravidae. All of the participants were of normal weight and none exercised regularly. All were recruited from the metropolitan area of Recife, Brazil. Measurements of MIP and MEP were obtained from RV and TLC, respectively, with a digital manometer. We used Student's t-test to compare the two groups, and we used multiple linear regression in order to determine whether group or chronological age correlated with MIP or MEP.
In the primigravida and nulligravida groups, the mean MIP values were 88.50 ± 16.52 cmH₂O and 94.22 ± 22.63 cmH₂O, respectively, (p = 0.08), whereas the mean MEP values were 99.76 ±18.19 cmH₂O and 98.67 ± 20.78 cmH₂O (p = 0.75). Gestational age did not correlate with MIP (r = -0.06; p = 0.49) or MEP (r = -0.11; p = 0.22). The relationship between chronological age and MIP/MEP did not differ between primigravidae and nulligravidae (angular coefficient = 0.028 and 0.453, respectively).
Within this sample of women in the 20-29 year age bracket, the respiratory pressures of primigravidae remained stable during pregnancy and did not differ significantly from those of nulligravidae.
Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia: publicacao oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia 04/2011; 37(2):193-9.
ABSTRACT: Muscle respiratory strength studies during pregnancy are very scarce. The aim of this paper is to describe maximum inspiratory (PImax) and expiratory (PEmax) mean pressure values in women during their first pregnancy and to determine the relationship between the anthropometric, morphologic and physiologic variables of these pressures.
One hundred and twenty women (120) primigravidas were studied from the 5th to 40th gestational week, ages ranging from 20 to 29 years old, euthrophic and with low risk pregnancies.
PImax and PEmax mean values were 88.5 ± 16.52 cmH(2)O and 99.76 ± 18.19 cmH(2)O respectively. There was no association between gestational age and PImax (r = -0.06; p = 0.49) or PEmax (r = -0.11; p = 0.22). There was also no difference between PImax and PEmax during pregnancy trimesters and no correlation between pregnancy age and the pressures in each trimester. Height was the only anthropometric variable indicating a significant PImax (r = 0.20; p = 0.02) association. Fundal uterus height and inter-recti abdominis distance were not associated to respiratory pressure values. PEmax is not associated with the group of predictor variables (p = 0.127) and PImax demonstrated an independent association with height and dyspnea during physical exertion reflected by the following equation: PImax = 0.6 + 57.9 height - 1.68 dyspnea under effort. The present study suggests that inspiratory and expiratory maximum pressure values are not altered during different stages of pregnancy, however longitudinal studies are needed to assess changes over time.
Respiratory medicine 11/2010; 104(11):1638-44. · 2.33 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The aim of the current article was to conduct a systematic review of the performance of perineal exercises during pregnancy and their utility in the prevention of urinary incontinence.
Randomized controlled studies (RCT) of a low-risk obstetric population (primiparas or nulliparas) who had done perineal exercises only during pregnancy met the inclusion criteria. Articles published between 1966 and 2007 from periodicals indexed in the LILACS, SCIELO, PubMed/MEDLINE, SCIRUS and Cochrane Library databases were selected, using the following keywords: 'urinary incontinence', 'pregnancy', 'pelvic floor' and 'exercise'. The Jadad scale was applied to assess the internal validity of the RCT and two meta-analysis: one of fixed effects and the other of random effects were carried out with data extracted from the RCT, using the Stata 9.2 statistical software and adopting a significance level of 0.05.
Four RCTs with high methodological quality, involving a total of 675 women were included. They indicated that perineal muscle exercise significantly reduced the development of urinary incontinence from 6 weeks to 3 months after delivery (odds ratio = 0.45; confidence interval: 0.3 to 0.66). However, when evaluating this effect during the 34th and 35th gestational week, a meta-analysis showed that the results were not significant (odds ratio = 0.13; confidence interval: 0.00 to 3.77).
Pelvic floor muscle exercises may be effective at reducing the development of postpartum urinary incontinence, despite clinical heterogeneity among the RCT.
International Journal of Urology 09/2008; 15(10):875-80. · 1.75 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Nebulization associated with noninvasive ventilation is used in emergency services and intensive care units.
To compare pulmonary radioaerosol deposition during jet nebulization associated to noninvasive ventilation versus spontaneous breathing nebulization; to measure the rate of lung depuration and the correlation between lung deposition, inspiratory flow and tidal volume (V(t)) using scintigraphy.
Thirteen healthy volunteers (with normal spirometry), mean age (23.3+/-1.49) years, body mass index 21.2+/-2.3 kg/m(2).
Nebulization was performed in spontaneous breathing and associated with bi-level noninvasive ventilation (inspiratory pressure=12 cm H(2)O, expiratory pressure=5 cm H(2)O). The radioaerosol used in the nebulization was technetium (Tc99m) with diethylene triamine penta acetic acid, generated over a period of 9 min in a jet nebulizer. Analysis was performed through scintigraphy. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance (for repeated measures), Bonferroni method, Student's t-test and Person's correlation.
There was a decrease in radioaerosol lung deposition with nebulization associated to noninvasive ventilation (mean counts in spontaneous breathing 200,510+11,012 and mean counts in noninvasive ventilation 106,093+2811 (P<0.001). During spontaneous breathing nebulization there was a significant correlation between V(t) and radioaerosol deposition (r=0.565, P<0.05), also between inspiratory flow and radioaerosol deposition in the lungs (r=0.141, P<0.05). However, there was no correlation between V(t) and pulmonary deposition of radioaerosol in bi-level noninvasive ventilation nebulization (r=0.082).
During nebulization with noninvasive ventilation in healthy volunteers, there was an increase in V(t) associated to a higher inspiratory flow rate, without resulting in a significant increase in pulmonary radioaerosol deposition.
Respiratory Medicine 05/2006; 100(4):721-8. · 2.47 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional study was designed to examine the effects of the Valsalva Maneuver (VM) and its duration on the acid- base equilibrium of the neonate and its maternal repercussions during the expulsive stage of labor, after standard breathing and pushing instructions were given.
A convenience sample of women with low risk pregnancy (n=33; mean age 22.5±3.7 y and gestational age 38.1±1.12 wks) and their newborns were studied during the expulsive stage of vaginal labor. Coaching consisted of standard recommendations for breathing including prolonged VMs coordinated with pushing. Maternal outcomes included the need for uterus fundal pressure maneuver and episiotomy, perineal trauma and posture. Neonatal outcomes included blood gases sampled from the umbilical cord, and Apgar scores. Data were analyzed with the Fisher's exact test, chi-square test, and Pearson correlation coefficient.
None of the maternal outcomes were associated with VM duration. With respect to neonatal outcomes, increased VM duration was associated with reduced venous umbilical pH (r=-0.40; p=0.020), venous base excess (r=-0.42; p=0.014) and with arterial base excess (r=-0.36; p=0.043). Expulsive stage time was negatively associated with umbilical venous and arterial pH.
VM duration during fetal expulsion in labor negatively affects fetal acid-base equilibrium and potentially the wellbeing of the neonate. Our results support the need to consider respiratory strategies during labor, to minimize potential risk to the mother and neonate.
Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia 15(1):66-72. · 0.44 Impact Factor