A Poland

University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States

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Publications (17)34.93 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Virulent systemic feline calicivirus (VS-FCV) is a novel, emerging pathogen with mortality up to 67% even in previously healthy adult cats; VS-FCV has resulted in at least six epidemics since 1998. Affected cats have systemic vascular compromise and hemorrhagic-fever like signs in part due to viral invasion of epithelium and endothelium, coupled with host cytokine responses. Affected skin tissues had, on average, 3.8 elevated cytokines compared with control tissue, with prominent upregulation in IL-10, TNF-alpha, and MIP-1alpha. Sequencing of most of the genomes of two VS-FCV strains documented patterns of virus relatedness and implicated changes in the capsid gene in the emerging phenotype, possibly through initiation of immune mechanisms manifest in the cytokine changes. Understanding the features contributing to the emergence of this disease is critical for management and prevention of this and similar outbreaks attributable to RNA viruses in animals and humans.
    Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 03/2006; 8(1):55-61. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of antibodies to feline coronavirus (FCoV) serotypes 1 and 2 in Switzerland and their association with different disease manifestations, a serological study based on immunofluorescence tests was conducted with Swiss field cats using transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), FCoV type 1 and FCoV type 2 as antigens. A total of 639 serum samples collected in the context of different studies from naturally infected cats were tested. The current study revealed that, with an apparent prevalence of 83%, FCoV serotype 1 is the most prevalent serotype in Switzerland. FCoV type 1 viruses induced higher antibody titers than FCoV type 2, and were more frequently associated with clinical signs and/or feline infectious peritonitis. The antibody development in seven cats experimentally infected with FCoV type 1 revealed that, with progressing duration of infection, antibodies to FCoV type 1 significantly increased over those to FCoV type 2. There was a significant relationship between antibody titers against TGEV, FCoV 1, and FCoV 2 and TGEV antigen detected the highest proportion of seropositive cats. We conclude that a vaccine against FCoV should be based on FCoV type 1-related antigens and that for serodiagnosis of FCoV infection TGEV should be used to attain the highest diagnostic efficiency. When serology is used in addition to clinical signs, hematology, and clinical chemistry results as an aid to diagnose clinical FIP, TGEV shows a diagnostic efficiency equal to that of a FCoV antigen.
    Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 11/2005; 12(10):1209-15. · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • I Kiss, A M Poland, N C Pedersen
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    ABSTRACT: Eight cats were immunized with an avirulent strain of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV)-UCD1, then challenge-exposed to a highly virulent cat passaged strain (FIPV-UCD8). Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured throughout in the experiment. No clinical signs of FIP were evident in the experimental cats after immunization. After challenge, the immunized cats demonstrated one of four clinical outcomes: (1) classical effusive FIP; (2) accelerated FIP; (3) non-effusive FIP, or (4) resistance to challenge. Only minor cytokine changes were observed following immunization, however, several cytokine changes occurred following challenge-exposure. The most noteworthy changes were in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) levels. Our preliminary findings suggest that immunity against FIP is associated with TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma response imbalance, with high TNF-alpha/low IFN-gamma mRNA responses favouring disease and low TNF-alpha/high IFN-gamma mRNA responses being indicative of immunity.
    Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 05/2004; 6(2):89-97. · 1.08 Impact Factor
  • N C Pedersen, R Sato, J E Foley, A M Poland
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the origin and subsequent spread of feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus (FHV), and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) in cats relinquished to shelters. FCV was isolated from the oral fauces of 11% of healthy cats upon entry, and isolation rates were highest for kittens (33%). FHV shedding was very low (4%) at the time of entry and occurred mainly in juveniles. FECV shedding was also common among newly relinquished cats (33%), especially older kittens and juveniles (90%). The subsequent spread of all three viruses was rapid and efficient in the shelter environment. Fifteen percent of cats were shedding FCV, 52% FHV, and 60% FECV after 1 week. More detailed studies were done with FECV shedding, which could be accurately quantitated. The amounts of FECV shed by infected cats ranged from 10(2)to 10(16)particles/swab of feces. FECV shedding was several logs higher in young kittens with primary infection than adult cats with primary infections. The mean levels of FECV shedding among adults were the same for primary and chronic infections. Although shelters were not the primary source of these viruses for many relinquished cats, factors intrinsic to the shelter environment were critical in amplifying shedding and spread to susceptible individuals. Extrinsic factors were especially important for the spread of FHV and FECV. FHV shedding rates increased from 4% to 50% in 1 week's time. The speed and magnitude of the increase in FHV shedding suggested that there was reactivation of latent infections as well as acquisition of new infections. FECV shedding increased 10 to 1,000,000 fold in 1 week among cats that were already infected at entry, and more than one-half of initially negative cats were shedding FECV a week later. Feline calicivirus infection was the least likely to spread in the shelter. The infection rate only increased from 11 to 15% in 1 week.
    Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 05/2004; 6(2):83-8. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe clinical and epidemiologic features of an outbreak of feline calicivirus (FCV) infection caused by a unique strain of FCV and associated with a high mortality rate and systemic signs of disease, including edema of the face or limbs. Observational study. Animals-54 cats naturally infected with a highly virulent strain of FCV. Information was collected on outbreak history, clinical signs, and characteristics of infected and exposed cats. A novel strain of FCV (FCV-Kaos) was identified. Transmission occurred readily via fomites. Signs included edema and sores of the face and feet. Mortality rate was 40%, and adults were more likely than kittens to have severe disease (odds ratio, 9.56). Eleven (20%) cats had only mild or no clinical signs. Many affected cats had been vaccinated against FCV. Viral shedding was documented at least 16 weeks after clinical recovery. Outbreaks of highly virulent FCV disease are increasingly common. Strains causing such outbreaks have been genetically distinct from one another but caused similar disease signs and were resistant to vaccination. All cats with suspicious signs (including upper respiratory tract infection) should be handled with strict hygienic precautions. Sodium hypochlorite solution should be used for disinfection following suspected contamination. All exposed cats should be isolated until negative viral status is confirmed. Chronic viral shedding is possible but may not be clinically important. This and similar outbreaks have been described as being caused by hemorrhagic fever-like caliciviruses, but hemorrhage is uncommonly reported. Virulent systemic FCV infection is suggested as an alternative description.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 02/2004; 224(2):241-9. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article reports an outbreak of 24 cases of an unusually virulent feline calicivirus (FCV) infection in a small animal hospital. The circumstances and disease signs were very similar to those recently described in an outbreak of FCV hemorrhagic disease in Northern California (Vet. Microbiol. 73 (2000) 281). The virus entered the facility through shelter cats showing upper respiratory signs. Affected cats manifested high fever, anorexia, labored respirations, oral ulceration, facial and limb edema, icterus, and pancreatitis. The infection spread rapidly among the patients by contaminated animal caretakers and hospital equipment. One case of fomite transmission from an employee to a housecat was documented. Prior vaccination, even with multiple doses of FCV-F9-based live calicivirus vaccine, was not protective. Affected cats often required extensive supportive care for 7-10 days, and the overall mortality from death and euthanasia was 32%. The strain of FCV responsible for this outbreak was genetically and serologically distinct from the FCV strain responsible for a similar epizootic and the FCV-F9 strain contained in most vaccines. Outbreaks of this type are being reported with increasing frequency, and are often associated with the practice of treating sick shelter cats in private practices. Similar to the present epizootic, outbreaks of FCV hemorrhagic disease have been self-limiting, but require prompt application of strict quarantine, isolation, personnel sanitation, and disinfection procedures.
    Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 09/2003; 5(4):217-26. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leproid granulomas from seven dogs in the United States were evaluated. Gross characteristics included nodular and ulcerated dermal and subcutaneous lesions primarily on the caudal aspects of the pinnae and to a lesser extent on the muzzle, face, and forelimbs. In all except one dog, there was complete regression of the lesions within 6 months, either with no therapy or after surgical resection. Cytology or histopathology revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation with few to many acid-fast mycobacterial bacilli within macrophages. The organisms could not be cultivated in vitro. DNA sequencing of part of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene region revealed 99-100% homology among fragments from five of these dogs and fragments from dogs in the south Pacific. This syndrome occurs in dogs in North America and the prognosis is excellent, in contrast to the prognosis for rapid-growing or tuberculous mycobacteriosis.
    Veterinary Pathology 04/2002; 39(2):234-9. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An isolated epizootic of a highly fatal feline calicivirus (FCV) infection, manifested in its severest form by a systemic hemorrhagic-like fever, occurred over a 1-month period among six cats owned by two different employees and a client of a private veterinary practice. The infection may have started with an unowned shelter kitten that was hospitalized during this same period for a severe atypical upper respiratory infection. The causative agent was isolated from blood and nasal swabs from two cats; the electron microscopic appearance was typical for FCV and capsid gene sequencing showed it to be genetically similar to other less pathogenic field strains. An identical disease syndrome was recreated in laboratory cats through oral inoculation with tissue culture grown virus. During the course of transmission studies in experimental cats, the agent was inadvertently spread by caretakers to an adjoining room containing a group of four normal adult cats. One of the four older cats was found dead and a second was moribund within 48-72h in spite of symptomatic treatment; lesions in these animals were similar to those of the field cats but with the added feature of severe pancreatitis. The mortality in field cats, deliberately infected laboratory cats, and inadvertently infected laboratory cats ranged from 33-50%. This new isolate of calicivirus, named FCV-Ari, was neutralized at negligible to low titer by antiserum against the universal FCV-F9 vaccine strain. Cats orally immunized with FCV-F9, and then challenge-exposed shortly thereafter with FCV-Ari, developed a milder self-limiting form of disease, indicating partial protection. However, all of the field cats, including the three that died, had been previously immunized with parenteral FCV-F9 vaccine. FCV-Ari caused a disease that was reminiscent of Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease, a highly fatal calicivirus infection of older rabbits.
    Veterinary Microbiology 06/2000; 73(4):281-300. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 14-week-old kitten from a private cattery was examined because of an acute onset of recumbency and epistaxis 10 days after receiving a high-titer modified-live virus vaccine containing panleukopenia virus, calicivirus, and herpesvirus components. The kitten died the following day, and intestinal crypt necrosis; hepatic, splenic, and lymph node inflammation and necrosis; and pneumonia were seen at necropsy. Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes and the spleen. The breeder reported that 4 other kittens had died in the previous month, each within 1 to 2 weeks after being vaccinated with the same modified-live virus vaccine. Carcasses of 3 kittens were available for examination, and Salmonella sp was isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes of all 3. Villus crypt necrosis and secondary fibrosis were also found. Three of the remaining 12 kittens in the cattery were also found to be shedding Salmonella sp in their feces. Clinical and pathologic findings in these kittens were likely attributable to salmonellosis and panleukopenia, and suggest that mild immunosuppression induced by vaccination could have facilitated development of fatal salmonellosis in subclinical carrier kittens. However, we cannot prove that vaccination actually played any role.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 02/1999; 214(1):67-70, 43-4. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize 2 strains of Haemobartonella felis by use of molecular techniques. 35 specific-pathogen-free cats, 6 months to 4 years old. Intraperitoneal or IV inoculation with blood containing H felis small form (Hfsm, 18 cats) or H felis large form (Hflg, 11 cats); 6 cats were uninfected controls. Hfsm was evaluated for capability to cross-protect against the more virulent Hflg. Morphology of both strains was compared by light microscopy of Wright-Giemsa-stained blood smears, and the 16S rRNA genes were sequenced. Infection with Hflg induced signs of depression, fever, and severe macrocytic normochromic anemia with nucleated erythrocytes. More than 95% of erythrocytes were parasitized. Inoculation with Hfsm and uninfected control blood induced mild or no clinical signs and no hematologic abnormalities. Anti-H felis IgG was first detected on postinoculation day (PID) 21, and increased to maximal titer of 400 by PID 28. Reactivated infection was observed in 8 of 29 cats (4 Hfsm and 4 Hflg), with 5% parasitized erythrocytes during the later attack. On PID 8, Hflg-inoculated cats had positive results of polymerase chain reaction analysis (PCR) that persisted until cats were treated with doxycycline or oxytetracycline; Hfsm-inoculated cats had positive PCR results that persisted for duration of observation (3 months). Genetically and morphologically distinct strains of H felis infect cats in the field. The level of genetic difference suggested that these strains may be different species or genera. PCR is a critical diagnostic aid to detect occult Haemobartonella spp infection, as well as response to treatment and clearance of the organism.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 01/1999; 59(12):1581-8. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blood samples from six mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), 15 black-tailed deer (O. hemionus columbianus), and 29 elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) were assayed for human monocytic and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, and serology to determine whether or not cervids are involved in the maintenance of these potential human pathogens in California (USA). The deer were sampled in August to October 1992-95. The 29 tule elk from Point Reyes National Seashore were sampled in August 1997. All deer were seronegative for antibodies to HGE/Ehrlichia equi, while the E. equi seroprevalence among elk was 17%. The 16S rDNA PCR prevalence in deer was 38% (in mule deer and black-tailed deer) for Ehrlichia-like sp. of white-tailed deer, 5% (one black-tailed deer only) for E. equi, and 0% for E. chaffeensis. The PCR prevalence in elk was 0% for Ehrlichia-like sp. of white-tailed deer, 31% for E. equi, and 0% for E. chaffeensis. The E. equi from two positive elk samples was successfully propagated in HL-60 cell cultures. DNA sequencing confirmed that the Ehrlichia-like sp. sequences from deer in California were closely related to sequences reported from white-tailed deer from Oklahoma and Georgia. The E. equi strain from deer and elk resembled other E. equi strains from California. These results suggest that cervids may be important in the natural maintenance of E. equi in California.
    Journal of wildlife diseases 11/1998; 34(4):731-7. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) strains from six cats and three different geographic areas were compared genetically with feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) isolates obtained from cats inhabiting the same environments. Sequence comparisons were made from 1.2- to 8.9-kb segments on the 3' end of the genome. FECV/FIPV pairs from the same catteries or shelters were 97.3-99.5% related but were genetically distinct from FIPV and FECV strains obtained from cats living in geographically distinct environments. The high genetic similarity between FECVs and FIPVs from the same environment strongly suggested a common ancestry. Based on the presence of deletion mutations in the FIPVs and not in the FECVs, it was concluded that FIPVs evolved as mutants of FECVs. The mutations are deletions in the FIPVs and not insertions in the FECVs since similar sequences are present in other strains that have segregated earlier from a common ancestor. Therefore, the order of descent is form FECV to FIPV. Mutations unique to FIPVs were found in open reading frames (ORFs) 3c in 4 of 6 isolates and/or 7b in 3 of 6 isolates. When the study was extended to include 7 additional FIPV isolates, 11/13 of the FIPVs sequenced were found to have mutated 3c ORFs.
    Virology 03/1998; 243(1):150-7. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to determine whether dogs in the subclinical phase of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) are carriers of Ehrlichia canis and to determine the significance of persistent indirect immunofluorescent anti-E. canis antibody titers during this phase, PCR was performed with blood, bone marrow, and splenic aspirates collected 34 months postinoculation from six clinically healthy beagle dogs experimentally infected with E. canis. At least one of the three samples (spleen, bone marrow, and blood) from four of the six dogs was PCR positive. The spleens of all four of these dogs were PCR positive, and the bone marrow and blood of two of the four dogs were PCR positive. Indirect immunofluorescent-antibody titers increased progressively during the first 5 months postinfection, remained high for an additional period of more than 11 months, and declined thereafter, suggesting that the dogs were recovering from the disease. Five of the dogs remained seropositive 34 months postinfection. The data obtained in this study demonstrate for the first time that clinically healthy dogs in the subclinical phase of CME are carriers of the rickettsia. It was shown that dogs can harbor E. canis for years without developing the chronic clinical disease and that dogs can eliminate the parasite and recover from CME without medical treatment. Our findings suggest that the spleen is the organ most likely to harbor E. canis parasites during the subclinical phase and the last organ to accommodate the parasite before elimination. It was concluded that PCR of DNA extracted from splenic aspirates is a reliable method for determining the carrier state of CME.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 02/1998; 36(1):73-6. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal Arthus-type immune response of cats to infection with FIP virus, a mutant of the ubiquitous feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). The disease may occur systemically or in any single organ system, and primary neurologic disease is a common subset of such manifestations. We examined 16 domestic cats with clinical neurologic FIP and 8 control cats with nonneurologic FIP, with the intention of identifying the ante- and postmortem diagnostic tests that most contribute to accurate diagnosis. Of the 16 cats with neurologic FIP, 15 were less than 2 years of age and all 16 originated from large multiple-cat households. The most useful antemortem indicators of disease were positive anti-coronavirus IgG titer in cerebrospinal fluid, high serum total protein concentration, and findings on magnetic resonance imaging suggesting periventricular contrast enhancement, ventricular dilatation, and hydrocephalus. Postmortem diagnosis was facilitated by FIP monoclonal antibody staining of affected tissue and coronavirus-specific polymerase chain reaction. Most cats with neurologic and ocular forms of FIP had patchy, focal lesions, suggesting that recently developed technologies described in this report may be useful for evaluation of cats with suspected FIP.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 01/1998; 12(6):415-23. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine what risk factors, other than genetic predisposition, contribute to the incidence of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in private breeding catteries and animal shelters. Cats from 7 catteries and a shelter were observed monthly for 1 year. At each visit, cats were examined, fecal samples were collected for determination of feline coronavirus shedding, and blood samples were collected for determination of coronavirus antibody titers. Diagnostic tests were performed on all cats that died of FIP. 275 purebred or random-bred cats that were kept by private breeder-owners in homes. 24 cats died of FIP during the study. Development of FIP was not associated with cattery, mean cat number, mean age, sex, cattery median coronavirus antibody titer, husbandry and quarantine practices, caging and breeding practices, or prevalence of concurrent diseases. However, risk factors for FIP included individual cat age individual cat coronavirus titer, overall frequency of fecal coronarvirus shedding, and the proportion of cats in the cattery that were chronic coronavirus shedders. Deaths from FIP were more frequent in fall and winter, and on the basis of analysis of cattery records, the number of deaths varied yearly. Epidemics (> 10% mortality rate) were reported at least once in 5 years in 4 catteries. Elimination of FIP from a cattery is only possible by total elimination of endemic feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infection. The most important procedure to reduce FECV from catteries is elimination of chronic FECV shedders.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 06/1997; 210(9):1313-8. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine, by use of a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test, patterns of fecal shedding of feline coronavirus among cats. Prospective observational study. 275 purebred cats from 6 private catteries and 40 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) laboratory-reared cats. 40 SPF cats were experimentally inoculated with crude fecal extract containing feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). Fecal and plasma samples were collected every 4 days and evaluated by use of RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assays, respectively, to correlate RT-PCR results with fecal infectivity and to determine patterns of FECV shedding and anti-FECV IgG production in acutely infected cats. The 275 cats in private catteries were monitored for 1 year. Fecal and blood samples were collected every 1 to 3 months and assayed by use of RT-PCR and serologic tests to determine patterns of coronavirus shedding and cofactors for high frequency shedding. Results of the RT-PCR test in SPF cats were directly correlated with fecal extract infectivity. Overall, 370 of 894 (41%) fecal samples collected from cattery and shelter cats contained infectious levels of coronavirus. Of 121 cats from which multiple samples were collected, 11 never shed virus and 35, 65, and 10, respectively, shed virus with low, moderate, and high frequency. High frequency shedding was associated with age and cattery of origin, but not with sex or concurrent disease. Stress associated with parturition and lactation did not induce shedding in queens. Kittens did not shed coronavirus before they were 10 weeks old, even when nursed by shedding mothers. A large proportion of cats in multiple-cat environments shed coronavirus at any given time, but most undergo cycles of infection and shedding, recovery, and reinfection. Infection is acquired from chronically shedding cats and from infectious cats undergoing transient primary infection. Chronically shedding cats cannot be identified on the basis of antibody titer or signalment, but must be identified on the basis of the results of serial fecal RT-PCR tests.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 06/1997; 210(9):1307-12. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two groups of cats were experimentally infected orally with the cat-passaged RM strain of feline enteric coronavirus (FECV-RM). One group of cats (n = 19) had been chronically infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) for over 6 years, while a second control group (n = 20) consisted of FIV-naive siblings. Fecal virus shedding of FECV occurred in both groups starting on day 3 postinfection, nearly ceased by 4 weeks in FIV-uninfected cats, but remained at high levels in FIV-infected animals. FIV-infected cats shed virus for a longer period of time and at levels 10 to 100 times greater than those for FIV-uninfected cats. The coronavirus antibody response of the FIV-infected cats was delayed and of reduced titer compared with that of the FIV-uninfected animals. Cats in both groups remained asymptomatic for the first two months following FECV-RM infection; however, 8 to 10 weeks postinfection two cats in the FIV-infected group developed feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). The FIP viruses (designated FIPV-UCD9 and -UCD10) isolated from these two cats had almost complete genetic homology to each other and to the infecting FECV-RM. However, unlike FECV-RM, they readily induced FIP when inoculated intraperitoneally into specific-pathogen-free cats. This study confirms that FIPVs are frequently and rapidly arising mutants of FECV. Immunosuppression caused by chronic FIV infection may have enhanced the creation and selection of FIPV mutants by increasing the rate of FECV replication in the bowel and inhibiting the host's ability to combat the mutant viruses once they occurred.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 01/1997; 34(12):3180-4. · 4.07 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

759 Citations
34.93 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2004
    • University of California, Davis
      • • School of Veterinary Medicine
      • • Center for Companion Animal Health (CCAH)
      • • Department of Veterinary Medicine and Epidemiology
      • • School of Medicine
      Davis, CA, United States