A J Schade

Rice University, Houston, TX, United States

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Publications (13)64.15 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The interaction of the platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V complex with von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a critical step in the adhesion of platelets to the subendothelial matrix following endothelial cell damage, particularly under arterial flow conditions. In the human GP Ib-IX-V complex, the recognition of VWF appears to be mediated entirely by GP Ibalpha, the largest of four GP Ib-IX-V polypeptides. The goal of the present study was to investigate the involvement of the cytoplasmic domain of GP Ibalpha in the GP Ib-IX-VWF interaction under both static conditions and in the presence of high fluid shear stress. Using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that express GP Ibbeta, GP IX, and either wild-type GP Ibalpha or GP Ibalpha mutants missing various lengths of the cytoplasmic domain, we evaluated adhesion and flow-driven cell rolling on immobilized VWF in a parallel-plate flow chamber. Cells expressing GP Ibalpha polypeptides with truncations of 6-82 amino acids rolled faster than cells expressing wild-type GP Ibalpha. Cells that expressed polypeptides with intact actin-binding protein 280 binding sites (truncated to residue 582 of 610) rolled more slowly than those expressing GP Ibalpha with longer truncations. The rolling velocity of cells expressing truncated GP Ibalpha mutants increased with decreasing VWF coating density. In addition, a fraction of the truncated cells exhibited saltatory translocation at the lower VWF densities. Studies measuring the GP Ibalpha-VWF bond strength of three of the mutants using laser tweezers showed that progressive deletion of the cytoplasmic domain led to progressive weakening of the strength of individual GP Ibalpha-VWF bonds.
    Biochemistry 03/2003; 42(7):2245-51. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a devastating thrombotic disorder caused by widespread microvascular thrombi composed of platelets and von Willebrand factor (VWF). The disorder is associated with a deficiency of the VWF-cleaving metalloprotease, ADAMTS-13, with consequent accumulation of ultralarge (UL) VWF multimers in the plasma. ULVWF multimers, unlike plasma forms of VWF, attach spontaneously to platelet GP Ibalpha, a component of the GP Ib-IX-V complex. We have found that ULVWF multimers secreted from stimulated endothelial cells (ECs) remained anchored to the endothelial surface where platelets and Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the GP Ib-IX-V complex attached to form long beads-on-a-string structures in the presence of fluid shear stresses in both the venous (2.5 dyne/cm(2)) and arterial (20 and 50 dyne/cm(2)) ranges. Although measurement of the activity of the ADAMTS-13 VWF-cleaving metalloprotease in vitro requires prolonged incubation of the enzyme with VWF under nonphysiologic conditions, EC-derived ULVWF strings with attached platelets were cleaved within seconds to minutes in the presence of normal plasma (containing approximately 100% ADAMTS-13 activity) or in the presence of partially purified ADAMTS-13. By contrast, the strings persisted for the entire period of perfusion (10 minutes) in the presence of plasma from patients with TTP containing 0% to 10% ADAMTS-13 activity. These results suggest that cleavage of EC-derived ULVWF multimers by ADAMTS-13 is a rapid physiologic process that occurs on endothelial cell surfaces.
    Blood 01/2003; 100(12):4033-9. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glycoprotein I(b)alpha (GP I(b)alpha), the ligand binding subunit of the platelet glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex, is sulfated on three tyrosine residues (Tyr-276, Tyr-278, and Tyr-279). This posttranslational modification is known to be critical for von Willebrand factor (vWF) binding; yet it remains unclear whether it provides a specific structure or merely contributes negative charges. To investigate this issue, we constructed cell lines expressing GP I(b)alpha polypeptides with the three tyrosine residues converted to either Glu or Phe and studied the ability of these mutants to bind vWF in the presence of modulators or shear stress. The mutants were expressed normally on the cell surface as GP Ib-IX complexes, with the conformation of the ligand-binding domain preserved, as judged by the binding of conformation-sensitive monoclonal antibodies. In contrast to their normal expression, both mutants were functionally abnormal. Cells expressing the Phe mutant failed to bind vWF in the presence of either ristocetin or botrocetin. These cells adhered to and rolled on immobilized vWF only when their surface receptor density was increased to twice the level that supported adhesion of cells expressing the wild-type receptor and even then only 20% as many rolled and rolled significantly faster than wild-type cells. Cells expressing the Glu mutant, on the other hand, were normal with respect to ristocetin-induced vWF binding and adhesion to immobilized vWF but were markedly defective in botrocetin-induced vWF binding. These results indicate that GP I(b)alpha tyrosine sulfation influences the interaction of this polypeptide with vWF primarily by contributing negative charges under physiological conditions and when the interaction is induced by ristocetin but contributes a specific structure to the botrocetin-induced interaction.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2001; 276(20):16690-4. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Under conditions of high shear stress, both hemostasis and thrombosis are initiated by the interaction of the platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V complex with its adhesive ligand, von Willebrand factor (vWF), in the subendothelial matrix or plasma. This interaction involves the A1 domain of vWF and the N-terminal extracellular region of GP Ibalpha (His-1-Glu-282), and it can also be induced under static conditions by the modulators ristocetin and botrocetin. In this study, a panel of anti-vWF and anti-GP Ibalpha antibodies-previously characterized for their effects on ristocetin- and botrocetin-dependent vWF-GP Ib-IX-V interactions-was analyzed for their capacity to inhibit either the adhesion of Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing recombinant GP Ibalpha to surface-associated vWF under hydrodynamic flow or shear-stress-induced platelet aggregation. The combined results suggest that the shear-dependent interactions between vWF and GP Ibalpha closely correlate with ristocetin- rather than botrocetin-dependent binding under static conditions and that certain anti-vWF monoclonal antibodies are able to selectively inhibit shear-dependent platelet aggregation.
    Blood 02/2001; 97(1):162-8. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Platelet-type von Willebrand disease is a bleeding disorder resulting from gain-of-function mutations of glycoprotein (GP) Ibalpha that increase its affinity for von Willebrand factor (vWf). The two known naturally occurring mutations, G233V and M239V, both enrich the valine content of an already valine-rich region within the Cys(209)-Cys(248) disulfide loop. We tested the effect of converting other non-valine residues in this region to valine. Of 10 mutants expressed in CHO cells as components of GP Ib-IX complexes, four displayed a gain-of-function phenotype (G233V, D235V, K237V, and M239V) based on (125)I-vWf binding and adhesion to immobilized vWf. The remainder displayed loss-of-function phenotypes. The gain-of-function mutants bound vWf spontaneously and had a heightened response to low concentrations of ristocetin or botrocetin, whereas the loss-of-function mutants bound vWf more poorly than wild-type GP Ibalpha. No distinct gain- or loss-of-function conformations were identified with conformation-sensitive antibodies. Compared with cells expressing wild-type GP Ibalpha, cells expressing the gain-of-function mutants rolled significantly more slowly over immobilized vWf under flow than wild-type cells and were able to adhere to vWf coated at lower densities. In aggregate, these data indicate that the region of GP Ibalpha bounded by Asn(226) and Ala(244) regulates the affinity for vWf.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2000; 275(36):27663-70. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the importance of glycoprotein (GP) I balpha mutation (A156V) in interaction between mutant expressing cell and immobilized vWF under fluid shear stress. Mutant GP I balpha cDNA was cloned into the EcoR I site of the mammalian expression vector pDX, mutant cDNA was then transfected into CHO betaIX cells. Human vWF was purified from blood cryoprecipitate by glycine and NaCl precipitation and subsequent separation on sepharose 4B column. The purified vWF was immobilized onto a coverslip. Cell rolling was induced in a parallel-plate flow chamber and observed by phase-contrast video microscope. CHO cells expressing GP I b-IX-V complex could adhere to and roll on immobilized vWF. The A156V mutant cells retained the ability to adhere and roll on vWF matrix, but the rolling speed was significantly faster than that of wild type cells, indicating that the off-rate of the ligand-receptor bond between the mutant and vWF was impaired. Binding of monoclonal antibody AN51 to mutant GP I balpha decreased significantly, indicating that the A156V mutation altered the conformation of the N-terminal ligand-binding region of GP I balpha. The mutant GP I balpha has a faster off-rate for its interaction with immobilized vWF. The mutant polypeptide adopts an altered conformation in N-terminal ligand-binding region of GP I balpha. The parallel-plate flow chamber is an extremely useful system in evaluating interaction between GP I balpha and vWF.
    Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi 10/2000; 21(9):453-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Platelet-type von Willebrand disease is a bleeding disorder resulting from gain-of-function mutations of glycoprotein (GP) Ibα that increase its affinity for von Willebrand factor (vWf). The two known naturally occurring mutations, G233V and M239V, both enrich the valine content of an already valine-rich region within the Cys209–Cys248 disulfide loop. We tested the effect of converting other non-valine residues in this region to valine. Of 10 mutants expressed in CHO cells as components of GP Ib-IX complexes, four displayed a gain-of-function phenotype (G233V, D235V, K237V, and M239V) based on 125I-vWf binding and adhesion to immobilized vWf. The remainder displayed loss-of-function phenotypes. The gain-of-function mutants bound vWf spontaneously and had a heightened response to low concentrations of ristocetin or botrocetin, whereas the loss-of-function mutants bound vWf more poorly than wild-type GP Ibα. No distinct gain- or loss-of-function conformations were identified with conformation-sensitive antibodies. Compared with cells expressing wild-type GP Ibα, cells expressing the gain-of-function mutants rolled significantly more slowly over immobilized vWf under flow than wild-type cells and were able to adhere to vWf coated at lower densities. In aggregate, these data indicate that the region of GP Ibα bounded by Asn226 and Ala244 regulates the affinity for vWf.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2000; 275(36):27663-27670. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize effects of the GP Ib alpha mutation (A156V) on its interaction with von Willebrand factor (vWf) under high fluid shear stress. The residue A156 of GP Ib alpha was converted to a valine and the mutant expressed in CHO cells expressing wild-type GP Ib beta and GPIX. The transfected cells were tested for their interaction with a panel of GP Ib alpha antibodies and for rolling on immobilized vWf under high shear. The mutation led to surface expression of a GP Ib alpha polypeptide that adopted a different conformation at its N-terminus because binding of the GP Ib alpha antibody AN51, which has a binding epitope in the N-terminal 35 residues, was eliminated, whereas binding of the others (AK2, MB45, and SZ2, all of which bind to regions C-terminal to the AN51 epitope) was normal. Mutant-expressing cells could adhere and roll on immobilized vWf under high fluid shear stress and rolled significantly faster than wild-type cells. These studies demonstrate that the mutation A156V results in a conformation change at the N-terminus of GP Ib alpha, which leads to an increase in the dissociation rate of the bond between the GP Ib alpha mutant and vWf.
    Chinese medical journal 09/2000; 113(8):693-8. · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The polypeptides of the platelet von Willebrand factor (vWf) receptor, the GP Ib-IX-V complex, each contain tandem repeats of a sequence that assigns them to the leucine-rich repeat protein family. Here, we studied the role of conserved Asn residues in the leucine-rich repeats of GP Ib alpha, the ligand-binding subunit of the complex. We replaced the Asn residue in the sixth position of the first or sixth leucine-rich repeat (of seven) either with a bulky, charged Lys residue or with a Ser residue (sometimes found in the same position of other leucine-rich repeats) and studied the effect of the mutations on complex expression, modulator-dependent vWf binding, and interactions with immobilized vWf under fluid shear stress. As predicted, the Lys substitutions yielded more severe phenotypes, producing proteins that either were rapidly degraded within the cell (mutant N158K) or failed to bind vWf in the presence of ristocetin or roll on immobilized vWf under fluid shear stress (mutant N41K). The binding of function-blocking GP Ib alpha antibodies to the N41K mutant was either significantly reduced (AK2 and SZ2) or abolished (AN51 and CLB-MB45). Ser mutations were tolerated much better, although both mutants demonstrated subtle defects in vWf binding. These results suggest a vital role for the conserved asparagine residues in the leucine-rich repeats of GP Ib alpha for the structure and functions of this polypeptide. The finding that mutations in the first leucine-rich repeat had a much more profound effect on vWf binding indicates that the more N-terminal repeats may be directly involved in this interaction.
    Biochemistry 04/2000; 39(12):3384-91. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V complex mediates adhesion to von Willebrand factor (vWf) in (patho)physiologic thrombus formation. The vWf-binding site on GP Ib-IX-V is within the N-terminal 282 residues of GP Ibalpha, which consist of an N-terminal flanking sequence (His-1-Ile-35), 7 leucine-rich repeats (Leu-36-Ala-200), a C-terminal flank (Phe-201-Gly-268), and a sulfated tyrosine sequence (Asp-269-Glu-282). We have used mammalian cell expression of canine-human chimeras of GP Ibalpha, corresponding to precise structural boundaries, to demonstrate the first specific requirement for individual leucine-rich repeats for binding of vWf either induced by a modulator, ristocetin, or under hydrodynamic flow. Implicit in this approach was that the GP Ibalpha chimeras retained a functional conformation, a supposition confirmed by analyzing restoration of function to reversed human-canine chimeras and demonstrating that all chimeras bound vWf activated by botrocetin, a modulator that is indiscriminate between species. Leucine-rich repeats 2, 3, and 4 of GP Ibalpha were identified as being critical for vWf adhesion to GP Ib-IX-V.
    Blood 03/2000; 95(3):903-10. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have identified platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ibalpha as a counterreceptor for P-selectin. GP Ibalpha is a component of the GP Ib-IX-V complex, which mediates platelet adhesion to subendothelium at sites of injury. Cells expressing P-selectin adhered to immobilized GP Ibalpha, and GP Ibalpha-expressing cells adhered to and rolled on P-selectin and on histamine-stimulated endothelium in a P-selectin-dependent manner. In like manner, platelets rolled on activated endothelium, a phenomenon inhibited by antibodies to both P-selectin and GP Ibalpha. Unlike the P-selectin interaction with its leukocyte ligand, PSGL-1 (P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1), the interaction with GP Ibalpha required neither calcium nor carbohydrate core-2 branching or alpha(1,3)-fucosylation. The interaction was inhibited by sulfated proteoglycans and by antibodies against GP Ibalpha, including one directed at a tyrosine-sulfated region of the polypeptide. Thus, the GP Ib-IX-V complex mediates platelet attachment to both subendothelium and activated endothelium.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 10/1999; 190(6):803-14. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Platelets play key roles in physiology, such as the arrest of bleeding following vascular injury, and in pathology, such as mural arterial thrombosis. The initial step in both processes is platelet adhesion to von Willebrand factor (vWf). The adhesion molecule on the platelet surface responsible for this interaction is the platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V complex. This complex consists of four subunits: GP Ibα, GP Ibβ, GP IX, and GP V[1]. The GP Ibα subunit contains the vWf binding site and seven structural motifs of a leucine-rich sequence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of the leucine-rich repeat region of GP Ibα in the interaction of the GP Ib-IX-V complex with immobilized vWf under fluid shear stress. Cells expressing GP Ibα with various point mutations in its leucine-rich repeat region either failed to interact with immobilized vWf or rolled on the surface at higher velocities compared to cells expressing wild-type GP Ibα. These results illustrate the importance of the leucine-rich repeat region of GP Ibα in the receptor-ligand interaction under fluid shear stress
    [Engineering in Medicine and Biology, 1999. 21st Annual Conf. and the 1999 Annual Fall Meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Soc.] BMES/EMBS Conference, 1999. Proceedings of the First Joint; 02/1999
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have identified platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ibα as a counterreceptor for P-selectin. GP Ibα is a component of the GP Ib-IX-V complex, which mediates platelet adhesion to subendothelium at sites of injury. Cells expressing P-selectin adhered to immobilized GP Ibα, and GP Ibα–expressing cells adhered to and rolled on P-selectin and on histamine-stimulated endothelium in a P-selectin–dependent manner. In like manner, platelets rolled on activated endothelium, a phenomenon inhibited by antibodies to both P-selectin and GP Ibα. Unlike the P-selectin interaction with its leukocyte ligand, PSGL-1 (P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1), the interaction with GP Ibα required neither calcium nor carbohydrate core-2 branching or α(1,3)-fucosylation. The interaction was inhibited by sulfated proteoglycans and by antibodies against GP Ibα, including one directed at a tyrosine-sulfated region of the polypeptide. Thus, the GP Ib-IX-V complex mediates platelet attachment to both subendothelium and activated endothelium.

Publication Stats

738 Citations
64.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2003
    • Rice University
      • Department of Bioengineering
      Houston, TX, United States
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • • Thrombosis Research Section
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Veterans Affairs Medical Center
      Houston, TX, United States