[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence indicates that endocannabinoid (EC) signalling is dysregulated during hyperglycemia and obesity, particularly at the level of anandamide (AEA) and/or 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) concentrations in tissues involved in the control of energy intake and processing, such as the liver, white adipose tissue and pancreas. Here we review this previous evidence and provide new data on the possible dysregulation of EC levels in organs with endocrine function (adrenal glands and thyroid), involved in energy expenditure (brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle), or affected by the consequences of metabolic disorders (heart and kidney), obtained from mice fed for 3, 8 and 14 weeks with two different high fat diets (HFDs), with different fatty acid compositions and impact on fasting glucose levels. Statistically significant elevations (in the skeletal muscle, heart and kidney) or reductions (in the thyroid) of the levels of either AEA or 2-AG, or both, were found. Depending on the diet, these changes preceded or accompanied the development of overt obesity and/or hyperglycemia. In the adrenal gland, first a reduction and then an elevation of EC levels were observed. In the brown fat, a very early elevation of both AEA and 2-AG normalized levels was observed with one of the diets, whereas delayed decreases were explained by an increase of the amount of fat tissue weight induced by the HFDs. The potential implications of these and previous findings in the general framework of the proposed roles of the EC system in the control of metabolic, endocrine and cardiovascular and renal functions are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mice, endocannabinoids (ECs) modulate insulin release from pancreatic beta-cells and adipokine expression in adipocytes through cannabinoid receptors. Their pancreatic and adipose tissue levels are elevated during hyperglycemia and obesity, but the mechanisms underlying these alterations are not understood.
We assessed in mice fed for up to 14 weeks with a standard or high-fat diet (HFD): (i) the expression of cannabinoid receptors and EC biosynthesizing enzymes (N-acyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine-selective phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) and DAGLalpha) and degrading enzymes (fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL)) in pancreatic and adipose tissue sections by immunohistochemical staining; (ii) the amounts, measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, of the ECs, 2-AG, and anandamide (AEA).
Although CB(1) receptors and biosynthetic enzymes were found mostly in alpha-cells, degrading enzymes were identified in beta-cells. Following HFD, staining for biosynthetic enzymes in beta-cells and lower staining for FAAH were observed together with an increase of EC pancreatic levels. While we observed no diet-induced change in the intensity of the staining of EC metabolic enzymes in the mesenteric visceral fat, a decrease in EC concentrations was accompanied by lower and higher staining of biosynthesizing enzymes and FAAH, respectively, in the subcutaneous fat. No change in cannabinoid receptor staining was observed following HFD in any of the analyzed tissues.
We provide unprecedented information on the distribution of EC metabolic enzymes in the pancreas and adipose organ, where their aberrant expression during hyperglycemia and obesity contribute to dysregulated EC levels.