[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To better understand the role of human equilibrative (hENTs) and concentrative (hCNTs) nucleoside transporters in physiology and pharmacology, we investigated the regional, cellular, and spatial distribution of two hCNTs (hCNT1 and hCNT2) and two hENTs (hENT1 and hENT2) in four human tissues. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques, we found that the duodenum expressed hCNT1 and hCNT2 mRNAs in enterocytes and hENT1 and hENT2 mRNAs in crypt cells. In these cells, the hCNT and hENT proteins were predominantly localized in the apical and lateral membrane, respectively. Hepatocytes expressed higher levels of mRNAs of hENT1, hCNT1, and hENT2 than of hCNT2 and expressed all these proteins at hepatocyte cell borders and in the cytoplasm. While the kidney expressed hCNT1 and hCNT2 mRNAs in the proximal tubules, hENT1 and hENT2 mRNAs were present in the distal tubules, glomeruli, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. Proximal tubules adjacent to corticomedullary junctions expressed hENT1, hCNT1, and hCNT2 mRNA. Immunolocalization studies revealed predominant localization of hCNTs in the brush-border membrane of the proximal tubular epithelial cells and hENTs in the basolateral membrane of the distal tubular epithelial cells. Chorionic villi sections of human term placenta expressed mRNAs and proteins for hENT1 and hENT2 but only mRNA for hCNT2. Immunolocalization studies showed presence of hENT1 in the brush-border membrane of the syncytiotrophoblasts. These data are critical for a better understanding of the role of nucleoside transporters in the physiological and pharmacological effects of nucleosides and nucleoside drugs, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that human concentrative and equilibrative nucleoside transporters (hCNT1 and hENT1) are present on the apical and basolateral membrane, respectively, we constructed a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line that simultaneously and stably expresses recombinant hCNT1 and hENT1 gene products tagged with CFP and YFP fluorescent proteins, respectively. Using a confocal microscope, both hCNT1-CFP and hENT1-YFP were found to be distributed uniformly on the plasma membrane of undifferentiated MDCK cells. Upon differentiation of the MDCK cells on Transwell filter inserts, hCNT1-CFP was visualized exclusively on the apical membrane, whereas hENT1-YFP appeared predominantly on the basolateral membrane. As differentiation proceeded, there was an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, and activity of hENT1 in the apical compartment decreased while hCNT1 activity remained constant. These results suggest that, on differentiation, hENT1 is sorted to the basolateral membrane. This was confirmed when the hCNT1-mediated uptake of [(3)H]uridine from the apical compartment of the differentiated cells was found to be approximately 20-fold higher and that for hENT1 was approximately 4-fold lower than the corresponding uptake from the basal compartment. As observed in vivo, the net transport of [(3)H]adenosine was from the apical to the basal compartment, whereas that for (14)C-deoxyadenosine was from the basal to the apical compartment. In summary, we have shown for the first time that hCNT1 and hENT1 are expressed in polarized MDCK cells on the apical and basolateral membrane, respectively, allowing vectorial transport in both directions depending on the relative activity (ratio of maximal transporter activity to affinity) of each transporter for their substrates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human equilibrative nucleoside transporter, hENT1, which is sensitive to inhibition by nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), is expressed in a wide variety of tissues. hENT1 is involved in the uptake of natural nucleosides, including regulation of the physiological effects of extracellular adenosine, and transports nucleoside drugs used in the treatment of cancer and viral diseases. Structure-function studies have revealed that transmembrane domains (TMD) 3 through 6 of hENT1 may be involved in binding of nucleosides. We have hypothesized that amino acid residues within TMD 3-6, which are conserved across equilibrative transporter sequences from several species, may have a critical role in the binding and transport of nucleosides. Therefore, we explored the role of point mutations of two conserved glycine residues, at positions 179 and 184 located in transmembrane domain 5 (TMD 5), using a GFP-tagged hENT1 in a yeast nucleoside transporter assay system. Mutations of glycine 179 to leucine, cysteine, or valine abolished transporter activity without affecting the targeting of the transporter to the plasma membrane, whereas more conservative mutations such as glycine to alanine or serine preserved both targeting to the plasma membrane and transport activity. Similar point mutations at glycine 184 resulted in poor targeting of hENT1 to the plasma membrane and little or no detectable functional activity. Uridine transport by G179A mutant was significantly lower (p < 0.05) and less sensitive (p < 0.05) to inhibition by NBMPR when compared to the wild-type transporter (IC(50) 7.7 +/- 0.8 nM versus 46 +/- 14.6 nM). Based on these data, we conclude that when hENT1 is expressed in yeast, glycine 179 is critical not only to the ability of hENT1 to transport uridine but also as a determinant of hENT1 sensitivity to NBMPR. In contrast, glycine 184 is likely important in targeting the transporter to the plasma membrane. This is the first identification and characterization of a critical amino acid residue of hENT1 that is important in both nucleoside transporter function and sensitivity to inhibition by NBMPR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clone and sequence the equilibrative nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR)-sensitive nucleoside transporter (es) from the human small intestine and to examine the capacities of nucleosides and nucleoside analogs to inhibit the uptake of uridine by this transporter.
Using PCR, es was cloned from a cDNA library of the human small intestine. The uptake of 3H-uridine (10 microM) by the recombinant es, expressed in Xenopus oocytes, was measured in the presence (2 mM) and absence of nucleosides and nucleoside analogs.
The amino acid sequence of this es transporter was identical to that of the human placental es transporter. Uptake of 3H-uridine by this es transporter was inhibitable by 1 microM NBMPR. Removal of the oxygen from the 3' position or from both the 2' and 3' positions, but not from 2' or 5' position, resulted in a partial or total loss of the capacity of the nucleosides to inhibit 3H-uridine uptake. No modifications of the adenosine base or of the uridine base (except for 3 and 6 positions on uracil) affected nucleoside inhibitory capacity.
The es transporters of the human intestine and placenta are identical in their amino acid sequences. Moreover, the inhibitory profiles of various nucleoside analogs in inhibiting the uptake of uridine by the intestinal es transporter are similar to those obtained with the as-yet-uncloned human erythrocyte es transporter. Collectively, these findings suggest that the es transporter does not appear to be functionally variant in the human placenta, small intestine or erythrocytes.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 02/2000; 45(4):273-8. DOI:10.1007/s002800050040 · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have shown previously that the human jejunal brush border membrane expresses both the N1 (cif) and the N2 (cit) Na+-dependent (concentrative) nucleoside transporters but not the Na+-independent (facilitative) nitrobenzylmercaptopurineriboside (NBMPR)-sensitive (es) transporter (Patil SD and Unadkat JD, Am J Physiol, 272: 1314-1320, 1997). In the present study, we have demonstrated that when Xenopus laevis oocytes are microinjected with human jejunal mRNA, four nucleoside transporters are expressed simultaneously, namely the N1 and N2 Na+-dependent nucleoside transporters and the es and the NBMPR-insensitive (ei) Na+-independent transporters. The expressed Na+-dependent nucleoside transporters showed substrate specificity identical to that previously described by us using jejunal brush border membrane vesicles (Patil SD and Unadkat JD, Am J Physiol, 272: 1314-1320, 1997). The expressed es and ei Na+-independent transporters demonstrated broad substrate selectivity with both purines and pyrimidines capable of inhibiting the uptake of guanosine and thymidine mediated by this transporter. The expressed Na+-dependent nucleoside transporters mediated the transport of their respective nucleoside substrates with a high affinity and a low capacity, whereas the es and the ei transporters mediated the transport of nucleosides with a low affinity and a high capacity. Collectively, these observations suggest that the Na+-independent nucleoside transporters are expressed in the basolateral membrane of the human jejunal epithelium. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the concentrative transporters in the brush border membrane and equilibrative transporters in the basolateral membrane are arranged in series in the human jejunal epithelium to allow efficient vectorial transport of nucleosides from the lumen to the blood. The simultaneous expression of four nucleoside transporters in X. laevis oocytes establishes a basis for molecular cloning of these four human nucleoside transporters.