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ABSTRACT: We evaluated morphological, biochemical and cytological thyroid parameters in acromegalic patients, investigated before and after treatment for acromegaly.
28 acromegalics were investigated before and, in 18 cases, after 2-7 years of therapy. Fourteen patients were from areas of moderate iodine deficiency in Southern Italy. One patient underwent thyroidectomy before entering this study.
19 patients were euthyroid (FT4: 17.7 +/- 0.8 pmol/l and FT3 4.6 +/- 0.2 pmol/l), but TSH was undetectable in 5/19. Among them, TRH-stimulated TSH increase was absent/impaired or exaggerated/delayed in 9 and one cases, respectively. Decreased FT3 and/or FT4 values with low/normal TSH values were detected in 7 cases; TRH-stimulated TSH response was absent/impaired in 2 patients and exaggerated/delayed in another two. Increased free T4 and free T3 concentrations with undetectable TSH levels were found in one. Two euthyroid patients had high TPOAb levels. Goiter was diagnosed in 21 cases and nodules were found in 14/21. 99Tc scintiscan showed "cold" areas in 13/14 cases and a "hot" nodule in the hyperthyroid patient. Acromegalics from iodine deficient areas showed a not significant increase of prevalence of goiter (86 vs. 71 %) and of mean thyroid volume (35 +/- 7 vs. 28 +/- 4 ml, NS), compared to others. Thyroid volume (TV) did not correlate with GH, IGF-1 and TSH levels, the area under the curve of insulin-increase during OGTT, the age of patients or the duration of acromegaly. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), performed in 11/14 patients with nodular goiter, showed colloid nodules in 8 cases, hyperplastic nodules in 2 and an adenomatous nodule in one. Neurosurgery, radiotherapy or medical treatment for acromegaly induced a significant decrease of mean GH and IGF-1 levels (21.5 +/- 8.5 vs. 12.9 +/- 9.6 ng/ml, p< 0.005 and 747 +/- 94 vs. 503 +/- 88 ng/ml, p < 0.02, respectively), but both GH and IGF-1 values normalized only in 3 cases. No significant variation of mean TSH levels was found. Although TV normalized in 3 patients, ultrasound evaluation showed a not significant decrease of mean TV and no changes in the diameter and number of nodules. FNAB was unchanged.
Our results suggest that, despite no correlation between serum GH and IGF-1 levels and thyroid volume being found, a decrease in serum GH and IGF-1 levels has favourable effects on thyroid status.
Hormone and Metabolic Research 06/2000; 32(5):190-5. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this open sequential study we evaluated the long-term effectiveness and tolerability of the i.m. administration of slow release lanreotide 30 mg (SRL) in 18 acromegalics (7 M/11 F, age 50.9+/-12.7 yr). Baseline mean GH and IGF-1 levels were 15.8+/-6.6 ng/ml and 702+/-74 ng/ml, respectively. Four hours, 1, 7, and 14 days after SRL, mean GH levels were 8.9+/-5.9 (p < 0.005), 11.4+/-6.9 (p < 0.05), 9.1+/-4.5 (p < 0.05), and 9.1+/-4.1 ng/ml (p < 0.05), respectively; and the IGF-1 values at 1, 7, and 14 days were 624+/-77 (p < 0.05), 555+/-83 (p < 0.001), and 467+/-58 ng/ml (p < 0.0001), respectively. Four hours after SRL administration GH was < 2.5 ng/ml in 11 patients and decreased 85% of the basal value, without normalizing, in another case. In the following 2 weeks, 7 and 2 patients maintained GH < 2.5 ng/ ml or < 50% of baseline; 3 and 2 of them attained IGF-1 values in the normal range or < 50% of basal levels. A patient developed acute pancreatitis after the injection of the drug and therefore stopped the treatment. Another patient did not continue SRL, and she was turned on octreotide, s.c. administered (OCT), because only the latter treatment ameliorated significantly the headache. In 16/18 patients the treatment was continued until the 24th month. SRL was administered every 14 days until the 24th month in 3 cases, whereas in 13 patients the dose schedule was increased every 10 days since the 7th month because they did not normalize serum GH and IGF-1 levels. In these 16 patients baseline GH and IGF-1 levels were 10.0+/-2.5 ng/ml and 671+/-75 ng/ml, respectively. At the 1st, 3rd, and 6th month of treatment mean GH levels fell to 5.4+/-1.4 (p < 0.05), 5.3+/-1.8 (p < 0.05), and 5.0+/-1.6 (p < 0.05) ng/ml, respectively; and IGF-1 declined to 511+/-87 (p < 0.005), 565+/-85 (p < 0.05), and 525+/-94 (p < 0.01) ng/ml, respectively. Throughout the first semester GH was < 2.5 ng/ml in 5 patients and decreased > 50% in another three. IGF-1 levels normalized in 3/5. Throughout the following 18 months of treatment, mean GH (3.4+/-1.0 ng/ml) and IGF-1 (413+/-75 ng/ml) values decreased significantly in comparison with both the baseline concentrations (GH p < 0.01, IGF-1 p < 0.001) and the levels measured during the 1st semester of treatment (GH p < 0.05, IGF-1 p < 0.001). GH remained < 2.5 ng/ml in 11 patients, and in 8/11 cases IGF-1 fell in the normal range. Serum GH and IGF-1 levels decreased by more than 50% of baseline levels in 2 other cases. At MRI, pituitary adenoma was no longer evident in one patient previously treated with OCT and significantly decreased in another patient previously treated with surgery plus radiotherapy, as well as in a patient previously untreated. During treatment the percentage of patients complaining of headache and fatigue decreased significantly (chi2, p < 0.05 and p < 0.0005, respectively). Overall, the headache (p < 0.005), arthralgia (p < 0.05), and paresthesia (p < 0.01) ameliorated significantly. Ultrasound scan showed gallbladder sludge or sand-like stones in 5/11 patients. This study, which is one of the longest surveys on a relatively large series of acromegalics treated with SRL, confirms the long-term effectiveness of this drug for the treatment of patients with active acromegaly. SRL decreases significantly GH and IGF-1 in most cases and induces the shrinkage of the pituitary tumor in some patients previously either untreated or both treated for acromegaly. SRL improves significantly clinical symptoms and it is well tolerated.
Hormone and Metabolic Research 06/2000; 32(6):224-9. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cabergoline (CAB) treatment is an effective, safe and well tolerated approach for hyperprolactinemia. We investigated the efficacy of 24-month treatment with CAB in 37 patients with previously untreated PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma and evaluated the hormonal and neuroradiological changes after the discontinuation of long-term therapy. Eleven patients with macroprolactinoma (1M/10F) and 26 with microprolactinoma (4M/22F) started treatment taking 0.25 mg CAB twice a week for 4 weeks. The dose was increased stepwise in 0.5 mg increments until reaching lowest maximally effective and tolerated dose. CAB was withdrawn before the end of the study in 6 women who became pregnant and in one patient who showed a slight increase of the macroadenoma at MRI. During treatment, PRL levels decreased significantly in macro (11.1+/-1.1 vs 407.8+/-98.3 microg/l, p<0.001) and microprolactinomas (11.1+/-1.6 vs 193.8+/-23.4 microg/l, p<0.05) and normalized in all macro and in 23/26 microprolactinomas. In 3 cases PRL levels decreased but did not normalize because the appearance of side effects, such as nausea or hypotension, prevented the increase of the dose of CAB. The effective dose of drug correlated significantly with basal serum PRL levels (p<0.05) and with the pituitary tumor size (p<0.05). A significant decrease of the mean adenoma size was evident for macro (6.9+/-1.8 vs 16.0+/-1.8 mm, p<0.001) and microprolactinomas (3.0+/-0.5 vs 6.5+/-0.4 mm, p<0.001) at MRI. The tumor disappeared in 4 macroadenomas and in 11 microadenomas after 12 months of treatment. CAB withdrawal was followed by serum PRL increase in 13 cases after 3 months, in 6 after 6 months, in 2 after 9 months, and in one patient at the 12th month. Five patients showed normoprolactinemia with negative MRI after one year. Regular menses were restored in 7/10 macroprolactinomas and in all oligo-amenorrhoic patients with microadenoma; serum testosterone levels normalized in 2/3 hypogonadic men. Five out of 6 women become pregnant and had uneventful pregnancies which resulted in deliveries of normal babies. In conclusion, this study confirms the effectiveness and safety of CAB for patients with PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma and suggests that it can be considered a first choice treatment.
Journal of endocrinological investigation 05/1999; 22(5):354-9. · 1.65 Impact Factor