[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prognosis of patients with bundle branch block (BBB) and myocardial infarction (MI) is poor, particularly for patients suffering from syncope. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of some techniques for the evaluation of the mechanism of syncope in patients with MI and BBB and their prognosis.
We prospectively obtained the results of clinical history, 24 h Holter monitoring, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), signal-averaged ECG (SAECG) and programmed ventricular stimulation in 130 patients with syncope, MI and BBB. 81 of them had right (R)BBB and 49-left (L)BBB.
Ventricular tachycardia (VT) was identified as the main cause of syncope in patients with MI and BBB: 68% of them had inducible VT. The sensitivity (se) and specificity (sp) of non sustained VT on Holter monitoring for the detection of VT were respectively 42.5 and 47% in patients with RBBB, 62 and 36% in those with LBBB; se and sp of LVEF <40% were 67.5% and 65% in patients with RBBB, 85 and 9% in those with LBBB; se and sp of the combination of 2 of the 3 SAECG criteria, QRS duration > 155 ms, LAS duration >30 ms and RMS 40 < 17 microV were respectively 50 and 57% in patients with RBBB; se and sp of the combination of 2 of the 3 criteria QRS duration >165 ms, LAS duration >40 ms and RMS 40 <17 microV were 73 and 55.5%) in patients with LBBB. During the follow-up (4.7 years +/- 2.5), 12 patients died suddenly and 12 patients died from heart failure. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed than only the induction of VT was a significant predictor of sudden death. A long QRS duration (> 165 ms) and induction of VT were independent predictors of total cardiac mortality.
Among noninvasive studies, only the determination of filtered QRS duration was a significant predictor of cardiac mortality in the case of a prolongation (> 165 ms). Sudden death was only predicted by the induction of sustained VT. Because of the high incidence of inducible sustained VT, the low value of Holter monitoring and decreased LVEF for the prediction of ventricular arrhythmias and the poor prognosis of patients with inducible VT and low LVEF, systematic programmed ventricular stimulation is indicated in patients with MI, syncope and BBB, whatever the non-invasive studies results.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The natural history of late potentials after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been studied in the first 2 years following myocardial infarction (MI). The purpose of the study was to assess the influence of some time delays since MI, including a time delay longer than 2 years on signal-averaged ECG (SAECG). SAECG was recorded at 40-Hz high pass filtering in 40 patients 10 days after acute MI (SAECG 1), then repeated 6-12 months later (mean 9 +/- 3 months) (SAECG 2), and then, 2-4 years later (mean 3 +/- 2 years) (SAECG 3). QRS duration, root mean square voltage of the last 40 ms of QRS (RMS 40), and low amplitude signal duration (LAS) were measured at the first (1), second (2), and third recording (3). Results: (***P < 0.001) [table: see text] The analysis of individual results showed a lengthening QRS duration at the third recording only in patients who had a decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at the third recording. In 12 patients with LVEF > 40%, QRS duration did not change at the first and third recording (104 +/- 15 vs 101 +/- 12 ms). In all 28 patients, but one with LVEF < 40%, QRS duration increased from 107 +/- 12 to 128 +/- 18 ms***. There was no correlation between QRS duration and LVEF at the second recording and no correlation between QRS duration increase at the third recording and the presence or not of late potentials at the first recording. QRS duration lengthening at the third recording was significantly correlated with a left ventricular (LV) dilatation occurrence at the two-dimensional echocardiogram. All arrhythmic events, but two, occurred in patients who developed a QRS duration prolongation and were significantly correlated (P < 0.01) to a mean longer QRS duration (132 +/- 20 ms) than in patients without arrhythmic events (113 +/- 17 ms). In conclusion, the patients with a LV impairment, and who developed a LV dilatation several months after AMI, presented a delayed lengthening of QRS duration noted only at least 2 years after infarction. These patients are at risk of arrhythmic events.
Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 11/1999; 22(10):1466-75. · 1.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of study was evaluate in 1,837 consecutive patients the comparative effects of French cassoulet (CASS) and international sauerkraut (CHOU). After procedures of exclusion classical, 8 patients could be evaluated and received in a randomised, doubleblind, crossover protocol an mouth dose of 22.5 g/kg of CASS or CHOU. The results show a very significative difference between the 2 products. A regular absorption of couscous is therefore recommended.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to report the prevalence of inducible supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (SVTA) in 827 consecutive patients aged 17 to 90 years who did not have spontaneous documented SVTA and who had unexplained presyncope and/or syncope. The electrophysiologic study (EPS) included programmed atrial and ventricular stimulation up to two extrastimuli at three cycle lengths, and the study of sino-atrial and AV conduction. The results were as follows. EPS was normal in 386 patients. Inducible junctional tachycardia or atrial flutter and fibrillation was the only finding in 187 patients (23%). In the remaining patients we found ventricular tachycardia in 103 (12%), heart block in 67 (8%), sick sinus syndrome in 56 (7%) and increased vagal tone in 28 (3%). The presence of an underlying heart disease (47%) and salvos of atrial premature beats on Holter monitoring (39%) were significantly correlated with the induction of SVTA. However, the comparison with similar groups without syncope indicates that only the induction of SVTA in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and mitral valve prolapse was significantly correlated with the history of syncope. In patients without heart disease or with prior myocardial infarction or decreased left ventricular function, the induction of SVTA, which is not associated with hypotension in the supine position, could require an induction after head-up tilting, because of the lack of specificity of programmed stimulation in these patients. Programmed atrial stimulation should be systematically performed in patients with unexplained syncope, in particular in those with hypertropic cardiomyopathy and mitral valve prolapse, who require a specific treatment, if a SVTA is induced. In other patients the results of programmed atrial stimulation should be interpreted cautiously.
International Journal of Cardiology 02/1996; 53(1):61-9. · 5.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prognostic significance of ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by programmed ventricular stimulation was evaluated in 492 consecutive survivors of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Holter monitoring, signal-averaged electrocardiogram (ECG) and measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) were also performed. The protocol used up to 3 extrastimuli. Sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) < 270 beats/min, > 270 beats/min (ventricular flutter) (VFI), and ventricular fibrillation (VF) were induced in 99, 66 and 52 patients, respectively. Long term follow-up (mean 3.7 +/- 2.2 years) showed that most episodes of VT occurred during the first months following AMI (n = 14), but some patients (n = 6) could develop VT as late as 4 years after AMI. Sudden death (SD) (n = 22) always occurred during the first year following AMI. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that EF < 30% and induction of a VT < 270 beats/min were the only predictors for total cardiac death (P < 0.001). EF < 30%, induction of a VT < 270 beats/min and also of VFI (P < 0.05) were predictors for VT and SD: the risk was 4% in patients without inducible VT, 12% in those with inducible VF1, and 21% in those with inducible VT < 270 beats/min. In conclusion, induction of a sustained monomorphic VT < 270 beats/min or > 270 beats/min is a predictor of arrhythmic events during the first year as well as 4 years after myocardial infarction. However the risk of arrhythmic sudden death decreases after the first year, while the risk of VT persists. Because of the low positive predictive value of programmed stimulation (respectively 21% and 12% for the induction of a sustained VT and VFI), we recommended the indication of programmed stimulation in only the patients with one abnormal non-invasive investigation.
International Journal of Cardiology 04/1995; 49(1):55-65. · 5.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors report the prognostic value of ventricular arrhythmias induced by routine programmed ventricular stimulation after the acute phase of myocardial infarction. The protocol consisted of two extrastimuli in the first 185 patients and 3 extrastimuli in 308 patients. The use of 3 extrastimuli increased the incidence of inducible sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) < 270/mn, from 17 to 22% and, more importantly, that of ventricular fibrillation from 4 to 17%. Induction of ventricular flutter (monomorphic VT > 270/mn) was not increased. A long follow-up period (average 4 +/- 2 years) showed that the risk of VT was increased during the first months after infarction (n = 14), and that, 4 years later, other patients develop VT (n = 6). The risk of serious arrhythmias (VT and sudden death) was significantly higher in patients with inducible VT < 270/mn (20%) than in patients without inducible VT, but it was also higher in patients with inducible ventricular flutter (12.5%). The use of a third extrastimulus has a low positive predictive value for arrhythmic events (10%). This study confirms that the induction of sustained monomorphic VT after myocardial infarction is associated with an increased risk of arrhythmic events but the positive predictive value is relatively low (17%). In view of the risk of inducing non-specific ventricular fibrillation, the authors recommended using a stimulation protocol with only 2 ventricular extrastimuli.
Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux 10/1993; 86(10):1453-7. · 0.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the response to programmed ventricular stimulation and the clinical outcome, we performed a prospective study in 103 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. The protocol used up to three extrastimuli delivered at two right ventricular sites during sinus rhythm and ventricular pacing at 100 and 150 beats/min and was repeated during infusion of 1 to 4 micrograms/min of isoproterenol. Sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) was induced in 8 of 11 patients with spontaneous sustained VT, in none of 35 patients without significant ventricular arrhythmias during Holter monitoring, and in 9 of 56 patients with salvos of ventricular premature beats. Isoproterenol infusion facilitated the induction of two episodes of sustained VT in patients with spontaneous sustained VT; however, in all but one of the remaining patients, induction of ventricular tachyarrhythmias was not impaired. During the follow-up period there were eight sudden deaths among patients who initially had syncope, inducible sustained VT, or both and three episodes of sustained VT in patients who initially had nonsustained VT but inducible sustained VT. Isoproterenol infusion can be used to safely facilitate induction of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. The induction of sustained VT was associated with a poor prognosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to evaluate the incidence and significance of inducible supra-ventricular (SVTA) in patients with chronic myocardial infarction (MI), the results of systematic programmed atrial stimulation were compared in two groups of patients: 150 patients (group I) without MI or underlying heart disease, studied for syncope or conduction disturbances, 296 patients (group II) studied after an acute Mi (greater than 1 month). None of them had spontaneous SVTA, and 24-h Holter monitoring showed no SVTA. The atrial stimulation programme used one and two extra stimuli delivered during sinus rhythm and atrial pacing (600 ms and 10% less than the sinus cycle length). A sustained (S) (greater than 30 s) supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) (atrial flutter, fibrillation, tachycardia) was induced in 17 patients in group I (11%) and in 120 patients in group II (40.5%). In group II inducible SVTA could not be correlated with the occurrence of a SVT during acute MI, the location of MI, the value of LV ejection fraction (EF), the incidence of inducible sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT), or fibrillation (VF). However, inducible SVTA could be correlated with a significantly shorter effective atrial refractory period (197 +/- 23 ms vs 220 +/- 35 ms, P less than 0.001) and a shorter retrograde block cycle length (518 +/- 215 vs 585 +/- 215 ms, P less than 0.03). The patients in group II were followed-up for at least 6 months; 12 of them developed sustained episodes of supraventricular tachycardia; 11 of them had inducible SVTA (P less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
European Heart Journal 04/1991; 12(3):401-4. · 14.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The significance of the tall R wave in lead V1 with an R/S ratio greater than or equal to 1 in posterior myocardial infarction (PMI) was investigated in 28 patients during programmed electrical stimulation. The patients had been admitted with acute PMI documented by electrocardiogram and proven by enzymatic increase. Electrophysiological study was performed 3 weeks after acute PMI. In 17 of the 28 patients (group 1), the tall R wave in V1 disappeared during stimulation: In 13 of them a premature atrial extrastimulus was responsible for an abrupt normalization of QRS complex in V1 related to an increase in AH or HV interval. In the 4 remaining patients the disappearance of the tall R wave in V1 was related to a sinus pause. In 14 patients of group 1, a different prematurity in atrial stimulation induced a right or left bundle branch block (BBB). In 11 of the 28 patients (group 2) the tall R wave in V1 was unchanged but a premature atrial extrastimulus induced a right BBB in 5 patients and a left BBB in 6. In conclusion, the normalization of QRS complex in lead V1 during atrial stimulation or alterations in cycle length suggests that the tall R wave in V1 in PMI is not a simple reciprocal sign of leads V8 V9. Its association with different varieties of BBB and changes in AH or HV intervals could suggest a relationship with a His-Purkinje conduction disturbance in some patients.
Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 11/1989; 12(10):1650-9. · 1.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The electrophysiological effects of prostacyclin (PGI2) were studied in 10 normal patients. Programmed stimulation was performed before and after infusion of 2.5, 5, 10 ng kg-1 min-1 of PGI2. Then, 0.2 mg kg-1 of propranolol was added to the higher dose of PGI2. We observed a net decrease of the systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure beginning with the lowest dose. There was no effect on sinus node recovery time, atrial, His-Purkinje and ventricular effective refractory periods, AH and HV intervals. Atrioventricular (AV) nodal effective and functional refractory periods could be measured in 5 patients and were decreased in all cases. Sinus cycle length and anterograde and retrograde Wenckebach cycle lengths were significantly decreased by PGI2 in a dose dependent manner. The injection of propranolol increased all these values but did not suppress entirely the effects of PGI2. In conclusion, the electrophysiological effects of PGI2 were marked decreases of sinus cycle length and AV nodal refractoriness which may be partly related to enhanced sympathetic activity.
European Heart Journal 12/1984; 5(11):883-9. · 14.10 Impact Factor