Alexander S Farivar

Swedish Medical Center Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (65)189.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Lepidic growth pattern lung adenocarcinoma commonly presents as a dominant lesion (DL) with associated pulmonary nodules either in the ipsilateral or contralateral lung fields, posing a challenge in clinical decision-making. These tumours may be clinically upstaged compared with those who present with solitary lesions and, as a result, may be offered different therapies. The purpose of this study is to compare recurrence rates, the development of new lesions and survival in patients with adenocarcinoma with a lepidic component presenting with a DL with or without additional nodules.
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 11/2014; · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the presence of esophageal pathology, there is risk of worse outcomes after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). This study reviewed how an esophageal workup affected a bariatric operative plan in patients with concurrent esophageal pathology. We retrospectively reviewed patients planning bariatric surgery referred with significant reflux, dysphagia, and hiatal hernia (>3 cm) to determine how and why a thorough esophageal workup changed a bariatric operative plan. We identified 79 patients for analysis from 2009 to 2013. In 10/41 patients (24.3 %) planning LAGB and 5/9 patients planning SG (55.5 %), a Roux was preferred because of severe symptoms of reflux and aspiration, dysphagia, manometric abnormalities (aperistaltic or hypoperistaltic esophagus with low mean wave amplitudes), large hiatal hernia (>5 cm), and/or presence of Barrett's esophagus. Patients without these characteristics had a decreased risk of foregut symptoms after surgery. We recommend a thorough esophageal workup in bariatric patients with known preoperative esophageal pathology. The operative plan might need to be changed to a Roux to prevent adverse outcomes including dysphagia, severe reflux, or suboptimal weight loss. An esophageal workup may improve surgical decision making and improve patient outcomes.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 09/2014; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During hiatal hernia repair there are two vectors of tension: axial and radial. An optimal repair minimizes the tension along these vectors. Radial tension is not easily recognized. There are no simple maneuvers like measuring length that facilitate assessment of radial tension. The aims of this project were to: (1) establish a simple intraoperative method to evaluate baseline tension of the diaphragmatic hiatal muscle closure; and, (2) assess if tension is reduced by relaxing maneuvers and if so, to what degree.
    Surgical endoscopy. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A regional quality improvement effort does not exist for thoracic surgery in the United States. To initiate the development of one, we sought to describe temporal trends and hospital-level variability in associated outcomes and costs of pulmonary resection in Washington (WA) State. A cohort study (2000-2011) was conducted of operated-on lung cancer patients. The WA State discharge database was used to describe outcomes and costs for operations performed at all nonfederal hospitals within the state. Over 12 years, 8,457 lung cancer patients underwent pulmonary resection across 49 hospitals. Inpatient deaths decreased over time (adjusted p-trend = 0.023) but prolonged length of stay did not (adjusted p-trend = 0.880). Inflation-adjusted hospital costs increased over time (adjusted p-trend < 0.001). Among 24 hospitals performing at least 1 resection per year, 5 hospitals were statistical outliers in rates of death (4 lower and 1 higher than the state average), and 13 were outliers with respect to prolonged length of stay (7 higher and 6 lower than the state average) and costs (5 higher and 8 lower than the state average). When evaluated for rates of death and costs, there were hospitals with fewer deaths/lower costs, fewer deaths/higher costs, more deaths/lower costs, and more deaths/higher costs. Variability in outcomes and costs over time and across hospitals suggest opportunities to improve the quality and value of thoracic surgery in WA State. Examples from cardiac surgery suggest that a regional quality improvement collaborative is an effective way to meaningfully and rapidly act upon these opportunities.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 04/2014; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pathologic nodal upstaging can be considered a surrogate for completeness of nodal evaluation and quality of surgery. We sought to determine the rate of nodal upstaging and disease-free and overall survival with a robotic approach in clinical stage I NSCLC. We retrospectively reviewed patients with clinical stage I NSCLC after robotic lobectomy or segmentectomy at three centers from 2009 to 2012. Data were collected primarily based on Society of Thoracic Surgeons database elements. Robotic anatomic lung resection was performed in 302 patients. The majority were right sided (192; 63.6%) and of the upper lobe (192; 63.6%). Most were clinical stage IA (237; 78.5%). Pathologic nodal upstaging occurred in 33 patients (10.9% [pN1 20, 6.6%; pN2 13, 4.3%]). Hilar (pN1) upstaging occurred in 3.5%, 8.6%, and 10.8%, respectively, for cT1a, cT1b, and cT2a tumors. Comparatively, historic hilar upstage rates of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) versus thoracotomy for cT1a, cT1b, and cT2a were 5.2%, 7.1%, and 5.7%, versus 7.4%, 8.8%, and 11.5%, respectively. Median follow-up was 12.3 months (range, 0 to 49). Forty patients (13.2%) had disease recurrence (local 11, 3.6%; regional 7, 2.3%; distant 22, 7.3%). The 2-year overall survival was 87.6%, and the disease-free survival was 70.2%. The rate of nodal upstaging for robotic resection appears to be superior to VATS and similar to thoracotomy data when analyzed by clinical T stage. Both disease-free and overall survival were comparable to recent VATS and thoracotomy data. A larger series of matched open, VATS and robotic approaches is necessary.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 04/2014; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of robotic lung surgery has increased dramatically despite being a new, costly technology with undefined benefits over standard of care. There is a paucity of published comparative articles justifying its use or cost. Furthermore, outcomes regarding robotic lung resection are either from single institutions with in-house historical comparisons or based on limited numbers. We compared consecutive robotic anatomic lung resections performed at two institutions with matched data from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) National Database for all open and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) resections. We sought to define any benefits to a robotic approach versus national outcomes after thoracotomy and VATS. Data from all consecutive robotic anatomic lung resections were collected from two institutions (n = 181) from January 2010 until January 2012 and matched against the same variables for anatomic resections via thoracotomy (n = 5913) and VATS (n = 4612) from the STS National Database. Patients with clinical N2, N3, and M1 disease were excluded. There was a significant decrease in 30-day mortality and postoperative blood transfusion after robotic lung resection relative to VATS and thoracotomy. The patients stayed in the hospital 2 days less after robotic surgery than VATS and 4 days less than after thoracotomy. Robotic surgery led to fewer air leaks, intraoperative blood transfusions, need for perioperative bronchoscopy or reintubation, pneumonias, and atrial arrhythmias compared with thoracotomy. This is the first comparative analysis using national STS data. It suggests potential benefits of robotic surgery relative to VATS and thoracotomy, particularly in reducing length of stay, 30-day mortality, and postoperative blood transfusion.
    Innovations Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery 02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge about the cost of open, video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS), or robotic lung resection and drivers of cost is crucial as the cost of care comes under scrutiny. This study aims to define the cost of anatomic lung resection and evaluate potential cost-saving measures. A retrospective review of patients who had anatomic resection for early stage lung cancer, carcinoid, or metastatic foci between 2008 and 2012 was performed. Direct hospital cost data were collected from 10 categories. Capital depreciation was separated for the robotic and VATS cases. Key costs were varied in a sensitivity analysis. In all, 184 consecutive patients were included: 69 open, 57 robotic, and 58 VATS. Comorbidities and complication rates were similar. Operative time was statistically different among the three modalities, but length of stay was not. There was no statistically significant difference in overall cost between VATS and open cases (Δ = $1,207) or open and robotic cases (Δ = $1,975). Robotic cases cost $3,182 more than VATS (p < 0.001) owing to the cost of robotic-specific supplies and depreciation. The main opportunities to reduce cost in open cases were the intensive care unit, respiratory therapy, and laboratories. Lowering operating time and supply costs were targets for VATS and robotic cases. VATS is the least expensive surgical approach. Robotic cases must be shorter in operative time or reduce supply costs, or both, to be competitive. Lessening operating time, eradicating unnecessary laboratory work, and minimizing intensive care unit stays will help decrease direct hospital costs.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 01/2014; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background In 2012 the United States Food and Drug Administration approved implantation of a magnetic sphincter to augment the native reflux barrier based on single-series data. We sought to compare our initial experience with magnetic sphincter augmentation (MSA) with laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF). Methods A retrospective case-control study was performed of consecutive patients undergoing either procedure who had chronic gastrointestinal esophageal disease (GERD) and a hiatal hernia of less than 3 cm. Results Sixty-six patients underwent operations (34 MSA and 32 LNF). The groups were similar in reflux characteristics and hernia size. Operative time was longer for LNF (118 vs 73 min) and resulted in 1 return to the operating room and 1 readmission. Preoperative symptoms were abolished in both groups. At 6 months or longer postoperatively, scores on the Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Health Related Quality of Life scale improved from 20.6 to 5.0 for MSA vs 22.8 to 5.1 for LNF. Postoperative DeMeester scores (14.2 vs 5.1, p = 0.0001) and the percentage of time pH was less than 4 (4.6 vs 1.1; p = 0.0001) were normalized in both groups but statistically different. MSA resulted in improved gassy and bloated feelings (1.32 vs 2.36; p = 0.59) and enabled belching in 67% compared with none of the LNFs. Conclusions MSA results in similar objective control of GERD, symptom resolution, and improved quality of life compared with LNF. MSA seems to restore a more physiologic sphincter that allows physiologic reflux, facilitates belching, and creates less bloating and flatulence. This device has the potential to allow individualized treatment of patients with GERD and increase the surgical treatment of GERD.
    The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 01/2014;
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    The Annals of thoracic surgery 10/2013; 96(4):1526. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Self-expanding fully covered metal stents (CSs) are ideal for use in benign esophagogastric disease. We reviewed our experience with CS to evaluate outcomes, to determine a role for CS in a standard treatment for benign esophageal conditions, and to compare our results with recently published studies. We performed a retrospective chart review from 2005 to 2012. A total of 57 CSs were placed in 44 patients. Indications were stricture (11 patients), anastomotic leak (20), perforation (7), and tracheoesophageal fistulae (6). For GI tract disruptions, open repair or diversion was avoided in 31/33 patients (93.9 %) but required an associated drainage procedure in 22/33 (67 %) patients. Resolution does not depend on achieving radiological control with 6/26 (23 %) having evidence of a persistent leak. Benign strictures were dilated at a mean of 3.7 times prior to stenting. Adjunctive intra-mucosal steroid injections were used in 8/11 patients. Stents were removed at a mean of 33 days. At a mean of 283 days of follow-up, 6/11 (54.5 %) had symptom resolution. The most common complication was stent migration occurring in 17.5 % of patients overall. Covered stents are an effective adjunct in the management of benign upper gastrointestinal tract fistulae, leaks, perforations and benign strictures.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 09/2013; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endoscopic therapy (ablation +/- endoscopic resection) for high-grade dysplasia and/or intramucosal carcinoma (IMC) of the esophagus has demonstrated promising results. However, there is a concern that a curable, local disease may progress to systemic disease with repeated endotherapy. We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent esophagectomy after endotherapy at three tertiary care esophageal centers from 2006 to 2012. Our objective was to document the clinical and pathologic outcomes of patients who undergo esophagectomy after failed endotherapy. Fifteen patients underwent esophagectomy after a mean of 13 months and 4.1 sessions of endotherapy for progression of disease (53%), failure to clear disease (33%), or recurrence (13%). Initially, all had Barrett's, 73% had ≥3-cm segments, 93% had a nodule or ulcer, and 91% had multifocal disease upon presentation. High-grade dysplasia was present at index endoscopy in 80% and IMC in 33%, and some patients had both. Final pathology at esophagectomy was T0 (13%), T1a (60%), T1b (20%), and T2 (7%). Positive lymph nodes were found in 20%: one patient was T2N1 and two were T1bN1. Patients with T1b, T2, or N1 disease had more IMC on index endoscopy (75% vs. 18%) and more endotherapy sessions (median 6.5 vs. 3). There have been no recurrences a mean of 20 months after esophagectomy. Clinical outcomes were comparable to other series, but submucosal invasion (27%) and node-positive disease (20%) were encountered in some patients who initially presented with a locally curable disease and eventually required esophagectomy after failed endotherapy. An initial pathology of IMC or failure to clear disease after three treatments should raise concern for loco-regional progression and prompt earlier consideration of esophagectomy.
    Diseases of the Esophagus 06/2013; · 1.64 Impact Factor
  • Shaun Deen, Alexander S. Farivar, Brian E. Louie
    Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology. 06/2013; 4(2).
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Endoscopic therapy (ablation ± mucosal resection) for esophageal high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or intramucosal carcinoma has demonstrated promising results. Little is known about patients who have persistent or progressive disease despite endotherapy. We compared patients who had successful eradication of their disease with those in whom endotherapy failed to try to identify factors predictive of failure and outcomes after salvage therapy. METHODS: We performed a single-institution retrospective review of patients treated with endotherapy from 2007 to 2012. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients underwent endotherapy: 28 had successful eradication of their disease and endotherapy failed in 10 patients. Patients in whom endotherapy failed were more likely to have high-grade dysplasia (HGD) on initial endoscopy, nodules or ulcers, multifocal dysplasia, and persistent nondysplastic Barrett's metaplasia. Patients in whom endotherapy failed also underwent significantly more endotherapy sessions. Seven patients had persistent dysplasia or progression to cancer, and 3 patients had complete eradication of HGD but presented with intramucosal carcinoma an average of 15 months after eradication. The 10 patients in whom endotherapy failed underwent salvage therapy with esophagectomy (7 patients), definitive chemoradiotherapy (1 patient), and endotherapy (2 patients). Patients treated with esophagectomy were disease free at a mean of 25 months postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: HGD on initial endoscopy, multifocal dysplasia, mucosal abnormalities, and failure to eradicate nondysplastic Barrett's metaplasia were associated with failure of endotherapy. Patients with these characteristics should be considered at higher risk for treatment failure, and earlier consideration should be given to esophagectomy if there is persistent, progressive, or recurrent neoplasia. Clinical outcomes are good, even after salvage therapy. Continued endoscopic surveillance is mandatory after successful endotherapy because of the risk of recurrent disease.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 04/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic antireflux surgery is highly effective in patients with uncomplicated gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, long-term failure rates in paraesophageal hernia (PEH) and Barrett's metaplasia (BE) are higher and warrant a more durable repair. Outcomes for the laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) and Hill repair (LHR) are equivalent, but their anatomic components are different and may complement each other (Aye R Ann Thorac Surg, 2012). We designed and tested the feasibility and safety of an operation that combines the essential components of each repair. METHODS: A prospective, phase II pilot study was performed on patients with symptomatic giant PEH hernias and/or GERD with nondysplastic Barrett's metaplasia. Pre- and postoperative esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), upper gastrointestinal study (UGI), 48-hour pH testing, manometry, and three quality-of-life metrics were obtained. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients were enrolled in the study. Three patients did not complete the planned procedure, leaving 21 patients, including 12 with PEH, 7 with BE, and 2 with both. There were no 30-day or in-hospital mortalities. At a median follow-up of 13 (range 6.4-30.2) months, there were no reoperations or clinical recurrences. Two patients required postoperative dilation for dysphagia, with complete resolution. Mean DeMeester scores improved from 54.3 to 7.5 (p < 0.0036). Mean lower esophageal sphincter pressures (LESP) increased from 8.9 to 21.3 mmHg (p < 0.013). Mean short-term and long-term QOLRAD scores improved from 4.09 at baseline to 6.04 and 6.48 (p < 0.0001). Mean short-term and long-term GERD-HQRL scores improved from 22.9 to 7.5 and 6.9 (p < 0.03). Mean long-term Dysphagia Severity Score Index improved from 33.3 to 40.6 (p < 0.064). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of a Nissen plus Hill hybrid reconstruction of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) is technically feasible, safe, and not associated with increased side effects. Short-term clinical results in PEH and BE suggest that this may be an effective repair, supporting the value of further study.
    Surgical Endoscopy 01/2013; · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication is comprised of: a wrap thought responsible for the lower esophageal sphincter function and crural closure performed to prevent herniation. We hypothesized gastroesophageal junction competence effected by Nissen fundoplication results from closure of the crural diaphragm and creation of the fundoplication. METHODS: Patients with uncomplicated reflux undergoing Nissen fundoplication were prospectively enrolled. After hiatal dissection, patients were randomized to crural closure followed by fundoplication (group 1) or fundoplication followed by crural closure (group 2). Intra-operative high-resolution manometry collected sphincter pressure and length data after complete dissection and after each component repair. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were randomized. When compared to the completely dissected hiatus, the mean sphincter length increased 1.3 cm (p < 0.001), and mean sphincter pressure was increased by 13.7 mmHg (p < 0.001). Groups 1 and 2 had similar sphincter length and pressure changes. Crural closure and fundal wrap contribute equally to sphincter length, although crural closure appears to contribute more to sphincter pressure. CONCLUSION: The Nissen fundoplication restores the function of the gastroesophageal junction and thus the reflux barrier by means of two main components: the crural closure and the construction of a 360° fundal wrap. Each of these components is equally important in establishing both increased sphincter length and pressure.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 11/2012; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unilateral robotic thymectomy is gaining popularity. Identifying the contralateral phrenic nerve is a key limitation to achieving maximal thymic tissue resection. We evaluated the feasibility and technique of fluorescence imaging on the daVinci-Si robot (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) to identify the contralateral periocardiophrenic neurovascular bundle (PNB). A unilateral right robotic thymectomy was performed in 10 patients. The thymus and its poles were mobilized. Indocyanine green was injected and fluoresced to identify the left PNB in four different viewing angles to assess the view that consistently positively identified the PNB. No complications from indocyanine green or injuries to the phrenic nerve occurred. The contralateral PNB was visualized in 80% of patients from a left pleural view, infrequently from a mediastinal view, and never distal to the aortopulmonary window. During right robotic thymectomy, fluorescence imaging facilitates identification of the contralateral phrenic nerve by fluorescing the pericardiophrenic vessels. It is best visualized from a left pleural view. This technology has the potential to maximize thymic tissue resection with a unilateral approach while reducing operative time and nerve injury.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 08/2012; 94(2):622-5. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute herniation of intra-abdominal organs into the chest after extrapleural pneumonectomy is an uncommon but morbid and potentially mortal complication. We report a case of acute diaphragmatic hernia after extrapleural pneumonectomy for mesothelioma repaired laparoscopically. This approach is an alternative to repeated thoracotomy and is a viable option for treatment of this difficult problem with potentially less morbidity.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 05/2012; 93(5):e127-9. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a late complication of malignancy that affects respiratory function and quality of life. A strategy for palliation of the symptoms caused by MPE should permanently control fluid accumulation, preclude any need for reintervention, and limit hospital length of stay (LOS). We compared video-assisted thorascopic (VATS) talc insufflation with placement of a tunneled pleural catheter (TPC) to assess which intervention better met these palliative goals. We conducted a retrospective chart review of consecutive MPE at a single institution from 2005 through June 2011. Primary a priori outcomes were reintervention in the ipsilateral hemithorax, postprocedure LOS, and overall LOS. One hundred nine patients with MPE were identified. Fifty-nine patients (54%) had TPC placed, and 50 (46%) were treated with VATS talc. Patients who underwent TPC placement had significantly fewer reinterventions for recurrent ipsilateral effusions than patients treated with VATS talc (TPC 2% [1 of 59], talc 16% [8 of 50], p = 0.01). Patients treated with TPC had significantly shorter overall LOS (TPC LOS mean 7 days, mode 1 day; talc mean 8 day, mode 4 days, p = 0.006) and postprocedure LOS (TPC post-procedure LOS mean 3 days, mode 0 days; talc mean 6 days, mode 3 days, p < 0.001). Type of procedure was not associated with differences in complication rate (TPC 5% [3 of 59], talc 14% [7 of 50], p = 0.18), or in-hospital mortality (TPC 3% [2 of 59], talc 8% [4 of 50], p = 0.41). TPC placement was associated with a significantly reduced postprocedure and overall LOS compared with VATS talc. Also, TPC placement was associated with significantly fewer ipsilateral reinterventions. Placement of TPC should be considered for palliation of MPE-associated symptoms.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 04/2012; 94(4):1053-9. · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Brian E Louie, Alexander S Farivar, Ralph W Aye, Eric Vallières
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    ABSTRACT: Robotic lung resection is gaining popularity despite limited published evidence. Comparative studies are needed to provide information about the safety and effectiveness of robotic resection. Therefore, we compared our initial experience with robotic anatomic resection to our most recent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) cases. A case-control analysis of consecutive anatomic lung resections by robot or VATS from 2009 through 2011 was performed. In the robotic group, 52 resections were attempted. Three conversions and 3 wedges were excluded, leaving 40 lobectomies, 5 segments, and 1 conversion to VATS. In the VATS group, 35 resections were attempted with 1 conversion. The distribution of resected lobes or segments and demographics was similar. Clinical outcomes between robotics and VATS were similar in tumor size (2.8 versus 2.3 cm), operative time (213 versus 208 minutes), blood loss (153 versus 134 mL), intensive care unit stay (0.9 versus 0.6 days), and length of stay (4.0 versus 4.5 days). There was no operative mortality. Major (n=8; 17%) and minor morbidity (n=12; 26%) with robotics was similar to VATS. The percentage of expected nodal stations sampled was similar. The duration of narcotic use after discharge (p=0.039) and the time to return to usual activities (p=0.001) was shorter in the robotic group. Early experience with robotic resection resulted in similar outcomes compared with mature VATS cases. A potential benefit of robotics may relate to postoperative pain reduction and earlier return to usual activities. Robotic lung resection should be studied further in selected centers and compared with VATS in a randomized fashion to better define its potential advantages and disadvantages.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 03/2012; 93(5):1598-604; discussion 1604-5. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a case of a low-grade mullerian tumor of right pleural origin in a 23-year-old woman treated with an aggressive multimodal treatment paradigm. This tumor is heretofore undescribed in the medical literature. She received induction therapy of carboplatin and paclitaxel with minimal response, then had a maximally cytoreductive right extrapleural pneumonectomy. She subsequently underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy to the right hemithorax. We propose a treatment paradigm for this previously undescribed primary pleural mullerian tumor.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 01/2012; 93(1):e1-2. · 3.45 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

491 Citations
189.03 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • Swedish Medical Center Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2009
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      • Division of Clinical Research
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2003–2009
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery
      • • Department of Surgery
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2004
    • Washington Hospital Center
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States