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Publications (6)62.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To determine the frequency of early neurologic deterioration with infarct expansion (ENDIE) and poor outcomes among ischemic stroke patients not treated with reperfusion therapies because of rapidly improving or mild symptoms (RIMS) and to study the predictive value of hyperacute MRI in these patients. We identified consecutive patients with symptoms of acute stroke undergoing multimodal MRI within 6 hours of onset without evidence of hemorrhage on imaging. Medical records were reviewed for evidence of early neurologic deterioration within 48 hours. All deteriorating patients had repeat MRI to ascertain causes of worsening. Poor outcome was defined as a discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of > or = 3. We identified 74 patients with stroke symptoms < or = 6 hours from onset. Forty had RIMS, and 39 did not receive reperfusion therapies because of RIMS. Among these 39, 4 experienced ENDIE, and 8 were discharged with mRS score of > or = 3. Eight of the 39 patients had large-vessel occlusions on MR angiography. Three of 8 patients with large-vessel occlusion as against only one of 31 patients without occlusion had ENDIE (odds ratio [OR] 18, 95% CI 1.6 to 209, p = 0.02). Four of 8 patients with large-vessel occlusion as against 4 of 31 patients without occlusion had a discharge mRS score of > or = 3 (OR 7, 95% CI 1.2 to 38, p = 0.04). About 10% of patients eligible for acute reperfusion therapy excluded on the basis of mild or rapidly improving symptoms show early neurologic deterioration with infarct expansion within 48 hours, and about 20% show poor outcome at discharge. Persisting large-vessel occlusion substantially increases the risk of early worsening and poor functional outcome.
    Neurology 10/2006; 67(6):980-4. DOI:10.1212/01.wnl.0000237520.88777.71 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with cardiogenic sources of embolism may be at increased risk of cerebral infarction when anticoagulation therapy is suspended for surgical procedures. The purpose of this study was to determine frequency of cardioembolic cerebral infarction during periprocedural warfarin withdrawal. Retrospective analysis of prospective cerebral infarction registry data from two tertiary medical centers. Over a 12-month period, 14 cases of cardioembolic cerebral infarction occurring during the period of warfarin withdrawal for a medical procedure were observed, accounting for 7.1% of the 197 cardioembolic cerebral infarctions encountered. Across all patients, cerebral infarctions developed an average of 5.4 days after the last dose of warfarin (range 3-8). Among the 14 patients (8 males and 6 females) with warfarin cessation-related infarcts, age ranged from 54 to 91 years. Each had been on chronic anticoagulation with warfarin for more than 1 year. Retrospective analysis suggested that all these cerebral infarctions had been potentially preventable. In each case, either the planned procedure did not require discontinuation of warfarin or, when withdrawal was required, no bridging, parenteral anticoagulation was provided to lessen the risk during the warfarin-free period. Patients at high risk of cardioembolic cerebral infarction may benefit from more intensive management strategies to reduce cerebral infarction risk during periprocedural periods.
    Cerebrovascular Diseases 02/2005; 19(5):337-42. DOI:10.1159/000085027 · 3.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Stroke PROTECT (Preventing Recurrence Of Thromboembolic Events through Coordinated Treatment) program systematically implements, at the time of acute transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke admission, 8 medication/behavioral secondary prevention measures known to improve outcome in patients with cerebrovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine if the high utilization rates previously demonstrated at hospital discharge were maintained at 90 days after discharge. Data were prospectively collected on consecutively encountered ischemic stroke and TIA patients admitted to a university hospital stroke service beginning September 1, 2002. PROTECT interventions were initiated before hospital discharge in all PROTECT-target (underlying stroke mechanism large vessel atherosclerosis or small vessel disease) and PROTECT-ACS (At-risk for Coronary Sequelae) patients. Adherence to program goals was assessed 3 months after discharge. During the period from September 2002 to August 2003, 144 individuals met criteria for PROTECT intervention. Of the 130 patients (90%) with available day 90 follow-up data, mean age was 72 (range, 37 to 95), and 63% were male. Adherence rates in patients without specific contraindications were 100% for antithrombotics, 99% for statins, 92% for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and 80% for thiazides. Awareness of the importance of calling 911 in response to stroke was 87%. Adherence to diet and exercise guidelines were 78% and 70%, respectively. Of the 24 smokers, tobacco cessation was maintained in 20 (83%). High rates of adherence to PROTECT therapies were maintained at 90 days after hospital discharge.
    Stroke 12/2004; 35(12):2879-83. DOI:10.1161/01.STR.0000147967.49567.d6 · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) is the standard brain imaging study for the initial evaluation of patients with acute stroke symptoms. Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as an alternative to CT in the emergency stroke setting. However, the accuracy of MRI relative to CT for the detection of hyperacute intracerebral hemorrhage has not been demonstrated. To compare the accuracy of MRI and CT for detection of acute intracerebral hemorrhage in patients presenting with acute focal stroke symptoms. A prospective, multicenter study was performed at 2 stroke centers (UCLA Medical Center and Suburban Hospital, Bethesda, Md), between October 2000 and February 2003. Patients presenting with focal stroke symptoms within 6 hours of onset underwent brain MRI followed by noncontrast CT. Acute intracerebral hemorrhage and any intracerebral hemorrhage diagnosed on gradient recalled echo (GRE) MRI and CT scans by a consensus of 4 blinded readers. The study was stopped early, after 200 patients were enrolled, when it became apparent at the time of an unplanned interim analysis that MRI was detecting cases of hemorrhagic transformation not detected by CT. For the diagnosis of any hemorrhage, MRI was positive in 71 patients with CT positive in 29 (P<.001). For the diagnosis of acute hemorrhage, MRI and CT were equivalent (96% concordance). Acute hemorrhage was diagnosed in 25 patients on both MRI and CT. In 4 other patients, acute hemorrhage was present on MRI but not on the corresponding CT--each of these 4 cases was interpreted as hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarct. In 3 patients, regions interpreted as acute hemorrhage on CT were interpreted as chronic hemorrhage on MRI. In 1 patient, subarachnoid hemorrhage was diagnosed on CT but not on MRI. In 49 patients, chronic hemorrhage, most often microbleeds, was visualized on MRI but not on CT. MRI may be as accurate as CT for the detection of acute hemorrhage in patients presenting with acute focal stroke symptoms and is more accurate than CT for the detection of chronic intracerebral hemorrhage.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 11/2004; 292(15):1823-30. DOI:10.1001/jama.292.15.1823 · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of the Preventing Recurrence of Thromboembolic Events through Coordinated Treatment (PROTECT) Program on achievement of its eight secondary prevention goals at the time of discharge. Achievement rates for the eight program goals at time of discharge were compared in all patients discharged from a university hospital-based stroke service with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke or TIA during a 1-year period after implementation of the PROTECT Program vs rates obtained from a comparable group of patients admitted to the same service during the preceding year. Demographic and medical features were comparable in the baseline and intervention cohorts for all patients with cerebral ischemia presumed due to large-vessel atherosclerosis or small-vessel disease (baseline year n = 117, intervention n = 130). Implementation rates in patients without specific contraindications increased for all four medication goals: 97 to 100% for antithrombotic agents, 68 to 97% for statins, 42 to 90% for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and 14 to 70% for diuretics. Although data were not collected on baseline lifestyle instruction rates, instruction in the program's four lifestyle interventions was achieved by discharge in 100% of the intervention cohort. Implementation of this single-center, systems-based, in-hospital program to initiate secondary stroke prevention therapies was associated with a substantial increase in treatment utilization at the time of hospital discharge.
    Neurology 11/2004; 63(7):1217-22. DOI:10.1212/01.WNL.0000140493.83607.F1 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a major complication of thrombolytic treatment for acute ischemic stroke. Although a history of prior intracerebral hemorrhage diagnosed by head CT is a contraindication to thrombolysis, there are no guidelines or data regarding evidence of prior asymptomatic microbleeds visualized with T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pretreatment T2*-weighted MRI sequences were retrospectively analyzed in all patients receiving intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy and undergoing a pretreatment MRI at our institution. The frequency and location of prior microbleeds was determined and compared with the frequency and location of secondary HT after therapy. Five of 41 patients undergoing MRI before receiving intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy demonstrated evidence of prior microbleeds on the pretreatment MRI studies. Major symptomatic hemorrhage occurred in 1 of 5 patients with microbleeds compared with 4 of 36 patients without. Only 1 patient in the entire 41-patient cohort experienced any HT outside the acute ischemic field. In this patient, the symptomatic hemorrhage occurred directly at the site of a prior microbleed, contralateral to the acute ischemic event. Old silent microbleeds, visualized with T2*-weighted MRI sequences, may be a marker of increased risk of HT in patients receiving thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Pretreatment screening of thrombolytic candidates with these MRI sequences may be useful in the future to identify these patients.
    Stroke 02/2002; 33(1):95-8. DOI:10.1161/hs0102.101792 · 6.02 Impact Factor