Allen Cornelius

University of the Rockies, Colorado Springs, Colorado, United States

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Publications (34)37.34 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to determine the effect of short-term moderate-intensity exercise training on arterial stiffness in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3. Randomized controlled trial with a parallel-group design. Testing and training sessions were performed at Springfield College. 46 (treatment group, n=25; control group, n=21) patients with CKD with diabetes and/or hypertension completed the study. The aerobic training program consisted of 16 weeks of supervised exercise training at 50%-60% peak oxygen uptake (Vo2peak) 3 times per week, while the control group remained sedentary. Identical testing procedures were performed following the 16-week intervention. The primary outcome was arterial stiffness. Secondary outcomes were aerobic capacity, various blood parameters (endothelin 1, nitrate/nitrite, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), and health-related quality of life. Arterial stiffness was assessed with aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), aerobic capacity by Vo2peak, blood parameters by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and health-related quality of life by the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Participants attended 4 sessions before being randomly assigned to either the treatment or control group. Participants gave consent during the first session, whereas a graded exercise test with measurement of Vo2peak was completed during the second session. During sessions 3 and 4, aortic PWV was measured at rest prior to 40 minutes of either moderate-intensity exercise training or seated rest. A venous blood sample was obtained prior to exercise or rest and participants completed the SF-36 questionnaire. 16 weeks of training led to an 8.2% increase in Vo2peak for the treatment group (P=0.05), but no changes in aortic PWV . Randomization was not concealed and was violated on one occasion; also, use of an indirect measurement of endothelial function and the short duration of the intervention. Short-term moderate-intensity exercise training does not alter arterial stiffness in patients with CKD, but seems to reduce endothelin 1 levels.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 04/2014; · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Although home exercises are commonly prescribed following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and are considered important in obtaining successful rehabilitation outcomes, little is known about factors associated with the completion of such exercises. Consequently, this study was designed to identify predictors of adherence to home rehabilitation exercises after ACL surgery. Method: Participants (33 women, 58 men) completed indices of athletic identity, neuroticism, optimism, and pessimism before ACL surgery and measures of daily pain, negative mood, stress, and home exercise completion for 42 days postoperatively. Results: Participants reported a high level of adherence to the prescribed regimen. Home exercise completion increased significantly over time as the number of sets of prescribed home exercises declined. Personal factors were not predictive of home exercise completion. Participants completed fewer home exercises on days when they experienced more stress or negative mood. Conclusions: Day-to-day variations in negative mood and stress may contribute to adherence to prescribed home exercises. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
    Rehabilitation Psychology 02/2013; 58(1):64-72. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The current pilot and feasibility study was designed to examine the effect of 48 weeks of moderate intensity exercise training and dietary modification on kidney function and vascular parameters in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. METHODS: Twenty-one stage 2-4 CKD patients (age 18-70 years) were randomly assigned to either the training group (TG, n=10) or the usual care group (UC, n= 11) for 48 weeks. The TG received 48 weeks of personal training (3 days/week for up to 55 minutes per session at 50-60% V˙O2peak) and dietary counseling while individuals in the UC received standard of care and were instructed not to start a structured exercise program while in the study. V˙O2peak, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), resting and ambulatory heart rate (HR), plasma lipids (total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, triglycerides), and inflammatory markers (hsCRP, IL6) were assessed at baseline and weeks 24 and 48. An independent groups t-test was used to compare GFR slopes between groups while all other data were analyzed with ANCOVA using the baseline value as the covariate. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in any of the parameters at baseline. The 48-weeks intervention led to a significant increase in V˙O2peak, reductions in both resting and ambulatory HRs and increases in LDLc and in TG, but it had no effect on the rate of change of eGFR over time. CONCLUSIONS: A 48 week exercise training program, primarily focused on aerobic exercise, increases V˙O2peak and favorably alters autonomic function as evidenced by reductions in heart rates in stages 2-4 CKD patients. The exercise intervention had no effect on kidney function as assessed by eGFR.
    Medicine and science in sports and exercise 07/2012; · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    Britton W Brewer, Allen E Cornelius
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to examine the possibility of self-protective changes in athletic identity (AI) being initiated after the occurrence of a severe injury. METHOD: People (72 men and 36 women) undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery and rehabilitation were asked to complete a measure of AI prior to surgery and measures of AI and rehabilitation progress at approximately 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. RESULTS: A repeated-measures ANCOVA controlling for age and gender indicated that AI decreased significantly across the 24-month period following surgery, with the most substantial decline occurring between 6 and 12 months postsurgery. Significantly greater decreases in AI were observed among participants whose rehabilitation progress was slowest from 6 to 12 months postsurgery. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that some participants reduced their identification with the athlete role in response to the threat to a positive self-image posed by their ACL injuries and the difficulties they encountered in postoperative rehabilitation.
    Psychology of Sport and Exercise 01/2010; 11(1):1-5. · 1.72 Impact Factor
  • Psychology of Sport and eXercise. 01/2010; 11:1-5.
  • Matthew P. Buman, Britton W. Brewer, Allen E. Cornelius
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    ABSTRACT: ObjectiveRecent literature has begun to describe and identify predictors of hitting the wall among recreational marathon runners. Our purpose was to extend previous findings by exploring the relative probability of when runners of various risk profiles hit the wall and to describe the overall functional form of risk over the course of a marathon.MethodSurvival methods and discrete-time hazard modeling were used to model self-reported hitting the wall occurrence data among 324 recreational marathon runners from four Eastern Seaboard marathons.ResultsThe combinative effects of male gender, running 20 miles or less in training, and expectancy, showed the greatest probability of hitting the wall at any timepoint of the marathon. The shape of hitting the wall risk appeared to most closely fit a cubic form with a dramatic incline of risk peaking at mile 21 followed by a precipitous decline.ConclusionThese findings further clarify under what circumstances recreational marathon runners are most and least likely to hit the wall and contributes to the formation of a conceptual definition of the phenomenon.
    Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 01/2009;
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    Britton W. Brewer, Allen E. Cornelius
    01/2008: pages 160 - 183; , ISBN: 9780470757178
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    ABSTRACT: ObjectivesThis study was designed to identify salient characteristics of hitting the wall in the marathon and to assess the frequency of self-reported occurrence of the wall as a function of expectancy, gender, and running history.DesignA correlational research design was used.MethodParticipants (218 men and 97 women) from three Eastern Seaboard marathons in the United States responded to items regarding general demographic information and expectation of the wall prior to the marathon. After the marathon, participants were asked to report the occurrence of the wall, whether they experienced each of 24 potential characteristics of the wall, and the impact of these characteristics on performance.ResultsApproximately 43% of participants reported that they hit the wall during the marathon. Logistic regression analysis indicated that generalized fatigue, unintentionally slowing pace, desire to walk, and shifting focus to survival were salient characteristics of the wall. Logistic regression analyses indicated that male gender, expectancy of hitting the wall, shorter distance of longest training run, and previous episodes of hitting the wall were associated with reports of hitting the wall.ConclusionsSeveral robust characteristics of the wall were identified. Occurrence of the wall phenomenon appears to be more prevalent among men than among women and may be influenced by expectancy.
    Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 01/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: Daily diary methods were used to examine changes in pain and negative mood over the first 6 weeks of rehabilitation after surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Participants (58 men and 33 women) completed measures of personal factors (i.e., age, athletic identity, neuroticism, optimism) before surgery and indices of daily pain, negative mood, and stress for 42 days after surgery. Multilevel modeling revealed that, as would be expected, daily pain ratings decreased significantly over the course of the study and that the rate of decline in pain ratings decreased over time. Age and daily negative mood were positively associated with daily pain ratings. Daily negative mood also decreased significantly over the course of the study and was positively associated with neuroticism, daily pain, and daily stress. Athletic identity and optimism interacted with time since surgery in predicting daily negative mood such that participants with high levels of athletic identity and low levels of optimism reported greater decreases in daily negative mood over time. Overall, the findings reveal a pattern of improved psychological functioning over the early stages of post-operative ACL rehabilitation.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 11/2007; 17(5):520-9. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    Britton W Brewer, Judy L Van Raalte, Allen E Cornelius
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify topics of potential concern to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery patients. DESIGN: An archival design was used. SETTING: Qualitative data were collected from two Internet message boards. METHOD: A thematic content analysis was performed on the initial postings of 900 threads from the archives of two online forums. Postings (N = 797) in which questions were asked of the message board communities were placed in 1 of 22 content themes by two independent raters. RESULTS: More than half of the postings in which questions were asked pertained to rehabilitation and the postoperative period (N = 436, 55%), with approximately one-third of the postings (N = 287, 36%) corresponding to issues associated with surgery and the preoperative period. The content themes observed most frequently (all with more than 51 postings) were those pertaining to rehabilitation progress, pain, complications, physical therapy, diagnosis, returning to sport, and whether to have surgery. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial number of individuals use Internet message boards to learn about ACL surgery and rehabilitation. Information gleaned from this study can be used to help ensure that the primary concerns of patients are addressed in educational materials.
    Physical therapy in sport: official journal of the Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Sports Medicine 03/2007; 8(1):3-6. · 0.67 Impact Factor
  • Allen E. Cornelius, Britton W. Brewer, Judy L. Van Raalte
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    ABSTRACT: Sport injury rehabilitation researchers are using increasingly sophisticated and complex prospective longitudinal research designs. Unfortunately, traditional statistical analysis techniques (e.g., analysis of variance [ANOVA], regression) are inadequate to thoroughly analyze the data sets these designs produce. In this article, the use of multilevel modeling (MLM) is described. MLM is shown to be an effective alternative to regression and ANOVA techniques for two main reasons: (a) MLM is particularly well suited to analyzing repeated‐measures designs when the data are clustered; and (b) MLM results are not adversely affected by random missing data and unequal numbers of observations. Results of MLM analyses highlighting the ability to examine relationships among variables pertaining to both individuals (i.e., within‐subjects analyses) and groups (i.e., between‐subjects analyses) are presented in the context of a longitudinal study of persons with knee injuries. Suggestions for applying MLM to other sport injury rehabilitation research questions are provided.
    International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 01/2007; 5(4).
  • Hellenic Journal of Psychology. 01/2006; 3:134-149.
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    ABSTRACT: Although there is considerable interest in the use of sport as a vehicle to promote psychosocial development in youth, little is known about the specific content or implementation strategies that are likely to account for positive outcomes. In this article, a brief review of current literature and a working definition of youth development through sport are provided to lay a foundation for a framework for planning youth sport programs that are structured to promote psychosocial development in participants. The components of the framework are outlined and suggestions for research, evaluation, and program development are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Sport Psychologist 02/2005; · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined relations among body mass index (BMI), social physique anxiety (SPA) and protective self-presentational exercise behaviours in a sample of 86 female participants in aerobics classes at a university fitness centre. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing demographic and exercise-related information, the 9-item version of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale, and measures of two forms of protective self-presentational exercise behaviour (i.e., preferring to stand away from the aerobics instructor and wearing concealing exercise attire). Consistent with previous research, SPA was positively associated with both preferred exercise studio floor position (r = .31, p < .05) and clothing concealingness (r = .25, p < .05). SPA did not mediate the relations between BMI and either of the two protective self-presentational behaviours. BMI was a better predictor of clothing concealingness than SPA, but the opposite was found for exercise studio floor position preferences (r = .31 with SPA versus r = .15 with BMI). The findings provide an enhanced understanding of factors associated with self-presentation in exercise.
    Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 04/2004; 7(1):47-55. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sport and after school activities have been identified as fertile ground for adolescents to develop initiative and feelings of self-efficacy. The purpose of this article is to describe the development and implementation of a national intervention program that uses sport participation as a vehicle to enhance life skill development in urban youth. Evaluation data are provided and some potential advantages of using sport and after-school activities to promote social competence are discussed.
    The Journal of Primary Prevention 02/2004; 24(3):325-334. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationship between adherence to postoperative physical therapy and outcome after surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee in a sample of 72 men and 36 women. Indices of adherence were obtained during the first 6 weeks of postsurgical rehabilitation. Outcome measures were administered before surgery and approximately 6 months after surgery. Results of a canonical correlation analysis indicated a statistically significant association between the adherence variables and the outcome variables (r = 0.56, p
    Psychology Health and Medicine 01/2004; 9(2):163-175. · 1.38 Impact Factor
  • Kinesiologia Slovenica. 01/2004; 10:86-95.
  • B Shachar, BW Brewer, AE Cornelius, A Petitpas
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    ABSTRACT: Identity is considered a central contributor to the career development process in athletes and is thought to influence adjustment to sport career termination. For former athletes, choosing to become a coach may both reflect identity status and affect adjustment to the transition out of sport. In the present study, differences in vocational behaviour, athletic identity, and transitional adjustment difficulties between retired athletes who chose to be coaches (n = 117) and retired athletes who chose careers not related to sport (n = 29) were assessed. Retired athletes were asked to respond to measures of athletic identity, tendency to foreclose, career exploration, transitional adjustment difficulties, life satisfaction, and career choice satisfaction. Relative to non-coaches, coaches reported a stronger tendency to foreclose and less engagement in exploration of career possibilities other than coaching. Coaches and no-ncoaches did not differ in retrospective reports of athletic identity at the time of retirement, but non-coaches had significantly weaker athletic identity at the time of assessment. No differences were found in transitional adjustment difficulties.
    Kinesiologia Slovenica. 01/2004; 10(1):71-85.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the relationships between psychological factors and rehabilitation adherence after knee surgery differ as a function of age. DESIGN AND SETTING: Participants completed inventories of self-motivation, social support, athletic identity, and psychological distress before anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. After surgery, participants recorded their completion of home rehabilitation exercises and cryotherapy, and the sport rehabilitation professionals providing their treatment reported on the patients' attendance at, and adherence during, rehabilitation sessions. SUBJECTS: Sixty-one individuals with acute ACL tears. MEASUREMENTS: The Self-Motivation Inventory, Social Support Inventory, Athletic Identity Measurement Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory, and Sport Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale were used to measure self-motivation, social support, athletic identity, psychological distress, and adherence, respectively, during rehabilitation sessions. RESULTS: Hierarchic regression analyses indicated that age moderated the relationships between (1) self-motivation and home exercise completion, (2) social support and home exercise completion, (3) athletic identity and home exercise completion, and (4) athletic identity and home cryotherapy completion. CONCLUSIONS: The prospective moderating relationships for between psychological factors and indices of adherence to home-based rehabilitation activities indicate the need to consider developmental issues when examining psychological aspects of sport-injury rehabilitation.
    Journal of athletic training 07/2003; 38(2):158-162. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tested the utility of protection motivation theory (PMT) in predicting adherence to sport injury rehabilitation. This study was designed to address some of the limitations of a previous study by A. H. Taylor and S. May (1996) by using (1) a sample of participants that was homogenous with respect to injury type and rehabilitation protocol, and (2) continuous indices of adherence to both home- and clinic-based rehabilitation activities. 85 patients (mean age 27.25 yrs) who were undergoing rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction participated. All patients were being guided through the same rehabilitation protocol at the same outpatient physical therapy clinic. Patients completed measures of the PMT components (perceived injury severity, perceived susceptibility to further complications without rehabilitation, belief in the efficacy of the treatment, and rehabilitation self-efficacy) and adherence to both home- and clinic-based rehabilitation activities. Findings augment Taylor and May (1996) in providing support for PMT as a viable framework for understanding adherence to home-based sport injury rehabilitation activities, and they extend the application of PMT to adherence to clinic-based sport injury rehabilitation activities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Sport Psychologist 02/2003; · 1.02 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

143 Citations
37.34 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • University of the Rockies
      Colorado Springs, Colorado, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Grenoble
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2009
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Psychology
      Gainesville, FL, United States
  • 2003–2007
    • Springfield College
      • Department of Psychology
      Springfield, MN, United States
  • 2004
    • Springfield College
      Springfield, Missouri, United States
  • 2000
    • University of Hartford
      West Hartford, Connecticut, United States