[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A retrospective study of 36 patients with primary retro-peritoneal sarcomas treated at The Norwegian Radium Hospital is presented. The median age at presentation was 57 years. The most common presenting symptom was abdominal pain. Leiomyosarcoma and liposarcoma were the most common histologic subtypes. The median survival in the whole series was 25 months. Patients with completely resected tumors had a longer median survival (59 months) than patients with incomplete resection (16 months) but the difference was not statistically significant. The malignancy grade seemed to be the most important prognostic factor and patients with low grade tumors had a significantly better outlook than those with high grade tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Norwegian Radium Hospital's sarcoma group is a multidisciplinary group with a leading role in the diagnosis and treatment of bone and soft tissue sarcomas in Norway.
From 1980 through 1999, 1,355 patients with soft tissue sarcoma and 458 patients with bone sarcoma were treated. In a retrospective analysis of trends over time, patients were allocated to consecutive five-year periods.
Patient characteristics were relatively stable, but there was an increasing proportion of soft tissue sarcomas being referred without prior surgery. Treatment principles have remained unchanged, with surgery with or without radiotherapy dominating in soft tissue sarcoma and surgery with or without chemotherapy in bone sarcoma. The amputation rate for bone sarcoma has fallen from 78% to 17%, and survival has increased significantly for both soft tissue and bone sarcoma patients.
The results indicate significant improvements in the quality of treatment of soft tissue and bone sarcoma. More resources for treatment and organizational development of a multidisciplinary group may contribute to improved quality of care.
Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening 10/2002; 122(21):2089-94.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the clinical use of ultrasonographically (US) guided core-needle biopsy, performed with a one-hand automatic sampling technique, in the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM).
The authors reviewed the findings in 70 patients with a tentative diagnosis of MPM who underwent US-guided core-needle biopsy at our institution during the past 10 years.
Fifty-two of the 70 patients who underwent automatic high-speed core-needle biopsy at our institution had MPM; 18 had other disorders. The correct diagnosis was made in 56 patients. Twelve of 14 inadequate biopsy specimens were false-negative for MPM. There were no false-positive biopsy results. In the detection of MPM, US-guided core-needle biopsy had a sensitivity of 77%, specificity of 88%, accuracy of 80%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 57%. There were no serious complications.
US-guided core-needle biopsy is highly effective in the diagnosis of MPM. Owing to its simplicity, low cost, and few side effects, it could be the biopsy method of choice for detection of this condition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate tumour response and toxicity to ifosfamide and continuous infusion etoposide in metastatic or locally advanced soft tissue sarcoma, with dose escalations under G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) support. Of 92 eligible patients (median age 51 years), 85% had tumours of high-grade malignancy and 82% had metastatic disease. Chemotherapy, the baseline dose, consisted of etoposide 600 mg/m2 as a 72 h infusion and ifosfamide 1500 mg/ m2/day for 3 days, followed by G-CSF support (VIG regimen). Stepwise 10% dose escalations were performed depending on haematological toxicity. For patients considered operable after induction chemotherapy, surgical resection of all identifiable residual tumour was attempted. Complete and partial response rates were 11% and 31%, for an overall response rate of 42% (95% CI 31-52%). Forty-eight per cent of courses were dose escalated by a median of 20%. Complete responders had significantly higher, and patients with progressive disease had significantly lower, dose levels than other patients. None of 20 patients with liver metastases responded despite high dose levels. Compared to a preceding pilot study, the addition of G-CSF led to significantly higher dose levels, improved schedule adherence and less haematological toxicity, but no apparent increase in response rate. In view of the modest dose of ifosfamide applied in this study, it is possible that the prolonged infusion of etoposide made a significant contribution to the regimen's antitumour activity, although this can only be determined definitively in a randomised study.
European Journal of Cancer 10/1997; 33(10):1551-8. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on a literature review and the SSG experience, the most important prognostic factors in high-grade osteosarcoma appear to be the presence of detectable metastases at diagnosis, tumour volume, old age, sex, histologic response, and possibly tumoral P-glycoprotein expression. However, for an adolescent patient with non-metastatic extremity disease, there is no consensus regarding prognostic factors at initial presentation, and currently there is thus no established method for dividing them into high- and low risk groups for the purpose of treatment differentiation. It should also be remembered that available prognostic factors have been identified only in a retrospective manner, following aggressive treatment of all patients. Thus patients in "favourable" prognostic groups may simply be patients who have had a good effect from aggressive treatment, and how they would have done with reduced treatment remains to be shown. Obviously the best method for prognostication would be the direct demonstration of micrometastatic disease in the lungs or in peripheral blood. In the relatively near future, this may become possible with immunoscintigrapy or immunohistochemistry utilizing monoclonal antibodies [29-31]. In Ewing's sarcoma, the most powerful factors indicating poor prognosis are metastases at diagnosis, poor histologic response, large tumour size and possibly pelvic localisation. There appears to be a somewhat better international consensus regarding prognostic factors in Ewing's sarcoma than in osteosarcoma. Although several studies have implemented intensified treatment for poor prognostic groups [8, 32], the role (if any) of high-dose treatment with stem cell rescue remains to be proven. The same factors are prognostic both for the development of metastases and local recurrence, but in addition, surgical treatment as opposed to radiotherapy appears to reduce local failure rate [12, 17, 33, 34]. As in osteosarcoma, the near future offers promise regarding the detection and quantification of micrometastatses and minimal residual disease, by means of PCR techniques recognizing specific genetic changes in the Ewing family of tumors .
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our purpose was to study the role of the expression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and glutathione S transferase-pi (GST-pi) in predicting the response to chemotherapy, relapse-free interval, and survival of patients with synovial sarcoma (SS). Thirty-seven cases of primary SS, without regional lymph node or distant metastases, were studied. There were 17 females and 20 males, ranging in age from 7 to 81 years (median, 31 years) with tumors located in the lower extremity (n = 24) upper extremity (n = 5) and trunchus (n = 8). The cases were retrospectively studied without knowledge of clinical course to compare the immunohistochemical expression of Pgp and GST-pi, flow cytometry parameters (ploidy and % of cells in S+G2 phases), and PCNA and Ki-67 labeling of primary tumors before any therapy, with that observed in local recurrences and metastases after chemotherapy. The relationship of the aforementioned parameters with clinicopathological features (gender, age, and histo-blood group of the patients, size, location, histological subtype. TNM stage, and clinical response to chemotherapy of the tumors) was also evaluated. Results revealed that Pgp and GST-pi were expressed in 29.7% and 40.5% of the cases, respectively. In 48.6% of the tumors there was expression of a least one of the drug resistance markers. The markers were coexpressed in 25.0% of the tumors. The prevalence of Pgp expression was lower, but not significantly, in stage I-II (17.6%) than in stage III (40.0%) tumors, and also in cases without clinical progression (16.7%), than in cases with (36.0%). No such differences were observed for GST-pi expression. Pgp and GST-pi expressions were significantly associated with biphasic SS and were particularly noticeable in solid/glandular areas of biphasic SS. The expression of the drug resistance markers was not significantly associated with gender, age, and histo-blood group of the patients, dimension, location, and proliferative activity of the tumors; it was also not significantly related to relapse-free interval and survival of the patients. The expression of Pgp and GST-pi was not significantly associated either to response to chemotherapy or influenced by chemotherapy. We conclude that Pgp and GST-pi expressions are not good predictors response to of the chemotherapy in patients with localized SS. Other drug resistance mechanisms may be active in SS.
Pathology - Research and Practice 02/1997; 193(1):21-36. · 1.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case where targeted radionuclide therapy using 153Sm-EDTMP gave substantial palliative effect. A 35-year-old male with a primary osteosarcoma located in the first lumbar vertebra relapsed with progressive back pain after conventional treatment modalities had failed. He became bedridden, and developed paraparesis and impaired bladder function. On a diagnostic bone-scan intense radioactivity was localized in the tumor. He therefore was given 153Sm-EDTMP treatment twice, 8 weeks apart, 35 and 32 MBq/kg body weight respectively. After a few days the pain was significantly relieved and by the second radionuclide treatment the pareses subsided. For six months he was able to be up and about without any neurological signs or detectable metastases. Eventually, however, he experienced increasing local pain, developed paraparesis, was re-operated but died 4 months later. The dramatic transient improvement observed in this case warrants further exploration using 153Sm-EDTMP as a boost technique, supplementary to conventional external radiotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A retrospective study of long term outcome after the development of metastases from osteosarcoma was performed, with emphasis on the impact of different treatment strategies and the identification of prognostic factors.
From 1975 to 1993, a population-based series of 60 patients with distant metastases (relapse) from high grade, extremity-localized osteosarcoma was treated at The Norwegian Radium Hospital. Six patients relapsed after surgery alone, 28 patients relapsed after primary chemotherapy of low potency, and 26 patients after modern, intensive chemotherapy. Lung metastases were present in 88% of the patients, 52% had bilateral lesions, and the median number of lesions was three (range, 1-25 lesions). Forty-seven percent of patients had complete surgical excision of all identifiable metastatic nodules and 54% of these had additional second line chemotherapy defined as adequate. Adequate chemotherapy included further dose escalations of methotrexate in approximately half of the patients, usually from 8 to 12 g. The rest were exposed to novel agents such as cisplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide. Of the operated patients, 43% had additional thoracotomies after subsequent relapses.
The projected 5-year survival rate from the first metastatic event was 24% for all patients and 50% for patients who underwent complete metastasectomy. In a multivariate analysis, the factors with independent predictive value for improved overall survival were the presence of a solitary metastasis, the accomplishment of complete metastasectomy, and the administration of adequate salvage chemotherapy.
Complete metastasectomy is mandatory for long term survival of patients with metastatic osteosarcoma, and repeated lung resections are necessary in nearly half the patients. Second line chemotherapy and following primary treatment with modern intensive chemotherapy protocols may improve survival further.
Cancer 04/1995; 75(5):1084-93. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 33 patients (median age, 44 years) with high-grade, adult soft-tissue sarcoma were treated with etoposide given at 600 mg/m2 in a 72-h continuous infusion and ifosfamide given at 1500 mg/m2 per day for 3 days every 3 weeks. Dose escalation/reduction was protocolled depending on the level of hematological toxicity observed in the preceding course. Overall, 90% of patients had metastatic disease, and the most common histologies were malignant fibrous histiocytoma and leiomyosarcoma. A median of 5 (range, 1-9) courses were given. Of 30 patients who were evaluable for response, 12 (40%) obtained a partial remission, and the median time to progression was 8 (range, 4-13) months. Grade 3-4 leukopenia and thrombocytopenia were seen after 89% and 8% of the courses, respectively; neutropenic fever was seen in half of the patients (15% of courses); and 32% of courses had to be postponed by 7 days or more due to myelosuppression. Dose reduction to below the standard had to be performed in 46% of courses, and dose escalation was achieved in only 13%. The reduced toxicity seen after the addition of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in five patients indicates that growth-factor support may enhance the dose intensity of the regimen. The results indicate significant activity for this regimen in adult soft-tissue sarcoma, which may in part be a result of the escalated dose and prolonged mode of administration of the phase-specific agent etoposide. As a result of this pilot series, a phase II study with ifosfamide, etoposide, and G-CSF in advanced adult soft-tissue sarcoma has been initiated by the Scandinavian Sarcoma Group.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 02/1995; 36(2):172-5. · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors present a retrospective analysis of 59 chondrosarcoma patients treated at the Norwegian Radium Hospital during the period 1981 to 1993. 31 patients were admitted with untouched tumour, seven after fine needle cytology and 20 after open biopsy or partial excision. One patient had recurrent local disease. Only 20% of the tumours were of high grade malignancy. 51 patients were treated by surgery. Reconstructions were performed in 16 patients, using allografts or endoprostheses. Amputations were performed in six cases and wide excision in 12 cases. In these 18 patients local recurrence appeared in one case, and two developed lung metastases. Only one of the 18 patients operated by amputation or wide excision has since died from chondrosarcoma. Marginal excisions were performed in 26 cases. Nine of these patients developed a local recurrence, five developed metastases and three have died. Six patients had partial excisions. Postoperative radiotherapy was given to one patient only. Five of the six are alive. In one case, the quality of the margins could not be evaluated. A total of 45 of the 51 patients treated for the primary tumour by surgery are alive. The median observation time is four years. Treatment of nonmetastatic chondrosarcoma should be surgical. Chondrosarcoma patients show wider variations in age, localization of tumour and tumour growth rate than patients with other bone sarcomas. Although wide excisions provide the best local control of any grade of malignancy, the mutilation or risk involved may be so great that some patients may benefit from marginal or even partial excision.
Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening 11/1994; 114(26):3075-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nine patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma underwent extensive surgery followed by intra-operative photodynamic therapy. Two mg/kg Photofrin was given 48 hours prior to surgery. The thoracic cavity and eventual remaining lung were exposed to 15 - 30 Joules/cm2 of 630 nm laser light. Tumor tissue was analyzed by microscopic photometrical techniques. Five patients with mixed or epithelioid tumors with fluorescence intensity > 100 gray level/pixel seemed to benefit from the given therapy. One patient was free of disease 18 months after treatment. Two patients were treated for metastasis after 12 months with no sign of intrathoracic recurrence. Both are still alive, one without further sign of disease 32 months after initial treatment. Two patients presented generalized disease after 9 and 13 months and intrathoracic recurrence several months later. Two patients with poorly differentiated tumors and 2 patients with moderate to highly differentiated tumors, but with fluorescence intensity < 100 gray level/pixel, presented recurrences after 4 months. PDT-efficiency seems to be predicted by the intensity and distribution of drug-induced fluorescence in tumor tissue. PDT may enhance the possibility to achieve complete local tumor control after excision. Multimodal therapeutic approach of local and systemic disease seems mandatory to further improve survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The feasibility of using the murine monoclonal antibody, TP-1, for clinical immunoscintigraphy was examined in a pilot study involving 5 patients with bone sarcomas. 131I-labelled F(ab')2 antibody fragments were injected in doses of 0.8-1.0 mg (90-130 MBq), and the accumulation of radioactivity was examined by scintigraphy, and assessed by direct measurements on biopsied tumour and normal tissue. One osteosarcoma patient had a primary tumour in the femur, whereas the other 4 had single lung metastases detected by other diagnostic methods. Immunoscintigraphy of the femoral primary was optimally visualised after 22 h. In 2 patients, the method failed to detect lung metastasis, in 1 of the cases possibly related to less than optimal methodological conditions. In 2 other patients, increased accumulation of radioactivity indicated one and three lung tumours, in addition to the single metastasis observed by X-ray and CT scanning, tumours that were later confirmed and removed surgically. The concentration of radioactivity in tumour and normal tissues 44-72 h after antibody injection could be measured in 4 patients. The tumour to blood ratios were in the range of 1.2-4.2, compared to 0.1-0.8 for various normal tissues. The results indicate that immunoscintigraphy with TP-1 antibody fragments have a potential for early detection of lung metastases in patients with bone sarcoma.
European Journal of Cancer 02/1994; 30A(10):1484-9. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During a six-year period, 17 patients younger than 20 years of age, with a final diagnosis of subacute osteomyelitis, were admitted to the Norwegian Radium Hospital because of an initial suspicion of primary malignant bone tumour. The most common localizations were the metaphyses of long bones (eight patients) and the clavicle (four patients). Pain was the dominating symptom. Common radiological findings were localized osteolysis and/or sclerosis, cortical bone destruction, periosteal reaction and an adjacent, often palpable soft tissue mass. Clinical signs of infection were generally absent, and a positive bacterial culture was obtained from the biopsy material in only one patient. Following extensive investigations, a malignant bone tumour (especially Ewing's sarcoma) remained a differential diagnosis, and open biopsy was indicated in all cases. The patient material illustrates the difficulty in distinguishing between subacute osteomyelitis and malignant bone tumours, and it is stressed that diagnostic investigations for this type of patients should be performed in an oncological centre with experience of bone tumours.
Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening 11/1993; 113(26):3240-3.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From 1984 to 1989, 63 patients with diffuse, malignant mesothelioma of the pleura were treated with 4-8 courses of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX, 3 g total dose) and citrovorum factor rescue. There were 61 male and two female patients of median age 60 years. CT scan was performed before and after treatment and used for response evaluation. Of 60 patients evaluable for response, 37% showed partial or complete remission, 32% showed no change and 32% showed progressive disease. Median survival from start of treatment for all patients was 11 months, for 42 patients with the epithelial type 12 months, and for 20 patients with sarcomatous or mixed types only 5 months. Toxicity was acceptable, with only five patients (8%) terminating therapy due to toxicity. One toxic death occurred. We conclude that HDMTX is an active regimen in malignant pleural mesothelioma. The significantly shorter survival for patients with the sarcomatous or mixed subtypes indicates that further investigations on the activity of HDMTX in mesothelioma should be limited to patients with the epithelial subtype.
British Journal of Cancer 07/1992; 65(6):956-60. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study comprised 97 patients treated by the Scandinavian Sarcoma Group for high-grade, extremity-localized osteosarcoma. Chemotherapy was according to the T-10 protocol, with four courses of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX) given preoperatively at weekly intervals. Seventeen percent of the patients obtained a good (grade III or IV) histologic response, 62% a moderate (grade II) response and 21% a poor (grade I) response. Grade II-IV responders had significantly higher serum MTX levels than grade I responders. Good responders had significantly better survival than moderate/poor responders, and had a trend towards both lower recurrence rate and longer time to recurrence. Five-year overall and relapse-free survival for all patients was 63% and 53%, respectively. Within a group of patients with similar primary tumour response, there was a trend for better survival with increasing serum MTX levels, indicating that individualization of MTX doses according to renal excretion rates may be indicated. The present results underline the importance of introducing effective chemotherapy from the start of osteosarcoma treatment, and that HDMTX alone seems to be insufficient preoperative therapy. The toxicity of HDMTX is generally mild, but we have by cerebral MRI found signal changes in white matter in 14/22 patients; changes that may represent subclinical MTX CNS toxicity. In the subsequent SSG osteosarcoma protocol, cisplatin and doxorubicin has been added to HDMTX from the start of treatment. Our data also suggest that an aggressive approach involving second-line chemotherapy and surgery is indicated for metastatic disease and that such an approach may lead to long-term survival in up to 30% of patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From 1982 to 1989, 97 patients with extremity-localized, high-grade osteosarcoma were treated according to the T-10 protocol. Two thirds of the patients consisted of the near-complete national patient materials from Norway and Finland. Eighty patients (82%) received four courses of high-dose methotrexate (HD MTX, 8 to 12 g/m2) at weekly intervals as their only preoperative treatment, and 77 patients (79%) were assessable for histologic response grading according to Rosen et al (Cancer 49:1221-1230, 1991). Observed histologic response was no certain chemotherapy effect (grade I) in 21%, grade II effect in 62%, and grade III or IV effect in 17%. Nonresponders had significantly lower serum MTX concentrations after 24 and 48 hours than responders; the significance of the difference at 48 hours was maintained in a multivariate analysis. After a median follow-up of 45 months, projected 5-year overall and relapse-free survival for all patients were 64% and 54%, respectively. Patients with a good response to preoperative chemotherapy (grade III/IV) had a significantly better survival than grade I/II responders, despite a switch to postoperative cisplatin/doxorubicin chemotherapy in the latter group. These results were obtained in a largely nonselected group of patients. We conclude that a good initial chemotherapy effect is important for the final outcome in osteosarcoma, and that HD MTX alone is insufficient preoperative treatment for the majority of patients. The individual MTX excretion rate is of importance for tumor response, suggesting a dose-response relationship for HD MTX treatment.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/1991; 9(10):1766-75. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The advent of lesions with high signal intensity in periventricular white matter was incidentally observed on T2-weighted images in one patient who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain after administration of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX) for osteogenic sarcoma. Twenty-one additional symptom-free patients who had been treated with the same regimen and 10 patients who had undergone cisplatin-based chemotherapy for testicular cancer also underwent examination. Fourteen of the patients with osteosarcoma showed high-signal-intensity lesions in white matter on T2-weighted images. The interval between the last course of chemotherapy and MR imaging was a factor in this finding, as 12 of 14 patients who underwent examination within 2 years after chemotherapy had a positive finding, as opposed to two of eight patients who underwent examination later. The patients with testicular cancer had normal MR images. The occurrence of MR imaging abnormalities in asymptomatic patients treated with HDMTX for osteogenic sarcoma may be subclinical evidence of treatment-related central nervous system toxicity.