ABSTRACT: Current knowledge on the exact ligand causing expression of TREM-1 on neutrophils and monocytes is limited. The present study aimed at the role of underlying infection and of the causative pathogen in the expression of TREM-1 in sepsis.
Peripheral venous blood was sampled from 125 patients with sepsis and 88 with severe sepsis/septic shock. The causative pathogen was isolated in 91 patients. Patients were suffering from acute pyelonephritis, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), intra-abdominal infections (IAIs), primary bacteremia and ventilator-associated pneumonia or hospital-acquired pneumonia (VAP/HAP). Blood monocytes and neutrophils were isolated. Flow cytometry was used to estimate the TREM-1 expression from septic patients.
Within patients bearing intrabdominal infections, expression of TREM-1 was significantly lower on neutrophils and on monocytes at severe sepsis/shock than at sepsis. That was also the case for severe sepsis/shock developed in the field of VAP/HAP. Among patients who suffered infections by Gram-negative community-acquired pathogens or among patients who suffered polymicrobial infections, expression of TREM-1 on monocytes was significantly lower at the stage of severe sepsis/shock than at the stage of sepsis.
Decrease of the expression of TREM-1 on the membrane of monocytes and neutrophils upon transition from sepsis to severe sepsis/septic shock depends on the underlying type of infection and the causative pathogen.
BMC Infectious Diseases 11/2011; 11:309. · 3.12 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Although major changes of the immune system have been described in sepsis, it has never been studied whether these may differ in relation to the type of underlying infection or not. This was studied for the first time.
The statuses of the innate and adaptive immune systems were prospectively compared in 505 patients. Whole blood was sampled within less than 24 hours of advent of sepsis; white blood cells were stained with monoclonal antibodies and analyzed though a flow cytometer.
Expression of HLA-DR was significantly decreased among patients with severe sepsis/shock due to acute pyelonephritis and intraabdominal infections compared with sepsis. The rate of apoptosis of natural killer (NK) cells differed significantly among patients with severe sepsis/shock due to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) compared with sepsis. The rate of apoptosis of NKT cells differed significantly among patients with severe sepsis/shock due to acute pyelonephritis, primary bacteremia and VAP/HAP compared with sepsis. Regarding adaptive immunity, absolute counts of CD4-lymphocytes were significantly decreased among patients with severe sepsis/shock due to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and intraabdominal infections compared with sepsis. Absolute counts of B-lymphocytes were significantly decreased among patients with severe sepsis/shock due to CAP compared with sepsis.
Major differences of the early statuses of the innate and adaptive immune systems exist between sepsis and severe sepsis/shock in relation to the underlying type of infection. These results may have a major impact on therapeutics.
Critical care (London, England) 01/2010; 14(3):R96. · 4.61 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: In an attempt to define the most important driver responsible for recurrence of cystitis in women, 181 records were retrospectively analysed among 1010 consecutive references in a tertiary centre for lower urinary tract infections (UTIs). All 181 women had more than three episodes of cystitis per year; 129 were under continuous prophylaxis and 52 were under postcoital prophylaxis. Analysis revealed that the most important factor affecting successful outcome of chemoprophylaxis was the compliance of patients (odds ratio 0.074; P<0.0001). Among women treated for >or=6 months, the most effective regimen was nitrofurantoin, with a success rate of 96.8% compared with 82.8% for trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and 72.3% for norfloxacin (P=0.046 between agents). Failure of chemoprophylaxis was observed in 51 women in total; in 26 of them resistance to the administered agent had developed. Results of this retrospective study revealed that the most important driver leading to failure of prophylaxis for recurrent lower UTIs was the lack of compliance of women with their medication. Nitrofurantoin was the most potent among the administered agents.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 07/2007; 30(1):40-3. · 4.13 Impact Factor