Publications (2)4.09 Total impact
Article: MAPK phosphatase AP2C3 induces ectopic proliferation of epidermal cells leading to stomata development in Arabidopsis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In plant post-embryonic epidermis mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling promotes differentiation of pavement cells and inhibits initiation of stomata. Stomata are cells specialized to modulate gas exchange and water loss. Arabidopsis MAPKs MPK3 and MPK6 are at the core of the signaling cascade; however, it is not well understood how the activity of these pleiotropic MAPKs is constrained spatially so that pavement cell differentiation is promoted only outside the stomata lineage. Here we identified a PP2C-type phosphatase termed AP2C3 (Arabidopsis protein phosphatase 2C) that is expressed distinctively during stomata development as well as interacts and inactivates MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6. AP2C3 co-localizes with MAPKs within the nucleus and this localization depends on its N-terminal extension. We show that other closely related phosphatases AP2C2 and AP2C4 are also MAPK phosphatases acting on MPK6, but have a distinct expression pattern from AP2C3. In accordance with this, only AP2C3 ectopic expression is able to stimulate cell proliferation leading to excess stomata development. This function of AP2C3 relies on the domains required for MAPK docking and intracellular localization. Concomitantly, the constitutive and inducible AP2C3 expression deregulates E2F-RB pathway, promotes the abundance and activity of CDKA, as well as changes of CDKB1;1 forms. We suggest that AP2C3 downregulates the MAPK signaling activity to help maintain the balance between differentiation of stomata and pavement cells.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(12):e15357. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Protein phosphatases act to reverse phosphorylation-related modifications induced by protein kinases. Type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2C) are monomeric Ser/Thr phosphatases that require a metal for their activity and are abundant in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In plants, such as Medicago and Arabidopsis PP2Cs control several essential processes, including ABA signaling, development, and wound-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In vitro assays with recombinant proteins and yeast two-hybrid systems usually provide initial information about putative PP2C substrates; however, these observations have to be verified in vivo. Therefore, a method for transient expression in isolated Arabidopsis suspension cell protoplasts was developed to assay PP2C action in living cells. This system has proven to be very useful in producing active enzymes and their substrates and in performing enzymatic reactions in vivo. Transient gene expression in isolated cells enabled assembly of functional protein kinase cascades and the creation of phosphorylated targets for PP2Cs. The method is based on the co-transformation and transient co-expression of different PP2C proteins with MAPK. It shows that epitope-tagged PP2C and MAPK proteins exhibit high enzymatic activities and produce substantial protein amounts easily monitored by Western blot analysis. Additionally, PP2C phosphatase activities can be directly tested in protein extracts from protoplasts, suggesting a possibility for analysis of activities of new PP2C family members.Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 02/2009; 479:247-60.