Zachary Reed

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Michigan, United States

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Publications (8)61.97 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: More than 26 000 cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) have been reported in western Africa, with high mortality. Several patients have been medically evacuated to hospitals in the United States and Europe. Detailed clinical data are limited on the clinical course and management of patients with EVD outside western Africa. To describe the clinical characteristics and management of a cluster of patients with EVD, including the first cases of Ebola virus (EBOV) infection acquired in the United States. Retrospective clinical case series. Three U.S. hospitals in September and October 2014. First imported EVD case identified in the United States and 2 secondary EVD cases acquired in the United States in critical care nurses who cared for the index case patient. Clinical recovery, EBOV RNA level, resolution of Ebola viremia, survival with discharge from hospital, or death. The index patient had high EBOV RNA levels, developed respiratory and renal failure requiring critical care support, and died. Both patients with secondary EBOV infection had nonspecific signs and symptoms and developed moderate illness; EBOV RNA levels were moderate, and both patients recovered. Both surviving patients received uncontrolled treatment with multiple investigational agents, including convalescent plasma, which limits generalizability of the results. Early diagnosis, prompt initiation of supportive medical care, and moderate clinical illness likely contributed to successful outcomes in both survivors. The inability to determine the potential benefit of investigational therapies and the effect of patient-specific factors that may have contributed to less severe illness highlight the need for controlled clinical studies of these interventions, especially in the setting of a high level of supportive medical care. None.
    Annals of internal medicine 05/2015; DOI:10.7326/M15-0530 · 16.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the extent of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in employees and rodents at 3 commercial breeding facilities. Of 97 employees tested, 31 (32%) had IgM and/or IgG to LCMV, and aseptic meningitis was diagnosed in 4 employees. Of 1,820 rodents tested in 1 facility, 382 (21%) mice (Mus musculus) had detectable IgG, and 13 (0.7%) were positive by reverse transcription PCR; LCMV was isolated from 8. Rats (Rattus norvegicus) were not found to be infected. S-segment RNA sequence was similar to strains previously isolated in North America. Contact by wild mice with colony mice was the likely source for LCMV, and shipments of infected mice among facilities spread the infection. The breeding colonies were depopulated to prevent further human infections. Future outbreaks can be prevented with monitoring and management, and employees should be made aware of LCMV risks and prevention.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 02/2014; 20(2):240-7. DOI:10.3201/eid2002.130860 · 7.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Marburg virus (family Filoviridae) causes sporadic outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Bats have been implicated as likely natural reservoir hosts based most recently on an investigation of cases among miners infected in 2007 at the Kitaka mine, Uganda, which contained a large population of Marburg virus-infected Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. Described here is an ecologic investigation of Python Cave, Uganda, where an American and a Dutch tourist acquired Marburg virus infection in December 2007 and July 2008. More than 40,000 R. aegyptiacus were found in the cave and were the sole bat species present. Between August 2008 and November 2009, 1,622 bats were captured and tested for Marburg virus. Q-RT-PCR analysis of bat liver/spleen tissues indicated ∼2.5% of the bats were actively infected, seven of which yielded Marburg virus isolates. Moreover, Q-RT-PCR-positive lung, kidney, colon and reproductive tissues were found, consistent with potential for oral, urine, fecal or sexual transmission. The combined data for R. aegyptiacus tested from Python Cave and Kitaka mine indicate low level horizontal transmission throughout the year. However, Q-RT-PCR data show distinct pulses of virus infection in older juvenile bats (∼six months of age) that temporarily coincide with the peak twice-yearly birthing seasons. Retrospective analysis of historical human infections suspected to have been the result of discrete spillover events directly from nature found 83% (54/65) events occurred during these seasonal pulses in virus circulation, perhaps demonstrating periods of increased risk of human infection. The discovery of two tags at Python Cave from bats marked at Kitaka mine, together with the close genetic linkages evident between viruses detected in geographically distant locations, are consistent with R. aegyptiacus bats existing as a large meta-population with associated virus circulation over broad geographic ranges. These findings provide a basis for developing Marburg hemorrhagic fever risk reduction strategies.
    PLoS Pathogens 10/2012; 8(10):e1002877. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002877 · 8.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new species of Ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus, was discovered in an outbreak in western Uganda in November 2007. To study the correlation between fatal infection and immune response in Bundibugyo ebolavirus infection, viral antigen, antibodies, and 17 soluble factors important for innate immunity were examined in 44 patient samples. Using Luminex assays, we found that fatal infection was associated with high levels of viral antigen, low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and high levels of immunosuppressor cytokines like IL-10. Also, acute infected patients died in spite of generating high levels of antibodies against the virus. Thus, our results imply that disease severity in these patients is not due to the multi-organ failure and septic shock caused by a flood of inflammatory cytokines, as seen in infections with other Ebolavirus species.
    Virology 12/2011; 423(2):119-24. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2011.11.027 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    Adam Macneil · Zachary Reed · Pierre E Rollin
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    ABSTRACT: Five species of Ebola virus (EBOV) have been identified, with nucleotide differences of 30-45% between species. Four of these species have been shown to cause Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) in humans and a fifth species (Reston ebolavirus) is capable of causing a similar disease in non-human primates. While examining potential serologic cross-reactivity between EBOV species is important for diagnostic assays as well as putative vaccines, the nature of cross-reactive antibodies following EBOV infection has not been thoroughly characterized. In order to examine cross-reactivity of human serologic responses to EBOV, we developed antigen preparations for all five EBOV species, and compared serologic responses by IgM capture and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in groups of convalescent diagnostic sera from outbreaks in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo (n=24), Gulu, Uganda (n=20), Bundibugyo, Uganda (n=33), and the Philippines (n=18), which represent outbreaks due to four different EBOV species. For groups of samples from Kikwit, Gulu, and Bundibugyo, some limited IgM cross-reactivity was noted between heterologous sera-antigen pairs, however, IgM responses were largely stronger against autologous antigen. In some instances IgG responses were higher to autologous antigen than heterologous antigen, however, in contrast to IgM responses, we observed strong cross-reactive IgG antibody responses to heterologous antigens among all sets of samples. Finally, we examined autologous IgM and IgG antibody levels, relative to time following EHF onset, and observed early peaking and declining IgM antibody levels (by 80 days) and early development and persistence of IgG antibodies among all samples, implying a consistent pattern of antibody kinetics, regardless of EBOV species. Our findings demonstrate limited cross-reactivity of IgM antibodies to EBOV, however, the stronger tendency for cross-reactive IgG antibody responses can largely circumvent limitations in the utility of heterologous antigen for diagnostic assays and may assist in the development of antibody-mediated vaccines to EBOV.
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 06/2011; 5(6):e1175. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001175 · 4.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The first known Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak caused by Bundibugyo Ebola virus occurred in Bundibugyo District, Uganda, in 2007. Fifty-six cases of EHF were laboratory confirmed. Although signs and symptoms were largely nonspecific and similar to those of EHF outbreaks caused by Zaire and Sudan Ebola viruses, proportion of deaths among those infected was lower (≈40%).
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 12/2010; 16(12):1969-72. DOI:10.3201/eid1612.100627 · 7.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A nosocomial outbreak of disease involving 5 patients, 4 of whom died, occurred in South Africa during September-October 2008. The first patient had been transferred from Zambia to South Africa for medical management. Three cases involved secondary spread of infection from the first patient, and 1 was a tertiary infection. A novel arenavirus was identified. The source of the first patient's infection remains undetermined.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 10/2009; 15(10):1598-602. DOI:10.3201/eid1510.090211 · 7.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Author Summary Marburg virus, similar to its close cousin Ebola virus, can cause large outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever (HF) in rural Africa with case fatalities approaching 90%. For decades, a long-standing enigma has been the identity of the natural reservoir of this deadly virus. In this report, we identify the cave-dwelling Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) as a natural host of Marburg virus based on multiple lines of evidence which include, for the first time ever, the isolation of virus directly from wild-caught and apparently healthy bats. The species R. aegyptiacus is common throughout Africa with distribution into the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East. Our finding of active virus infection in approximately 5% of R. aegyptiacus bats and their population exceeding 100,000 in Kitaka cave in Uganda suggests there are likely over 5,000 Marburg virus–infected bats in this cave, which is only one of many such cave populations throughout Africa. Clearly, these bats could serve as a major source of virus with potential to initiate human epidemics, and the implications for public health are striking. Additionally, we found highly divergent (21%) genome sequences among viruses circulating in these bat populations, a level of diversity that would result from a long-term association with a suitable reservoir host of large population size.
    PLoS Pathogens 08/2009; 5(7):e1000536. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000536 · 8.06 Impact Factor