[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The CAR is normally located in the cytoplasmic compartment of untreated liver cells and translocates to the nucleus after exposure to phenobarbital (PB) or PB-like chemicals. Previously, we identified two nuclear localization signals (NLS) in the rat constitutive androstane/active receptor (CAR), NLS1, which is located in the hinge region, and NLS2, which overlaps with the ligand-binding domain. However, the nuclear import mechanism of CAR is unclear. In this study, we show that nuclear import of CAR is regulated by importin/Ran-GTP systems. The regulation of CAR nuclear import by a Ran-GTP concentration gradient was confirmed using the dominant negative, GTPase-deficient form of Ran (RanQ69L), suggesting the involvement of transport receptors of the importinbeta family. IPO13 was shown to be involved in the PB-mediated nuclear translocation of CAR, which was found to be susceptible to inhibition by a dominant negative mutant of IPO13 in primary hepatocytes.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/2010; 1803(8):968-74. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) in spontaneous multinuclear cells shows that both rat and human constitutive active/androstane receptors (CARs) are shuttling proteins with both nuclear localization signals (NLSs) and nuclear export signals (NESs). We previously identified two NLSs in rat CAR: NLS1 in the hinge region (residues 100-108) and NLS2 in the ligand-binding domain (residues 111-320). In the present study, we compared the intracellular localization signals between rat and human CARs. There was a marked difference in their intracellular localization in COS-7 cells because, unlike rat CAR, human CAR does not contain NLS1 due to an amino acid change at position 106. A CRM1-dependent leucine-rich NES, which is sensitive to an inhibitory effect of leptomycin B, was found in the cytoplasmic retention region previously identified within the ligand-binding domain of rat CAR (residues 220-258). We found that human CAR instead has a NES in the ligand-binding domain between residues 170 and 220. Also, we detected CRM1-independent C-terminal NESs between residues 317-358 of rat and human CARs. Removal of NLS1 by N-terminal truncation and mutation of xenochemical response signal caused rat CAR to localize in the cytoplasm of COS-7 cells, which we suspect is due to the masking of NLS2.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 07/2007; 1773(6):934-44. · 4.66 Impact Factor