[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between pitching ball velocity and segmental (trunk, upper arm, forearm, upper leg, and lower leg) and whole-body muscle volume (MV) in high school baseball pitchers. Forty-seven male high school pitchers (40 right-handers and seven left-handers; age, 16.2 ± 0.7 years; stature, 173.6 ± 4.9 cm; mass, 65.0 ± 6.8 kg, years of baseball experience, 7.5 ± 1.8 years; maximum pitching ball velocity, 119.0 ± 9.0 km/hour) participated in the study. Segmental and whole-body MV were measured using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis. Maximum ball velocity was measured with a sports radar gun. The MV of the dominant arm was significantly larger than the MV of the non-dominant arm (P < 0.001). There was no difference in MV between the dominant and non-dominant legs. Whole-body MV was significantly correlated with ball velocity (r = 0.412, P < 0.01). Trunk MV was not correlated with ball velocity, but the MV for both lower legs, and the dominant upper leg, upper arm, and forearm were significantly correlated with ball velocity (P < 0.05). The results were not affected by age or years of baseball experience. Whole-body and segmental MV are associated with ball velocity in high school baseball pitchers. However, the contribution of the muscle mass on pitching ball velocity is limited, thus other fundamental factors (ie, pitching skill) are also important.
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine 01/2013; 4:89-95.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Grafting bone between the tendon graft and the bone tunnel in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction increases the mechanical strength of the tendon graft. However, the biological role of the bone graft is unclear. The purpose of this research was to elucidate the role of bone graft cells after autologous tendon graft into the bone tunnel with an autologous bone graft in green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic rats. METHODS: The Achilles tendons of Sprague-Dawley (SD) wild-type rats and bone of GFP rats were harvested and transplanted into bone tunnels drilled in the femurs at the knees of SD rats. The femurs were harvested at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after transplantation and histologically investigated using hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunostaining of heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), macrophages, and type I and type III collagens. Biomechanical tests were performed on the tendon graft 2 and 4 weeks after transplantation to evaluate the ultimate force to failure. RESULTS: A small number of GFP-positive cells was seen in the tendon graft 2 weeks after transplantation. The cell count in the tendon graft was increased at 4 weeks after transplantation. HSP47-positive cells and macrophage-stained cells present in the tendon graft corresponded with the GFP-positive cells. By 2 weeks after transplantation, the relative areas of immunostained type I and III collagens in the tendon graft had declined significantly in the bone graft group compared to the control. The ultimate failure load in the bone graft group was higher than that in the control group at both 2 and 4 weeks after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: This research showed that, within 4 weeks of transplantation, bone graft cells migrate to the tendon graft, where they differentiate into cells involved in collagen production and macrophages. Bone graft cells may contribute to the early stage remodeling of tendon grafts.
Journal of Orthopaedic Science 11/2012; · 0.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cells from the bone marrow are considered important during the rotator cuff repair process, but the kinetics of bone marrow-derived cells in this process is unknown. PURPOSE: To analyze the kinetics of bone marrow cells during the rotator cuff repair process, to review whether or not they are histologically involved in rotator cuff healing, and to analyze the biomechanics of the repaired tissues. METHODS: Bone marrow chimeric rats that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) only in bone marrow- and circulation-derived cells were created. Bilateral supraspinatus tendons were separated from the greater tuberosity of the humeral head to produce a rotator cuff transection model. Drilling into the bone marrow was performed in the greater tuberosity of the right humerus and the supraspinatus tendon was repaired (drilling group), while the supraspinatus tendon was repaired on the left shoulder without drilling (control group). We examined the histology of the rotator cuff, the ultimate force-to-failure, and the proportion of GFP-positive cells in the repaired rotator cuff at 2, 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. RESULTS: Mesenchymal cells were observed in the repaired rotator cuff at 2 weeks in both groups. There were more GFP-positive cells in the drilling group than the control group at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. The ultimate force-to-failure was significantly higher in the drilling group than the control group at 4 and 8 weeks. CONCLUSION: Bone marrow-derived cells passed through holes drilled in the humerus footprint, infiltrated the repaired rotator cuff and contributed to postsurgical rotator cuff healing.
Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 04/2012; · 1.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synovitis is considered as one of the factors associated with the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). There is currently a significant amount of research linking estrogen deficiencies with the development of OA in estrogen-deficient women, including postmenopausal women; however, the exact etiology remains unclear. Various neuropeptides, such as substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), have been shown to contribute to synovitis in OA joints, and the influence of estrogen on the expressions of SP and CGRP in the synovium of OA joints has been noted. After ovariectomy (OVX) followed by estradiol (E2) replacement, 24 female rats were divided into three groups: OVX group, OVX + E2 replacement group (E2 group), and a sham group. All rats underwent transection of the anterior cruciate ligament at the same time. After 30 days, the histological findings of knee joints by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunofluorescence staining of protein gene product 9.5 (pan-neuronal marker), SP, and CGRP were compared among experimental groups. The degree of synovitis in the OVX group was higher than in the E2 and sham groups. No significant differences in the density of protein gene product 9.5-immunoreactive nerve fibers were observed among the three experimental groups, but the density of SP- or CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the OVX group was significantly higher than in the E2 and sham groups. These findings suggest that estrogen partly regulates intraarticular neurogenic inflammation in OA joints by modulating the expressions of neuropeptides in the synovium.
Connective tissue research 12/2011; 53(3):197-206. · 1.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the characteristics of donor and host cells in the early remodeling process after transplant of Achilles tendon with and without live cells to repair rotator cuff defects. We also clarified which graft with or without live cells was superior in the early remodeling process.
Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and green fluorescent protein (GFP) rats were used; they were divided into 3 groups: in group SD, the Achilles tendons of GFP rats were transplanted into the defects of SD rats; in group GFP, the Achilles tendons of SD rats were transplanted into GFP rats; in group GFP-Fr, frozen Achilles tendons of SD rats were transplanted into GFP rats. At 3 and 7 days after surgery, these sections were examined histologically and immunohistochemically with anti-heat shock protein (HSP) 47 and anti-macrophage antibodies.
Donor cells gradually decreased, but HSP47-positive donor cells were detected at 3 days in group SD. Host cells infiltrated into the graft from the surrounding tissue, and their numbers in groups SD and GFP gradually increased more significantly than in group GFP-Fr. Macrophages derived from the donor tissue were absent in all groups. The remodeling process of the frozen graft was slower than that in the case of the graft that was not frozen.
These results demonstrate that live donor cells have a positive effect on the remodeling process. Therefore, autografts with live cells considered to be preferred to frozen allografts or synthetic materials without live cells for transplant for rotator cuff defects.
Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 09/2010; 19(6):891-8. · 1.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Upper cervical involvement is common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Anterior atlanto-axial subluxation (aAAS) sometimes occurs at an early stage of the disease. We hypothesized that not only antero-posterior instability but lateral instability may occur with atlanto-axial involvement in RA. To prove this hypothesis, we evaluated the lateral instability of the atlanto-axial joint in RA, using dynamic open-mouth view radiographs. Thirty RA patients and a control group of 22 non-RA outpatients were enrolled in this study. The patients underwent lateral view radiographs of the cervical spine during flexion and extension, and antero-posterior (AP) open-mouth views during maximum right and left bending of the neck. The anterior atlanto-dental interval (AADI) was measured to evaluate antero-posterior instability of the atlanto-axial joint, and atlanto-dental lateral shift (ADLS) was defined to evaluate dynamic lateral instability. In the RA group, AADI averaged 3.2 mm in flexion, and in eight patients, it exceeded 3 mm in flexion (aAAS). In the control group, the AADI averaged 1.0 mm in flexion. The ADLS in the RA group averaged 14.8%, and this was significantly greater than in the control group, in which it averaged 6.1%. The ADLS averaged 20.6% in the RA subgroup with aAAS, and 12.7% in the RA subgroup without aAAS. In both subgroups, the ADLS was significantly greater than that of the control group. In this study, dynamic lateral instability of the atlanto-axial joint in RA was demonstrated. The results suggest that an evaluation of the dynamic lateral instability of the atlanto-axial joint can be useful for early diagnosis of atlanto-axial lesions in RA.