[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seasonal variation and climate parameters on urinary tract stone attack and investigate whether stone attack is increased sharply at a specific point. Nationwide data of total urinary tract stone attack numbers per month between January 2006 and December 2010 were obtained from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. The effects of climatic factors on monthly urinary stone attack were assessed using auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regression method. A total of 1,702,913 stone attack cases were identified. Mean monthly and monthly average daily urinary stone attack cases were 28,382 ± 2,760 and 933 ± 85, respectively. The stone attack showed seasonal trends of sharp incline in June, a peak plateau from July to September, and a sharp decline after September. The correlation analysis showed that ambient temperature (r = 0.557, p < 0.001) and relative humidity (r = 0.513, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with urinary stone attack cases. However, after adjustment for trends and seasonality, ambient temperature was the only climate factor associated with the stone attack cases in ARIMA regression test (p = 0.04). Threshold temperature was estimated as 18.4 °C. Risk of urinary stone attack significantly increases 1.71 % (1.02-2.41 %, 95 % confidence intervals) with a 1 °C increase of ambient temperature above the threshold point. In conclusion, monthly urinary stone attack cases were changed according to seasonal variation. Among the climates variables, only temperature had consistent association with stone attack and when the temperature is over 18.4 °C, urinary stone attack would be increased sharply.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To minimize stent-related symptoms, the proximal part of the Polaris™ stent is composed of a firm material and its distal part is composed of a soft material. The aim of this study was to compare stent-related symptoms of Polaris and Percuflex® stents and to assess the impacts of these stents on quality of life.
Patients and methods:
A total of 144 patients were randomized to a "test" group (Polaris; n=64) or a "conventional" group (Percuflex; n=80) at the time of ureteral stent insertion after ureteroscopic stone removal surgery. Stents were allocated using a randomization program. At 1 week postoperatively, patient symptoms were evaluated using the Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ), and patients were asked complete a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS). Mean scores for USSQ domains and mean VAS scores were compared.
Mean patient age was 50.3 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 1:0.85. No significant intergroup differences were found in the domain scores of urinary symptoms (P=0.58), pain (P=0.87), general health (P=0.20), work (P=0.24), sexual activity (P=0.64), or additional problems (P=0.24). In addition, VAS scores were nonsignificantly different (P=0.11). Analysis of USSQ item scores, however, revealed the test group had better results for "presence of pain," "frequency of pain killer use," "difficulties with respect to hard physical activity," "fatigue," "frequency of rest," "stent-related impact on work," "antibiotics use" than the conventional group except for "outpatient department visits".
Compared with the conventional Percuflex ureteral stent, the new Polaris ureteral stent with a soft tail was not found to offer significant advantages in terms of voiding symptoms, pain, general health, sexual matters, or additional problems as determined by the USSQ or in VAS determined pain. Sub-analysis, however, showed that the Polaris has some advantages with respect to pain, physical activities, impact on work, and additional problems. Accordingly, the soft-tipped Polaris stent was found to have some clinical advantages over the conventional Percuflex stent.
Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 08/2014; 29(3). DOI:10.1089/end.2014.0294 · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a sclerosing solution for inducing epididymal occlusion in male rats.
Materials and Methods
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: an injection group (n=20) and control group (n=20). Before injecting the sclerosing agent, seminal vesiculectomy and sperm identification using electrostimulation were performed in all of the rats. In the injection group, 0.2 mL of 0.1% sodium tetradecyl sulfate solution was injected into the epididymis. In the sham group, only the identification of the epididymis was performed. At 4 and 12 weeks after the injection, semen was collected by electrostimulation and evaluated to assess the contraceptive effect. Epididymis was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining.
After 4 and 12 weeks, semen collection was performed in the two groups. Sperms were not observed in the injection group, while there was no change in the sperms in the sham group. H&E staining showed the obstruction of epididymal tubules and an accumulation of inflammatory cells in the injection group.
This study showed that the sclerosing agent induced sterilization in male rats. This result suggests that the injection method can replace vasectomy as a contraceptive method. However, a further study of large animals and a clinical study are needed. Further, the long-term effectiveness of this method needs to be studied.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the annual incidence of upper tract urolithiasis based on a large population-based study in Korea. This study used a subset of the 2009 Health Insurance and Review and Assessment service-National Patient Sample (HIRA-NPS). The 2009 HIRA-NPS contains data for 1,115,721 patients (711,285 inpatients and 404,436 outpatients) from January 2009 to December 2009. Based on these data, we selected patients who had been diagnosed with urolithiasis using the ICD code and calculated the incidence of urolithiasis. The total number of estimated urolithiasis patients was 219,328. The annual incidence of upper tract urolithiasis was estimated to be 457.02 per 100,000 in the overall population, with 589.09 per 100,000 men and 326.64 per 100,000 women. The male-to-female ratio was about 1.8:1. The annual incidence of urolithiasis in Korea was 457 per 100,000. It is higher than that previously reported in Japan, but lower than that in Western countries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association of a specific type of lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) and the depression in community-dwelling elderly Korean men.
A total of 392 men aged 65 years or older, who completed urological and psychiatric evaluations as a participant of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging, were included. From each subject, an interview on the demographic characteristics and medical history, IPSS, and psychiatric questionnaire were taken. Subjects were divided into two groups; depression and euthymic. Subjects with IPSS subscore more than 3 points was considered 'high' subscore. IPSS subscores were compared between the two groups, and the relationship between depression and LUTS severity was assessed.
The mean age of the subjects was 75, and 6.4% of the subjects were diagnosed to have major depressive disorders. The depression group showed higher IPSS scores than the euthymic group (16.1±9.9 vs. 11.6±8.6, p=0.01). IPSS subscores of question 1 (incomplete empty), question 3 (intermittency), question 4 (urgency) and question 6 (straining to void) were higher in the depression group compared with the euthymic group. Chi-square test revealed subjects with high IPSS 1, 3, 4, and 6 score were associated with depression, but multivariate analysis identified only high IPSS question 4 as a significant prognostic factor for depression.
Elderly population with depression is more likely to have more severe LUTS than population without depression. Among the urinary symptoms, urgency was strongly associated with depression. Patients with moderate to severe LUTS and especially urgency may need their mental health status evaluation.
Korean journal of urology 11/2013; 54(11):762-766. DOI:10.4111/kju.2013.54.11.762
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-based acute pyelonephritis (APN) grades for predicting clinical severity and disease course.
Materials and methods:
This study involved the analysis of the data of 204 consecutive patients with APN who underwent a CT examination at admission. Patients who had undergone prior treatment and those with ureteral calculi or an abscess by CT were excluded. Computed tomographic findings were divided into 4 grades according to renal parenchymal involvement, as follows: no renal parenchyma involvement (grade 1), less than 25% involvement (grade 2), 25% to 50% involvement (grade 3), and greater than 50% (grade 4). Patients with these grades were compared with respect to APN severity index (highest body temperature, initial C-reactive protein, and leukocytosis) and recovery index (hospital stay, fever duration, and leukocytosis duration).
A total of 204 patients of mean age 39.3 years were included. Acute pyelonephritis severity indices and recovery indices increased with APN grade. Mean highest body temperature values were 38.3°C and 38.9°C in grades 1 and 4, respectively (P = 0.002). Mean hospital stay increased from 5.7 days for grade 1 to 7.6 days for grade 4 (P < 0.001). Initial C-reactive protein, initial leukocytosis, fever duration, and leukocytosis duration also increased with APN grade.
This study suggests that APN grades, as determined by CT examination, valuably predict the clinical course of APN.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of urinary calculi in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) ranges from 10 to 36 %. Shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) for urinary calculi in ADPKD was reported to be a safe and effective treatment option. However, there is a potential risk of cyst rupture and traumatic hemorrhage because of shockwaves. A 39-year-old female with polycystic kidneys and upper ureter stone was treated with SWL and developed life-threatening complications of cyst rupture, traumatic hemorrhage and septic shock. She was initially treated with supportive care in the intensive care unit, but in the end nephrectomy was performed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ectopic prostatic tissue in the bladder has rarely been reported, and there is currently no report about the sonographic findings of this entity. In this study, we present the imaging findings of ectopic prostatic tissue in the bladder on transrectal ultrasonography.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify whether intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) is related to the characteristics of voiding symptoms improvement after drug treatment in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients.
Methods: Ninety male patients with more than 30 g prostate volume were prospectively enrolled. All patients were evaluated with International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), uroflowmetry, postvoid residual urine (PVR), prostate volume and IPP measurement by transrectal ultrasound. Treatment response was evaluated again by IPSS after 12 weeks of medication. We evaluated the correlation of IPP and IPSS, quality of life (QoL) score, maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) and PVR, and compared IPPS and IPSS subscale score change between the IPP and non-IPP groups.
Results: IPP was significantly correlated with total IPSS, voiding/storage symptom subscore and PVR. IPP was inversely correlated with Qmax. IPP showed a significant correlation with storage symptoms after an adjustment of prostate volume. After 12 weeks of medication, the IPP group showed persistently high storage symptoms than the non-IPP group.
Conclusion: BPH patients with IPP showed less improvement of storage symptoms after 12 weeks of medication. This study suggests that IPP may be a possible cause of intractable storage symptoms in early treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction and hypothesis:
The aim of this study was to compare the lower urinary tract symptom changes and surgical outcome between the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure with and without concomitant stage II pelvic organ prolapse (cystocele) repair in a randomized clinical trial setting.
Patients with urodynamically proven stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and asymptomatic stage II cystocele were randomly and equally allocated to either a TVT and concomitant cystocele repair group or TVT only group. SUI was corrected with TVT in all cases. The cystocele repair procedure was performed with Gynemesh. Lower urinary tract symptoms and surgical outcome were assessed at postoperative year 1. Lower urinary tract symptoms were assessed with the American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUASS) questionnaire, uroflowmetry, and postvoid residual (PVR).
The cure rate of TVT only and the concomitant repair group was 87 and 91%, respectively (p > 0.05). Cystocele was cured in all patients in the concomitant repair group. After the operation, the total AUASS were 6.4 and 8.4 in the TVT only group and concomitant repair group, respectively, with no statistical difference. There was no difference in the change in peak flow rate (Qmax) and PVR between the two groups. The prevalence of postoperative mixed incontinence was not different between the two groups.
In patients with stage II cystocele and SUI, there was no difference in the surgical outcome and lower urinary tract symptoms between the TVT sling only group and concomitant repair group. Cystocele repair can be safely omitted in patients with stage II cystocele.
International Urogynecology Journal 11/2012; 24(7). DOI:10.1007/s00192-012-1961-2 · 1.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate the association of the risk and severity of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and depression diagnosed by neuropsychiatrists according to the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria using an objective questionnaire within community-dwelling elderly Korean men.
Methods: A total of 392 men who completed urological and psychiatric evaluations as a participant in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging were included in this analysis. From each subject, an interview elicited demographic characteristics and medical history, International Prostate Symptom Score was ascertained, and a psychiatric questionnaire was completed. Subjects were analyzed with regard to depression and LUTS severity.
Results: The mean age of the subjects was 75 years, 22% were current smokers and 45% were heavy drinkers. Two hundred and twenty-nine subjects (59%) had moderate to severe LUTS and 6.4% of the subjects were diagnosed with major depressive disorders. Those with depression showed higher International Prostate Symptom Score and lower quality of life than the euthymic group (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively). Severe LUTS was more prevalent in the depression group compared with the euthymic group (P = 0.01). Moderate to severe LUTS was associated with higher age, lower prevalence of hypertension, and higher prevalence of depression than mild LUTS. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified age, hypertension, and depression as significant prognostic factors for moderate to severe LUTS. Depression was the most significant prognostic factor. Depression was associated with 5.81-fold increased odds of having moderate to severe LUTS.
Conclusion: In older Korean men, depressive symptoms are associated with moderate to severe LUTS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the long-term clinical outcomes of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in elderly women and to identify the factors influencing failure in these cases.
Women with SUI who underwent a TVT procedure were studied. "Cure" was defined as no urine leakage at all in any circumstances and "improvement" was defined as some urine leakage but a score of over 4 points out of 5 in a satisfaction inquiry. Patients were divided into two groups (middle-aged, <65 years and elderly, ≥65 years) for comparison of clinical outcomes. In the elderly group, patients were subdivided into two groups (cure and no cure groups) and were compared to identify the factors influencing failure.
A total of 136 women (middle-aged group, 106; elderly group, 30) were enrolled in the study. The mean ages of the patients in the 2 groups were 53.5±5.9 and 72.0±5.0 years and the mean follow-up times were 50.5±9.4 and 48.8±9.1 months, respectively. The cure and improvement rates in the middle-aged and elderly groups were 80.2% vs. 66.7% and 4.7% vs. 3.3%, respectively (p>0.05). The satisfaction scores in the middle-aged and elderly groups were 3.8±1.1 vs. 3.3±1.5 points (p>0.05). In the elderly group, the body mass index of the cure and no cure groups were 24.6±3.3 kg/m(2) and 26.6±1.0 kg/m², and body mass index was the only factor that differed significantly between the two subgroups (p=0.028).
Our long-term results suggest that TVT is an effective treatment even in elderly women. However, elderly women who are obese should be counseled carefully about the success rate.
Korean journal of urology 03/2012; 53(3):184-8. DOI:10.4111/kju.2012.53.3.184
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies exist correlating the extent of tissue resected with symptom improvement after transurethral resection of prostate (TURP). This study evaluated the effect of the ratio of resected tissue in comparison with the transitional zone volume (TZV) on improvement of voiding symptoms and flow rate.
A total of 263 patients who underwent TURP from January 2001 to June 2008 were included in this retrospective study. TURP efficacy was assessed at 6 months using International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and uroflowmetry. Patients were then stratified into 2 subgroups according to resection ratio (volume of resected tissue/TZV); individuals with resection ratio<50% (group A) and ≥50% (group B). The 2 groups were compared with regard to prostate volume, TZV, preoperative and postoperative IPSS, quality of life (QoL), peak flow rate (Qmax), and postvoid residual (PVR). Similar analyses were performed according to prostate volume (small [<40 g] vs large [≥40 g]).
Of these individuals, 85 (32.3%) met the criteria for group A, and 178 (67.7%) for group B. There were no statistically significant differences in age, prostate volume, TZV, preoperative IPSS, QoL score, Qmax, and PVR. After TURP, there was no significant difference of IPSS, QoL score, Qmax, and PVR between the 2 groups. After stratification according to prostate size, the differences in clinical variables were not significant according to resection ratio.
Resection ratio had no effect on post-TURP clinical improvement. These results suggest that complete prostate adenoma resection may not be essential.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tape tension adjustment is an essential procedure in mid-urethral sling surgery. The goal of this study was to determine if intraoperative maximal urethral closing pressure (MUCP) elevation could be used as a reference value for adequate tape tension adjustment and predict transobturator (TOT) sling surgery outcome.
A prospective study was performed using MUCP measurements just before tape insertion and just after tension adjustment during surgery. Clinical data including preoperative urodynamic results were collected. The cure rate was determined by questionnaire. Patients were divided into two groups. The MUCP elevation group included patients with a MUCP elevation of more than 10 cmH(2)O before tape insertion; the others were regarded as the non-elevation group. The cure rate and pre- and postoperative clinical variables were compared between the two groups.
A total of 48 patients had TOT surgery. The MUCP elevation group (n = 19) and the non-elevation group (n = 29) were similar with regard to patient characteristics and the preoperative parameters including age, mixed incontinence prevalence, Q-tip angle, peak flow rate, MUCP and the valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP). The mean follow-up period was nine months. The cure rate was significantly higher in the group with MUCP elevation than in the non-elevation group (84% vs. 52%, p = 0.02). There was no significant difference in the mean postoperative peak flow rate between the two groups and there was no retention episode.
MUCP elevation of more than 10 cmH(2)O just after tape insertion was a prognostic factor.
International braz j urol: official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology 11/2011; 37(6):751-7. DOI:10.1590/S1677-55382011000600011 · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the sensitivity of digital abdominal radiography in the detection of ureteral stones by stone size and location.
We retrospectively reviewed the digital abdominal radiography of 163 patients for the detection of ureteral stones. Each ureteral stone was confirmed by unenhanced computed tomography (CT) in the emergency department between January and December, 2009. Stone location was defined as proximal or distal by the level where the ureter crossed anterior to iliac vessels, and the stone size was defined as small if smaller than 5 mm and large if larger than 5 mm on unenhanced CT. The interpretation of digital abdominal radiography was classified as visible, invisible, or equivocal.
In 163 ureteral stones, 77 stones (47.2%) were in the proximal ureter and 86 stones (52.8%) were in the distal ureter. The mean (SD) size of the ureteral stones was 3.4 (1.7) mm (range, 1-9 mm). Overall sensitivity of digital radiography for ureteral stones was 29.4%. The sensitivity of digital radiography for the proximal ureteral stones was 37.7% and that for the distal ureteral stones was 22.1% (P < 0.05). The sensitivity of digital radiography for small ureteral stones was 23.6% and that for large ureteral stones was 50.0% (P < 0.05). As a group, the sensitivity of digital radiography for large proximal ureteral stones was the highest sensitivity-72.2%-in all groups (P < 0.05).
Digital abdominal radiography is useful in detecting large proximal ureteral stones.