[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease that clinically characterized by periodic abdominal pain, fever and arthralgia. Wide variety of mutations have been described in MEFV gene which is known to be responsible from FMF. In present study, 12 MEFV mutations [E148Q, P369S, F479L, M680I (G/C), M680I (G/A), I692del, M694V, M694I, K695R, V726A, A744S, R761H] have been screened. DNA samples were obtained from a total of 332 children, who were clinically suspected as FMF. Mutation analyses of MEFV gene were carried out with reverse hybridization method. In 113 children (mean age 11.5 years), mutations have been detected. In 60 children E148Q (4 homozygous), in 19 M694V (4 homozygous), in 16 P369S (none), and in 13 children V726A (none homozygous) mutations were detected. Among Familial Mediterranean Fever -suspected 332 children 104 fulfilled diagnostic criteria for FMF and detected MEFV gene mutations with decreasing frequency were; E148Q (30.8%), M694V (18.3%), P369S (10.6%), V726A (8.6%), A744S (2.9%), R761H (2.9%), M694I (1.9%), K695R (1.9%) and I692del (1.0%), respectively. No mutation was detected in 15 (14.4%) FMF children while, two different MEFV mutations were detected together in 13 (12.5%) patients and these patients were accepted as a compound heterozygous. In conclusion, in our patients E148Q mutation was found higher than M694V mutation that has been detected commonly in patients with FMF. The difference may result from demographic features or used methods.