[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Bayesian estimation theory proposes that the brain acquires the prior distribution of a task and integrates it with sensory signals to minimize the effect of sensory noise. Psychophysical studies have demonstrated that our brain actually implements Bayesian estimation in a variety of sensory-motor tasks. However, these studies only imposed one prior distribution on participants within a task period. In this study, we investigated the conditions that enable the acquisition of multiple prior distributions in temporal order judgment of two tactile stimuli across the hands. In Experiment 1, stimulation intervals were randomly selected from one of two prior distributions (biased to right hand earlier and biased to left hand earlier) in association with color cues (green and red, respectively). Although the acquisition of the two priors was not enabled by the color cues alone, it was significant when participants shifted their gaze (above or below) in response to the color cues. However, the acquisition of multiple priors was not significant when participants moved their mouths (opened or closed). In Experiment 2, the spatial cues (above and below) were used to identify which eye position or retinal cue position was crucial for the eye-movement-dependent acquisition of multiple priors in Experiment 1. The acquisition of the two priors was significant when participants moved their gaze to the cues (i.e., the cue positions on the retina were constant across the priors), as well as when participants did not shift their gazes (i.e., the cue positions on the retina changed according to the priors). Thus, both eye and retinal cue positions were effective in acquiring multiple priors. Based on previous neurophysiological reports, we discuss possible neural correlates that contribute to the acquisition of multiple priors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a major psychiatric disorder with complex genetic, environmental, and psychological causes, and oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Glutathione (GSH), one of the main cellular non-protein antioxidants and redox regulators, and altered GSH levels have been reported in various regions in patients with schizophrenia. Three enzymes are responsible for GSH synthesis: glutamate cysteine ligase modifier (GCLM), glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), and glutathione synthetase (GSS). Previously, positive associations between GCLM and schizophrenia were reported in Europeans, but not in the Japanese population. Thus, in this study, we investigated the association between the GSH synthesis genes (GCLM, GCLC, and GSS) and schizophrenia in Japanese individuals.
Seventeen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in GCLM, GCLC, and GSS were genotyped in 358 patients with schizophrenia and in 359 controls.
No SNP showed a significant association between their allelic or genotypic frequencies and schizophrenia. Case-control haplotype association analysis using windows of two or three SNP showed no significant associations with schizophrenia. The case-control haplotype analyses based on the ascertained linkage disequilibrium blocks also showed no significant associations in any genes with schizophrenia.
The three primary GSH synthesis genes do not have an apparent degree of association with schizophrenia in the Japanese population.
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 02/2011; 65(1):39-46. · 2.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutamatergic dysfunction may be a pathophysiological feature in the brains of schizophrenic patients. In addition to glutamate receptors, excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) have received much attention because they directly affect glutamatergic neurotransmission by excluding excessive glutamate from the synaptic cleft. Among these, EAAT2 (also known as solute carrier family 1, member 2; SLC1A2) has been widely studied in schizophrenia pathophysiology. During the last decade, we reported significant decreases in EAAT2 mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus in postmortem schizophrenic brains. Previously, a haplotype association between SLC1A2 and Japanese patients with schizophrenia was reported. In this study, we reinvestigated the association between SLC1A2 and schizophrenia by performing a case-control association study with twice as many subjects (401 cases and 407 controls) as compared to a previous study, and especially focused on the region where a previous association with schizophrenia had been shown. Our current results failed to show any significant association with schizophrenia in individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), two- and three-SNP-based haplotypes, or with possible pairwise haplotype analysis. SCL1A2 appears not to be a genetic risk factor for schizophrenia.