[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease also known as bilharzia and snail fever, is caused by different species of flatworms, such as Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni). Thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) from S. mansoni (SmTGR) is a well-characterized drug target for schistosomiasis, yet no anti-SmTGR compounds have reached clinical trials, suggesting that therapeutic development against schistosomiasis might benefit from additional scaffolds targeting this enzyme.
A high-throughput screening (HTS) assay in vitro against SmTGR was developed and applied to a diverse compound library. SmTGR activity was quantified with ThioGlo®, a reagent that fluoresces upon binding to the free sulfhydryl groups of the reaction product GSH (reduced glutathione).
We implemented an HTS effort against 59,360 synthetic compounds. In the primary screening, initial hits (928 or 1.56 %) showing greater than 90 % inhibition on SmTGR activity at a final concentration of 10 μM for each compound were identified. Further tests were carried out to confirm the effects of these hits and to explore the concentration-dependent response characteristics. As a result, 74 of them (0.12 %) representing 17 chemical scaffolds were confirmed and showed a great concentration-dependent inhibitory trend against SmTGR, including structures previously shown to be lethal to schistosomal growth. Of these, two scaffolds displayed a limited structure-activity relationship. When tested in cultured larvae, 39 compounds had cidal activity in 48 h, and five of them killed larvae completely at 3.125 μM. Of these, three compounds also killed adult worms ex vivo at concentrations between 5 μM and 10 μM.
These confirmed hits may serve as starting points for the development of novel therapeutics to combat schistosomiasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite substantial scientific progress over the past two decades, malaria remains a worldwide burden that causes hundreds of thousands of deaths every year. New, affordable and safe drugs are required to overcome increasing resistance against artemisinin-based treatments, treat vulnerable populations, interrupt the parasite life cycle by blocking transmission to the vectors, prevent infection and target malaria species that transiently remain dormant in the liver. In this Review, we discuss how the antimalarial drug discovery pipeline has changed over the past 10 years, grouped by the various target compound or product profiles, to assess progress and gaps, and to recommend priorities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a deuterated sample, all the observable backbone (1)H(N), (15)N, (13)C(a), and (13)C' chemical shifts for the dimeric, periplasmic sensor domain of the Burkholderia pseudomallei histidine kinase RisS were assigned. Approximately one-fifth of the amide resonances are "missing" in the (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectrum and map primarily onto α-helices at the dimer interface observed in a crystal structure suggesting this region either undergoes intermediate timescale motion (μs-ms) and/or is heterogeneous.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidiosis is an infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites of the Cryptosporidium genus. Infection is associated with mild to severe diarrhea that usually resolves spontaneously in healthy human adults, but may lead to severe complications in young children and in immunocompromised patients. The genome of C. parvum contains a gene, CUTA_CRYPI, that may play a role in regulating the intracellular concentration of copper, which is a toxic element in excess. Here, the crystal structure of this CutA1 protein, Cp-CutA1, is reported at 2.0 Å resolution. As observed for other CutA1 structures, the 117-residue protein is a trimer with a core ferrodoxin-like fold. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows little, in any, unfolding of Cp-CutA1 up to 353 K. This robustness is corroborated by (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectra at 333 K, which are characteristic of a folded protein, suggesting that NMR spectroscopy may be a useful tool to further probe the function of the CutA1 proteins. While robust, Cp-CutA1 is not as stable as the homologous protein from a hyperthermophile, perhaps owing to a wide β-bulge in β2 that protrudes Pro48 and Ser49 outside the β-sheet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three structures of the histidine triad family protein from
, the causative agent of amoebic dysentery, were solved at high resolution within the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID). The structures have sulfate (PDB entry 3oj7), AMP (PDB entry 3omf) or GMP (PDB entry 3oxk) bound in the active site, with sulfate occupying the same space as the α-phosphate of the two nucleotides. The C
backbones of the three structures are nearly superimposable, with pairwise r.m.s.d.s ranging from 0.06 to 0.13 Å.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The crystal structures of prostaglandin F synthase (PGF) from both Leishmania major and Trypanosoma cruzi with and without their cofactor NADP have been determined to resolutions of 2.6 Å for T. cruzi PGF, 1.25 Å for T. cruzi PGF with NADP, 1.6 Å for L. major PGF and 1.8 Å for L. major PGF with NADP. These structures were determined by molecular replacement to a final R factor of less than 18.6% (Rfree of less than 22.9%). PGF in the infectious protozoa L. major and T. cruzi is a potential therapeutic target.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The methylmalonyl Co-A mutase-associated GTPase MeaB from Methylobacterium extorquens is involved in glyoxylate regulation and required for growth. In humans, mutations in the homolog methylmalonic aciduria associated protein (MMAA) cause methylmalonic aciduria, which is often fatal. The central role of MeaB from bacteria to humans suggests that MeaB is also important in other, pathogenic bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the identity of the mycobacterial MeaB homolog is presently unclear. Here, we identify the M. tuberculosis protein Rv1496 and its homologs in M. smegmatis and M. thermoresistibile as MeaB. The crystal structures of all three homologs are highly similar to MeaB and MMAA structures and reveal a characteristic three-domain homodimer with GDP bound in the G domain active site. A structure of Rv1496 obtained from a crystal grown in the presence of GTP exhibited electron density for GDP, suggesting GTPase activity. These structures identify the mycobacterial MeaB and provide a structural framework for therapeutic targeting of M. tuberculosis MeaB.
Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics 04/2015; 16(2). DOI:10.1007/s10969-015-9197-2
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The apicomplexan hemoparasite Theileria equi is a causative agent of equine piroplasmosis, eradicated from the United States in 1988. However, recent outbreaks have sparked renewed interest in treatment options for infected horses. Imidocarb dipropionate is the current drug of choice, however variation in clinical response to therapy has been observed.
We quantified the in vitro susceptibility of two T. equi isolates and a lab generated variant to both imidocarb dipropionate and a bumped kinase inhibitor compound 1294. We also evaluated the capacity of in vitro imidocarb dipropionate exposure to decrease susceptibility to that drug. The efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate for clearing infection in four T. equi infected ponies was also assessed.
We observed an almost four-fold difference in imidocarb dipropionate susceptibility between two distinct isolates of T. equi. Four ponies infected with the less susceptible USDA Florida strain failed to clear the parasite despite two rounds of treatment. Importantly, a further 15-fold decrease in susceptibility was produced in this strain by continuous in vitro imidocarb dipropionate exposure. Despite a demonstrated difference in imidocarb dipropionate susceptibility, there was no difference in the susceptibility of two T. equi isolates to bumped kinase inhibitor 1294.
The observed variation in imidocarb dipropionate susceptibility, further reduction in susceptibility caused by drug exposure in vitro, and failure to clear T. equi infection in vivo, raises concern for the emergence of drug resistance in clinical cases undergoing treatment. Bumped kinase inhibitors may be effective as alternative drugs for the treatment of resistant T. equi parasites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) studies which recapitulate mosquito-borne infection are a critical tool to identify protective vaccine and drug candidates for advancement to field trials. In partnership with the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, the CHMI model was established at the Seattle Biomedical Research Institute's Malaria Clinical Trials Center (MCTC). Activities and reagents at both centers were aligned to ensure comparability and continued safety of the model. To demonstrate successful implementation, CHMI was performed in six healthy malaria-naïve volunteers.
PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e109654. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109654 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic agent that infects humans and animals occasionally causing severe, watery diarrhoea. In immunocompetent hosts, cryptosporidiosis is self-limiting but can have a fatal outcome in immunocompromised individuals. Cryptosporidium is one of the most common causes of waterborne diseases (recreational water and drinking water) in humans, a leading cause of moderate to severe childhood diarrhoea, and a major agent of diarrhoea in calves leading to high economic losses and up to 10 % lethality. So far, available treatment options are insufficient for both veterinary and human clinical disease cases. Here, we report for the first time that the novel bumped kinase inhibitor (BKI) 1294 targeting the calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1) of Cryptosporidium is able to reduce the oocyst shedding of C. parvum by calves-its natural host-without obvious side effects.
Parasitology Research 11/2014; 114(1). DOI:10.1007/s00436-014-4228-7 · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Specific roles of individual CDPKs vary, but in general they mediate essential biological functions necessary for parasite survival. A comparative analysis of the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of Neospora caninum, Eimeria tenella and Babesia bovis calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) together with those of Plasmodium falciparum, Cryptosporidium parvum and Toxoplasma gondii was performed by screening against 333 bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs). Structural modelling and experimental data revealed that residues other than the gatekeeper influence compound-protein interactions resulting in distinct sensitivity profiles. We subsequently defined potential amino-acid structural influences within the ATP-binding cavity for each orthologue necessary for consideration in the development of broad-spectrum apicomplexan CDPK inhibitors. Although the BKI library was developed for specific inhibition of glycine gatekeeper CDPKs combined with low inhibition of threonine gatekeeper human SRC kinase, some library compounds exhibit activity against serine- or threonine-containing CDPKs. Divergent BKI sensitivity of CDPK homologues could be explained on the basis of differences in the size and orientation of the hydrophobic pocket and specific variation at other amino-acid positions within the ATP-binding cavity. In particular, BbCDPK4 and PfCDPK1 are sensitive to a larger fraction of compounds than EtCDPK1 despite the presence of a threonine gatekeeper in all three CDPKs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii is a unicellular parasite that causes severe brain and eye disease. Current drugs for T. gondii are limited by toxicity. Bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs) selectively inhibit calcium-dependent protein kinases of the apicomplexan
pathogens T. gondii, cryptosporidia, and plasmodia. A lead anti-Toxoplasma BKI, 1294, has been developed to be metabolically stable and orally bioavailable. Herein, we demonstrate the oral efficacy
of 1294 against toxoplasmosis in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the enormous economic importance of Neospora caninum related veterinary diseases, the number of effective therapeutic agents is relatively small. Development of new therapeutic strategies to combat the economic impact of neosporosis remains an important scientific endeavor. This study demonstrates molecular, structural and phenotypic evidence that N. caninum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (NcCDPK1) is a promising molecular target for neosporosis drug development. Recombinant NcCDPK1 was expressed, purified and screened against a select group of bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs) previously shown to have low IC50s against Toxoplasma gondii CDPK1 and T. gondii tachyzoites. NcCDPK1 was inhibited by low concentrations of BKIs. The three-dimensional structure of NcCDPK1 in complex with BKIs was studied crystallographically. The BKI-NcCDPK1 structures demonstrated the structural basis for potency and selectivity. Calcium-dependent conformational changes in solution as characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering are consistent with previous structures in low Calcium-state but different in the Calcium-bound active state than predicted by X-ray crystallography. BKIs effectively inhibited N. caninum tachyzoite proliferation in vitro. Electron microscopic analysis of N. caninum cells revealed ultra-structural changes in the presence of BKI compound 1294. BKI compound 1294 interfered with an early step in Neospora tachyzoite host cell invasion and egress. Prolonged incubation in the presence of 1294 interfered produced observable interference with viability and replication. Oral dosing of BKI compound 1294 at 50 mg/kg for 5 days in established murine neosporosis resulted in a 10-fold reduced cerebral parasite burden compared to untreated control. Further experiments are needed to determine the PK, optimal dosage, and duration for effective treatment in cattle and dogs, but these data demonstrate proof-of-concept for BKIs, and 1294 specifically, for therapy of bovine and canine neosporosis.
PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e92929. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0092929 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malaria remains a major health concern for a large percentage of the world’s population. While great strides have been made in reducing mortality due to malaria, new strategies and therapies are still needed. Therapies that are capable of blocking the transmission of Plasmodium parasites are particularly attractive, but only primaquine accomplishes this, and toxicity issues hamper its widespread use. In this study, we describe a series of pyrazolopyrimidine- and imidazopyrazine-based compounds that are potent inhibitors of PfCDPK4, which is a calcium-activated Plasmodium protein kinase that is essential for exflagellation of male gametocytes. Thus, PfCDPK4 is essential for the sexual development of Plasmodium parasites and their ability to infect mosquitos. We demonstrate that two structural features in the ATP-binding site of PfCDPK4 can be exploited in order to obtain potent and selective inhibitors of this enzyme. Furthermore, we demonstrate that pyrazolopyrimidine-based inhibitors that are potent inhibitors of the in vitro activity of PfCDPK4 are also able to block P. falciparum exflagellation with no observable toxicity to human cells. This medicinal chemistry effort serves as a valuable starting point in the development of safe, transmission-blocking agents for the control of malaria.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2014; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2013.12.048 · 3.45 Impact Factor