[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease caused by one of four serotypes of Dengue virus (DENV-1-4). Epidemiologic and observational studies demonstrate that the majority of severe dengue cases, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), occurs predominantly in either individuals with cross-reactive immunity following a secondary heterologous infection or in infants with primary DENV infections born from dengue-immune mothers, suggesting that B-cell-mediated and antibody responses impact on disease evolution. We demonstrate here that B cells play a pivotal role in host responses against primary DENV infection in mice. After infection, μMT(-/-) mice showed increased viral loads followed by severe disease manifestation characterized by intense thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration, cytokine production and massive liver damage that culminated in death. In addition, we show that poly and monoclonal anti-DENV-specific antibodies can sufficiently increase viral replication through a suppression of early innate antiviral responses and enhance disease manifestation, so that a mostly non-lethal illness becomes a fatal disease resembling human DHF/DSS. Finally, treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin containing anti-DENV antibodies confirmed the potential enhancing capacity of subneutralizing antibodies to mediate virus infection and replication and induce severe disease manifestation of DENV-infected mice. Thus, our results show that humoral responses unleashed during DENV infections can exert protective or pathological outcomes and provide insight into the pathogenesis of this important human pathogen.
Medical Microbiology and Immunology 04/2014; · 3.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontal disease (PD) has long been studied and some reports suggest that treating RA may improve the associated PD, and vice versa. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α therapy with pentoxifylline (PTX) in an experimental model of RA-associated PD.
Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to chronic antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) and daily treated with PTX (50 mg/kg, i.p.) using preventive (Pre-PTX) or therapeutic (The-PTX) strategies. Fourteen days after the antigen challenge, mice were euthanized and knee joints, maxillae and serum were collected for microscopic and/or immunoenzimatic analysis.
AIA triggered significant leukocyte recruitment to the synovial cavity, tissue damage and proteoglycan loss in the knee joint. Pre-PTX and The-PTX regimens decreased these signs of joint inflammation. The increased levels of TNF-α and IL-17 in periarticular tissues of AIA mice were also reduced by both PTX treatments. Serum levels of C-reactive protein, which were augmented after AIA, were reduced by the PTX regimens. Concomitantly to AIA, mice presented alveolar bone loss, and recruitment of osteoclasts and neutrophils to periodontal tissues. Pre-PTX and The-PTX prevented and treated these signs of PD. PTX treatment also decreased TNF-α and increased IL-10 expression in the maxillae of AIA mice, although it did not affect the expression of IFN-γ and IL-17.
The current study shows the anti-inflammatory and bone protective effects of preventive and therapeutic PTX treatments, which decreased the joint damage triggered by AIA and the associated periodontal co-morbidity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin (Ang) II and its AT1 receptors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Activation of the counter-regulatory Ang-(1-7)-Mas receptor axis may contribute to some of the effects of AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs). In this study, we have used losartan, an ARB, to investigate the role of and the mechanisms by which AT1 receptors participated in two experimental models of arthritis: antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in mice and adjuvant-induced arthritis (AdIA) in rats. Treatment with losartan decreased neutrophil recruitment, hypernociception and the production of TNF-α, IL-1β and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 in mice subjected to AIA. Histopathological analysis showed significant reduction of tissue injury and inflammation and decreased proteoglycan loss. In addition to decreasing cytokine production, losartan directly reduced leukocyte rolling and adhesion. Anti-inflammatory effects of losartan were not associated to Mas receptor activation and/or Ang-(1-7) production. Anti-inflammatory effects were reproduced in rats subjected to AdIA. This study shows that ARBs have potent anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of arthritis. Mechanistically, reduction of leukocyte accumulation and of joint damage was associated with local inhibition of cytokine production and direct inhibition of leukocyte-endothelium interactions. The anti-inflammatory actions of losartan were accompanied by functional improvement of the joint, as seen by reduced joint hypernociception. These findings support the use of ARBs for the treatment of human arthritis and provide potential mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory actions of these compounds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dengue disease is a mosquito-borne viral disease of expanding geographical range and incidence. Infection by one of the four serotypes of dengue virus induces a spectrum of disease manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic to life-threatening Dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome. Many efforts have been made to elucidate several aspects of dengue virus-induced disease, but the pathogenesis of disease is complex and remains unclear. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the early stages of infection is crucial to determine and develop safe therapeutics to prevent the severe outcomes of disease without interfering with control of infection. In this review, we discuss the dual role of the innate and inflammatory pathways activated during dengue disease in mediating both protection and exacerbation of disease. We show that some mediators involved in each of these responses differ substantially, suggesting that interfering in disease-associated immune pathways may represent a potential therapeutic opportunity for the treatment of severe dengue.
American Journal Of Pathology 04/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are few animal models of dengue infection, especially in immunocompetent mice. Here, we describe alterations found in adult immunocompetent mice inoculated with an adapted Dengue virus (DENV-3) strain. Infection of mice with the adapted DENV-3 caused inoculum-dependent lethality that was preceded by several hematological and biochemical changes and increased virus dissemination, features consistent with severe disease manifestation in humans. IFN-γ expression increased after DENV-3 infection of WT mice and this was preceded by increase in expression of IL-12 and IL-18. In DENV-3-inoculated IFN-γ(-/-) mice, there was enhanced lethality, which was preceded by severe disease manifestation and virus replication. Lack of IFN-γ production was associated with diminished NO-synthase 2 (NOS2) expression and higher susceptibility of NOS2(-/-) mice to DENV-3 infection. Therefore, mechanisms of protection to DENV-3 infection rely on IFN-γ-NOS2-NO-dependent control of viral replication and of disease severity, a pathway showed to be relevant for resistance to DENV infection in other experimental and clinical settings. Thus, the model of DENV-3 infection in immunocompetent mice described here represents a significant advance in animal models of severe dengue disease and may provide an important tool to the elucidation of immunopathogenesis of disease and of protective mechanisms associated with infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease caused by one of four serotypes of Dengue virus (DENV-1-4). Severe dengue infection in humans is characterized by thrombocytopenia, increased vascular permeability, hemorrhage and shock. However, there is little information about host response to DENV infection. Here, mechanisms accounting for IFN-γ production and effector function during dengue disease were investigated in a murine model of DENV-2 infection. IFN-γ expression was greatly increased after infection of mice and its production was preceded by increase in IL-12 and IL-18 levels. In IFN-γ(-/-) mice, DENV-2-associated lethality, viral loads, thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration, and liver injury were enhanced, when compared with wild type-infected mice. IL-12p40(-/-) and IL-18(-/-) infected-mice showed decreased IFN-γ production, which was accompanied by increased disease severity, higher viral loads and enhanced lethality. Blockade of IL-18 in infected IL-12p40(-/-) mice resulted in complete inhibition of IFN-γ production, greater DENV-2 replication, and enhanced disease manifestation, resembling the response seen in DENV-2-infected IFN-γ(-/-) mice. Reduced IFN-γ production was associated with diminished Nitric Oxide-synthase 2 (NOS2) expression and NOS2(-/-) mice had elevated lethality, more severe disease evolution and increased viral load after DENV-2 infection. Therefore, IL-12/IL-18-induced IFN-γ production and consequent NOS2 induction are of major importance to host resistance against DENV infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deposition of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals in the joints promotes an intense inflammatory response and joint dysfunction. This study evaluated the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX)-derived leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4) ) in driving tissue inflammation and hypernociception in a murine model of gout.
Gout was induced by injecting MSU crystals into the joints of mice. Wild-type mice and mice deficient in NLRP3, ASC, caspase 1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI), IL-18R, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), or 5-LOX were used. Evaluations were performed to assess neutrophil influx, LTB(4) activity, cytokine (IL-1β, CXCL1) production (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), synovial microvasculature cell adhesion (by intravital microscopy), and hypernociception. Cleaved caspase 1 and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed in macrophages by Western blotting and fluorometric assay, respectively.
Injection of MSU crystals into the knee joints of mice induced neutrophil influx and neutrophil-dependent hypernociception. MSU crystal-induced neutrophil influx was CXCR2-dependent and relied on the induction of CXCL1 in an NLRP3/ASC/caspase 1/IL-1β/MyD88-dependent manner. LTB(4) was produced rapidly after injection of MSU crystals, and this was necessary for caspase 1-dependent IL-1β production and consequent release of CXCR2-acting chemokines in vivo. In vitro, macrophages produced LTB(4) after MSU crystal injection, and LTB(4) was relevant in the MSU crystal-induced maturation of IL-1β. Mechanistically, LTB(4) drove MSU crystal-induced production of ROS and ROS-dependent activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome.
These results reveal the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in mediating MSU crystal-induced inflammation and dysfunction of the joints, and highlight a previously unrecognized role of LTB(4) in driving NLRP3 inflammasome activation in response to MSU crystals, both in vitro and in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontal disease (PD) are prevalent chronic inflammatory disorders that affect bone structures. Individuals with RA are more likely to experience PD, but how disease in joints could induce PD remains unknown. This study aimed to experimentally mimic clinical parameters of RA-induced PD and to provide mechanistic findings to explain this association. Chronic Ag-induced arthritis (AIA) was triggered by injection of methylated BSA in the knee joint of immunized mice. Anti-TNF-α was used to assess the role of this cytokine. Intra-articular challenge induced infiltration of cells, synovial hyperplasia, bone resorption, proteoglycan loss, and increased expression of cytokines exclusively in challenged joints. Simultaneously, AIA resulted in severe alveolar bone loss, migration of osteoclasts, and release of proinflammatory cytokines in maxillae. Anti-TNF-α therapy prevented the development of both AIA and PD. AIA did not modify bacterial counts in the oral cavity. PD, but not AIA, induced by injection of Ag in immunized mice was decreased by local treatment with antiseptic, which decreased the oral microbiota. AIA was associated with an increase in serum C-reactive protein levels and the expression of the transcription factors RORγ and Foxp3 in cervical lymph nodes. There were higher titers of anti-collagen I IgG, and splenocytes were more responsive to collagen I in AIA mice. In conclusion, AIA-induced PD was dependent on TNF-α and the oral microbiota. Moreover, PD was associated with changes in expression of lymphocyte transcription factors, presence of anti-collagen Abs, and increased reactivity to autoantigens.
The Journal of Immunology 09/2011; 187(7):3821-30. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neutrophil accumulation contributes to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. This study was undertaken to examine the ability of H2O2 to influence neutrophilic inflammation in a model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) in mice.
AIA was induced by administration of antigen into the knee joints of previously immunized mice. Neutrophil accumulation was measured by counting neutrophils in the synovial cavity and assaying myeloperoxidase activity in the tissue surrounding the mouse knee joint. Apoptosis was determined by morphologic and molecular techniques. The role of H2O2 was studied using mice that do not produce reactive oxygen species (gp91phox-/- mice) and drugs that enhance the generation or enhance the degradation of H2O2.
Antigen challenge of immunized mice induced neutrophil accumulation that peaked at 12-24 hours after challenge. H2O2 production peaked at 24 hours, after which time, the inflammation resolved. Neutrophil recruitment was similar in wild-type and gp91phox-/- mice, but there was delayed resolution in gp91phox-/- mice or after administration of catalase. In contrast, administration of H2O2 or superoxide dismutase (SOD) resolved neutrophilic inflammation. The resolution of inflammation induced by SOD or H2O2 was accompanied by an increase in the number of apoptotic neutrophils. Apoptosis was associated with an increase in Bax and caspase 3 cleavage and was secondary to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt activation.
Our findings indicate that levels of H2O2 increase during neutrophil influx and are necessary for the natural resolution of neutrophilic inflammation. Mechanistically, enhanced levels of H2O2 (endogenous or exogenous) inhibit p-Akt/NF-κB and induce apoptosis of migrated neutrophils. Modulation of H2O2 production may represent a novel strategy for controlling neutrophilic inflammation in the joints.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dengue, one of the most important arboviral diseases of humans, may cause severe systemic disease. Although dengue virus (DENV) has been considered to be a non-neurotropic virus, dengue infection has been associated recently with a series of neurological syndromes, including encephalitis. In this work, we evaluated behavioral changes and inflammatory parameters in C57BL/6 mice infected with non-adapted dengue virus 3 (DENV-3) genotype I.
C57BL/6 mice received 4×10(3) PFU of DENV-3 by an intracranial route. We evaluated the trafficking of leukocytes in brain microvasculature using intravital microscopy, and evaluated chemokine and cytokine profiling by an ELISA test at 3 and 6 days post infection (p.i.). Furthermore, we determined myeloperoxidase activity and immune cell populations, and also performed histopathological analysis and immunostaining for the virus in brain tissue.
All animals developed signs of encephalitis and died by day 8 p.i. Motor behavior and muscle tone and strength parameters declined at day 7 p.i. We observed increased leukocyte rolling and adhesion in brain microvasculature of infected mice at days 3 and 6 p.i. The infection was followed by significant increases in IFN-γ, TNF-α, CCL2, CCL5, CXCL1, and CXCL2. Histological analysis showed evidence of meningoencephalitis and reactive gliosis. Increased numbers of neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were detected in brain of infected animals, notably at day 6 p.i. Cells immunoreactive for anti-NS-3 were visualized throughout the brain.
Intracerebral infection with non-adapted DENV-3 induces encephalitis and behavioral changes that precede lethality in mice.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 03/2011; 8:23. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Chronic joint inflammation and pain are the hallmarks of disease in patients with inflammatory arthritis, notably rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relative contribution of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and neutrophil influx for joint inflammation and nociception in a novel murine model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA).EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH AIA was induced by administration of antigen into knee joint of previously immunized mice. Neutrophil accumulation was determined by counting neutrophils in the joints and assessing myeloperoxidase activity in tissues surrounding the joints. TNF-α, IL-1β and CXCL-1 were measured by elisa. Mechanical hypernociception was assessed in parallel, using an electronic pressure meter.KEY RESULTS Hypernociception was dependent on antigen dose and the time after its administration; it was prevented by treatment with morphine and associated with neutrophil infiltration and local production of TNF-α, IL-1β and CXCL-1. Administration of a chimeric monoclonal antibody to TNF-α (infliximab) or IL-1receptor antagonist prevented neutrophil influx and hypernociception, and this was comparable to the effects of dexamethasone. Treatment with fucoidin (a leucocyte adhesion inhibitor) greatly suppressed neutrophil influx and local production of TNF-α and IL-1β, and hypernociception.CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS In conclusion, the present study describes a new model that allows for the concomitant evaluation of articular hypernociception and inflammation. Using this system, we demonstrated that a positive feedback loop involving neutrophil influx and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β is necessary for articular hypernociception after antigen challenge of immunized mice.
British Journal of Pharmacology 01/2011; 162(1). · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of the renin-angiotensin (Ang) system induces inflammation via interaction between Ang II and type 1 receptor on leukocytes. The relevance of the new arm of the renin-Ang system, namely Ang-converting enzyme-2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor, for inflammatory responses is not known and was investigated in this study. For this purpose, two experimental models were used: Ag-induced arthritis (AIA) in mice and adjuvant-induced arthritis (AdIA) in rats. Male C57BL/6 wild-type or Mas(-/-) mice were subjected to AIA and treated with Ang-(1-7), the Mas agonist AVE 0991, or vehicle. AdIA was performed in female rats that were given AVE 0991 or vehicle. In wild-type mice, Mas protein is expressed in arthritic joints. Administration of AVE 0991 or Ang-(1-7) decreased AIA-induced neutrophil accumulation, hypernociception, and production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and CXCL1. Histopathological analysis showed significant reduction of inflammation. Mechanistically, AVE 0991 reduced leukocyte rolling and adhesion, even when given after Ag challenge. Mas(-/-) mice subjected to AIA developed slightly more pronounced inflammation, as observed by greater neutrophil accumulation and cytokine release. Administration of AVE 0991 was without effect in Mas(-/-) mice subjected to AIA. In rats, administration of AVE 0991 decreased edema, neutrophil accumulation, histopathological score, and production of IL-1β and CXCL1 induced by AdIA. Therefore, activation of Mas receptors decreases neutrophil influx and cytokine production and causes significant amelioration of arthritis in experimental models of arthritis in rats and mice. This approach might represent a novel therapeutic opportunity for arthritis.
The Journal of Immunology 10/2010; 185(9):5569-76. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 play a role in mediating neutrophil recruitment and neutrophil-dependent injury in several models of inflammation. We undertook this study to investigate the role of these receptors in mediating neutrophil adhesion, subsequent migration, and neutrophil-dependent hypernociception in a murine model of monarticular antigen-induced arthritis (AIA).
AIA was induced by administration of antigen into the knee joint of previously immunized mice. Intravital microscopy studies were performed to assess leukocyte rolling and adhesion. Mechanical hypernociception was investigated using an electronic pressure meter. Neutrophil accumulation in the tissue was measured by counting neutrophils in the synovial cavity and assaying myeloperoxidase activity. Levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and the chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2 were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Histologic analysis was performed to evaluate the severity of arthritis and leukocyte infiltration.
Antigen challenge in immunized mice induced production of TNFalpha, CXCL1, and CXCL2 and also resulted in neutrophil recruitment, leukocyte rolling and adhesion, and hypernociception. Treatment with reparixin or DF2162 (allosteric inhibitors of CXCR1/CXCR2) decreased neutrophil recruitment, an effect that was associated with marked inhibition of neutrophil adhesion. Drug treatment also inhibited TNFalpha production, hypernociception, and the overall severity of the disease in the tissue.
Blockade of CXCR1/CXCR2 receptors inhibits neutrophil recruitment by inhibiting the adhesion of neutrophils to synovial microvessels. As a consequence, there is decreased local cytokine production and reduced hypernociception, as well as ameloriation of overall disease in the tissue. These studies suggest a potential therapeutic role for the modulation of CXCR1/CXCR2 receptor signaling in the treatment of arthritis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of an individual to sense pain is fundamental for its capacity to adapt to its environment and to avoid damage. The sensation of pain can be enhanced by acute or chronic inflammation. In the present study, we have investigated whether inflammatory pain, as measured by hypernociceptive responses, was modified in the absence of the microbiota. To this end, we evaluated mechanical nociceptive responses induced by a range of inflammatory stimuli in germ-free and conventional mice. Our experiments show that inflammatory hypernociception induced by carrageenan, lipopolysaccharide, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and the chemokine CXCL1 was reduced in germ-free mice. In contrast, hypernociception induced by prostaglandins and dopamine was similar in germ-free or conventional mice. Reduction of hypernociception induced by carrageenan was associated with reduced tissue inflammation and could be reversed by reposition of the microbiota or systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide. Significantly, decreased hypernociception in germ-free mice was accompanied by enhanced IL-10 expression upon stimulation and could be reversed by treatment with an anti-IL-10 antibody. Therefore, these results show that contact with commensal microbiota is necessary for mice to develop inflammatory hypernociception. These findings implicate an important role of the interaction between the commensal microbiota and the host in favoring adaptation to environmental stresses, including those that cause pain.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2008; 105(6):2193-7. · 9.81 Impact Factor