Victor Zannis

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (21)54.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Randomized trials demonstrate that lumpectomy plus whole-breast irradiation (WBI) yields survival equivalent to mastectomy. Studies that use WBI, however, typically report higher tumor bed recurrence rates than elsewhere failures (EF) (historically considered new primary lesions). The rate of true recurrence (TR) versus EF was queried for a large patient cohort treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). A total of 1,449 cases of early-stage breast cancer were treated on the American Society of Breast Surgeons MammoSite(®) Registry Trial with lumpectomy plus balloon-based APBI (34 Gy, 10 BID fractions). A total of 1,255 cases (87 %) had invasive breast cancer, and 194 patients (13 %) had ductal carcinoma in situ. Rates of TR versus EF were calculated and compared to historical WBI controls. Median follow-up was 60 (range 0-109) months. Fifty patients (3.5 %) developed an ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR). The 5-year actuarial rate of IBTR was 3.6 % (invasive breast cancer 3.6 %, ductal carcinoma in situ 3.4 %). Fourteen IBTR (1.1 %) were TR, while 36 (2.6 %) were EF. Estrogen receptor-negative status was associated with IBTR for invasive malignancies as well as for EF only (p < 0.001). Trends for increased rates of EF were noted for increased tumor size (p = 0.067) and extensive intraductal component (p = 0.087). No pathologic factors were explicitly associated with TR. IBTR after balloon-based APBI is low and similar to rates reported for WBI. In this data set, APBI had fewer tumor bed recurrences (presumably initial cancer recurrences) than EF (presumably new primary lesions). This suggests that balloon-based APBI has a tumor bed control rate that is at least equal to (and potentially higher than) WBI.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 07/2012; 19(10):3165-70. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The American Society of Breast Surgeons enrolled women in a registry trial to prospectively study patients treated with the MammoSite Radiation Therapy System breast brachytherapy device. The present report examined the outcomes in women aged >70 years enrolled in the trial. A total of 1,449 primary early stage breast cancers were treated in 1,440 women. Of these, 537 occurred in women >70 years old. Fisher's exact test was performed to correlate age (≤ 70 vs. >70 years) with toxicity and with cosmesis. The association of age with local recurrence (LR) failure times was investigated by fitting a parametric model. Older women were less likely to develop telangiectasias than younger women (7.9% vs. 12.4%, p = 0.0083). The incidence of other toxicities was similar. Cosmesis was good or excellent in 92% of the women >70 years old. No significant difference was found in LR as a function of age. The 5-year actuarial LR rate with invasive disease for the older vs. younger population was 2.79% and 2.92%, respectively (p = 0.5780). In women >70 years with hormone-sensitive tumors ≤ 2 cm who received hormonal therapy (n = 195), the 5-year actuarial rate of LR, overall survival, disease-free survival, and cause-specific survival was 2.06%, 89.3%, 87%, and 97.5%, respectively. These outcomes were similar in women who did not receive hormonal therapy. Women with small, estrogen receptor-negative disease had worse LR, overall survival, and disease-free survival compared with receptor-positive patients. Accelerated partial breast irradiation with the MammoSite radiation therapy system resulted in low toxicity and produced similar cosmesis and local control at 5 years in women >70 years compared with younger women. This treatment should be considered as an alternative to omitting adjuvant radiotherapy for older women with small-volume, early-stage breast cancer.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 02/2012; 84(2):323-30. · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Robert Kuske, Victor Zannis
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 07/2011; 18(7):1807-8. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Strut-Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI; Cianna Medical, Aliso Viejo, CA) is a multichannel single-entry brachytherapy device designed to allow dose modulation to minimize normal tissue dose while simultaneously maximizing target coverage. This is the first report on the initial 102 patients with nearly 2 years of median follow-up. One hundred two patients were treated at two institutions. Data were collected on eligibility and dosimetry and followed for toxicity and recurrence. The median follow-up is 21 months. Overall dosimetry is outstanding (median percent of target volume receiving 90% of the prescription dose was 95.9%, volume of target receiving 150% of the prescription dose was 27.8 mL, and volume of target receiving 200% of the prescription dose was 14.0 cm(3)). No devices were pulled prior to treatment completion. For patients with a skin bridge of less than 7 mm, the maximum median skin dose was 280 cGy (median percent of target volume receiving 90% of the prescription dose was 95.2%, volume of target receiving 150% of the prescription dose was 25.8 cm(3) and volume of target receiving 200% of the prescription dose was 12.7 mL). For patients with both chest wall and skin of less than 7 mm, the maximum median lung dose was 205 cGy with simultaneous skin dose of 272 cGy. The rate of telangiectasia was 1.9%. Grade 1 hyperpigmentation developed in 10 patients (9.8%) and Grade 2 fibrosis in 2 patients (1.9%). There were 2 symptomatic seromas and 2 cases of asymptomatic fat necrosis (1.9%). Of the patients, 27% were not eligible for MammoSite balloon brachytherapy (Hologic, Inc., Marlborough, MA) and 5% were not eligible for any balloon brachytherapy. The recurrence rate was 1%. The SAVI appears to safely allow an increase in eligibility for APBI over balloon brachytherapy or three-dimensional conformal radiation, highlighting the outstanding device flexibility to maximize the target dose and minimize the normal tissue dose. The device was well tolerated by patients.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 07/2011; 80(3):765-70. · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • Fuel and Energy Abstracts 01/2011; 81(2).
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    ABSTRACT: A subset analysis of the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBS) Registry Trial of patients with ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS) was performed to compare results to patients receiving accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) for invasive tumors and to results in patients with DCIS receiving whole breast irradiation. One hundred ninety-four cases of DCIS were identified from a total of 1,449 cancers treated on the ASBS Registry Trial. Details of the trial are previously published. Analysis of the entire group of cases was performed in regards to toxicity and local control. Median age was 62.1 years with 40.1% and 10.9% younger than 60 years and 50 years, respectively. Nuclear grade distribution was 35.6%, 31.4%, 17%, and 16% high, intermediate, low grade, and unknown, respectively. Necrosis was known to be present 42.3% of cases. Comedo/solid architecture was known to be present in 68% of cases. Median tumor size was 8.0 mm (range .1-45 mm, 15.5% unknown). Median margin was 2 mm; 2 cases had positive margins and 56 cases had less than 1-mm margins. The median follow-up time was 46.7 months. Five isolated ipsilateral breast failures occurred. The actuarial isolated ipsilateral breast failure rate was 2.45% at 4 years. The total in-breast 4-year actuarial failure rate was 3.0%. Three of the patients had a failure elsewhere (1.69% 4-year actuarial rate). Three of the failures were true recurrences (1.33% 4-year actuarial rate). Infection occurred in 16 patients for an 8.2% rate. Seroma formation was reported in 31%, with 13% and 12% symptomatic and requiring intervention, respectively. Seroma formation was statistically higher in open versus closed cases for all seromas. Cosmetic outcome was good to excellent in 90.3% of patients with evaluation at 36 months. The ASBS Registry Trial includes the largest published collection of DCIS treated with APBI. Four-year follow-up shows result similar to those with invasive cancer treated with APBI, as well as DCIS treated with whole breast irradiation.
    American journal of surgery 10/2009; 198(4):505-7. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a 4-year update on the efficacy, cosmetic results, and complications of MammoSite breast brachytherapy in patients enrolled in the American Society of Breast Surgeons registry trial. A total of 1,449 breasts in 1,440 patients with early stage breast cancer undergoing breast-conserving therapy were treated with adjuvant, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) (34 Gy in 3.4-Gy fractions) delivered with the MammoSite device. The median follow-up period for the entire group was 36.1 months. The 3-year actuarial rate of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was 2.15%. The 3-year actuarial rate of axillary recurrence was .36%. Complication rates were as follows: infection, 9.5%; seroma, 26.8% (symptomatic seroma, 12.7%); and fat necrosis, 2.0%. The percentages of breasts with good or excellent cosmetic results were as follows: 12 months, 95%; 24 months, 94%; 36 months, 94%; and 48 months, 91%. Locoregional control, complications, and cosmetic outcomes from MammoSite APBI at the 4-year update are acceptable and similar to results seen with other forms of APBI.
    American journal of surgery 04/2009; 198(1):83-91. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The American Society of Breast Surgeons enrolled women onto a registry trial to prospectively study patients treated with the MammoSite Radiation Therapy System (RTS) breast brachytherapy device. This report examines local recurrence (LR), toxicity, and cosmesis as a function of age in women enrolled onto the trial. A total of 1449 primary early-stage breast cancers were treated in 1440 women. Of these, 130 occurred in women younger than 50 years of age. Fisher's exact test was performed to correlate age (<50 vs. > or = 50 years) with toxicity and with cosmesis. The association of age with LR failure times was investigated by fitting a parametric model. Women younger than 50 were more likely to develop fat necrosis: 4.6% (6 of 130) vs. 1.8% (24 of 1319) (P = .0456). Other toxicities were comparable. At 2 years, cosmesis was excellent or good in 87% of assessable women aged <50 years (n = 74) and in 94% of assessable older women (n = 751) (P = .0197). At 3 years, this difference disappeared: excellent or good in 90% (56 of 62) of younger women vs. 93% (573 of 614) of older women (P = .2902). The crude LR rate for the group was 1.7% (25 of 1449). There was no statistically significant difference in LR as a function of age. In women <50, 3.1% (4 of 130) developed a LR; in the older patients, 1.6% (21 of 1319) developed LR (3-year actuarial LR rates, 2.9% vs. 1.7%, respectively; P = .2284). Accelerated partial breast irradiation with the MammoSite RTS results in low toxicity and produces similar cosmesis and local control at 3 years in women younger than 50 when compared with older women.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 04/2009; 16(6):1612-8. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although two-thirds of invasive breast cancers and half of non-invasive breast cancers are amenable to lumpectomy, only about 70% of such patients choose breast conservation. Of that group, up to one-third do not follow-up with radiation therapy despite it being clinically indicated. The reasons include the patient's and surgeon's attitude toward breast conservation as well as the inconvenience and distance of a suitable radiation facility. The advent of shorter courses of radiation therapy may encourage more patients to seek adjuvant therapy. An increasingly popular and more convenient alternative to traditional whole-breast radiation therapy in patients with early-stage breast cancer is accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), for which the American Society of Breast Surgeons and the American Brachytherapy Society have promulgated guidelines for candidate selection. Although several methods are emerging, the most widely used brachytherapy technique utilizes the MammoSite single-catheter balloon brachytherapy device. In a best practices symposium convened in 2006, breast surgeons from academic and community practices with extensive experience in balloon brachytherapy developed general guidelines for integrating APBI into a breast surgical practice. Important considerations include patient age, histology, tumor location and size, and breast size. Thoughtful lumpectomy planning is essential to optimize balloon placement. Real-time sonographic guidance is essential as the surgeon should attend closely to volume excised and cavity shape. A cavity evaluation device can act as a place holder while patient suitability for APBI is considered. Many breast surgeons expert in this procedure insert the balloon catheter in the office either through a de novo skin entrance site removed from the lumpectomy incision or through the original incision. Optimally, insertion occurs within 2-3 weeks after lumpectomy. Close and continual communication with the radiation oncologist is essential to assure optimal outcomes. In this review, several key aspects of a successful APBI program from a surgeon's perspective as well as a consensus panel from a best practices symposium on the topic herein are highlighted.
    The Breast Journal 01/2009; 15(1):93-100. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate cosmetic outcome and radiation recall in the American Society of Breast Surgeons registry trial, as a function of the interval between accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) and initiation of chemotherapy (CTX). A total of 1440 patients at 97 institutions participated in this trial. After lumpectomy for early-stage breast cancer, patients received APBI (34 Gy in 10 fractions) with MammoSite RTS brachytherapy. A total of 148 patients received CTX within 90 days of APBI. Cosmetic outcome was evaluated at each follow-up visit and dichotomized as excellent/good or fair/poor. Chemotherapy was initiated at a mean of 3.9 weeks after the final MammoSite procedure and was administered </=3 weeks after APBI in 54 patients (36%) and >3 weeks after APBI in 94 patients (64%). The early and delayed groups were well balanced with respect to multiple factors that may impact on cosmetic outcome. There was a superior cosmetic outcome in those receiving chemotherapy >3 weeks after APBI (excellent/good in 72.2% at </=3 weeks vs. excellent/good in 93.8% at >3 weeks; p = 0.01). Radiation recall in those receiving CTX at </=3 weeks was 9 of 50 (18%), compared with 6 of 81(7.4%) in those receiving chemotherapy at >3 weeks (p = 0.09). The majority of patients receiving CTX after APBI have excellent/good cosmetic outcomes, with a low rate of radiation recall. Chemotherapy initiated >3 weeks after the final MammoSite procedure seems to be associated with a better cosmetic outcome and lower rate of radiation recall. An excellent/good cosmetic outcome in patients receiving CTX after 3 weeks was similar to the cosmetic outcome of the overall patient population who did not receive CTX.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 08/2008; 72(5):1441-8. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND.This report presents 3 years of data on treatment efficacy, cosmetic results, and toxicities for patients enrolled on the American Society of Breast Surgeons MammoSite (Cytyc, Bedford, Mass) Breast Brachytherapy Registry Trial.METHODS.A total of 1440 patients (1449 cases) with early stage breast cancer who were undergoing breast-conserving therapy were treated with the MammoSite device to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) (34 Gy in 3.4 Gy fractions). Of these, 1255 (87%) cases had invasive breast cancer (IBC; median size = 10 mm), and 194 (13%) cases had ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS; median size = 8 mm). Median follow-up was 30.1 months.RESULTS.Twenty-three (1.6%) cases developed an ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) for a 2-year actuarial rate of 1.04% (1.11% for IBC and 0.59% for DCIS). No variables were associated with IBTR. Six (0.4%) patients developed an axillary failure. The percentages of breasts with good to excellent cosmetic results at 12 (n = 980), 24 (n = 752), 36 (n = 403), and 48 months (n = 67 cases) were 95%, 94%, 93%, and 93%, respectively. Breast seromas were reported in 23.9% of cases (30% in open-cavity implants and 19% in closed-cavity implants). Symptomatic seromas occurred in 10.6% of cases, and 1.5% of cases developed fat necrosis. A subset analysis of the first 400 consecutive cases enrolled was performed (352 with IBC, 48 DCIS). With a median follow-up of 37.5 months, the 3-year actuarial rate of IBTR was 1.79%.CONCLUSIONS.Treatment efficacy, cosmesis, and toxicity 3 years after treatment with APBI using the MammoSite device are good and similar to those reported with other forms of APBI with similar follow-up. Cancer 2008. © 2008 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 02/2008; 112(4):758 - 766. · 5.20 Impact Factor
  • Brachytherapy 01/2008; 7(2):105. · 1.22 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics - INT J RADIAT ONCOL BIOL PHYS. 01/2008; 72(1).
  • International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics - INT J RADIAT ONCOL BIOL PHYS. 01/2008; 72(1).
  • Brachytherapy 01/2007; 6(2):97. · 1.22 Impact Factor
  • Victor J. Zannis, Mark A. Gittleman
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    ABSTRACT: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) techniques include interstitial multi-plane catheter applications, the utilization of lumpectomy cavity indwelling devices, and ultra-focused external beam radiation (either three-dimensional conformal or intraoperative delivery). The importance of the breast surgeon’s role in APBI varies with the radiation application mode that is used, with the surgeon being instrumental in the delivery of both lumpectomy cavity indwelling device-based therapy and intraoperative irradiation, but minimally involved in the applications of multicatheter interstitial and three-dimensional conformal techniques. Surgical techniques and principals have evolved during recent experiences with APBI, and these are described in this review. By partnering with radiation oncology colleagues during APBI, surgeons optimize the success of this style of irradiation and improve the outcomes of therapy for women with breast cancer.
    Seminars in Breast Disease 01/2007; 10(1):14-19.
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    ABSTRACT: The MammoSite device was designed as a breast brachytherapy applicator and is currently used to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). We hypothesized that APBI delivered with the MammoSite device would be well tolerated and be associated with a good cosmetic outcome in patients with ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS). From 2002 to 2004, 191 patients with DCIS were enrolled in a registry trial to assess the MammoSite applicator. Fifteen patients were excluded from analysis because of device- or patient-related factors; 7 patients were excluded after receiving a radiotherapy boost, thus leaving 169 patients available for study. Follow-up information was available for 158 patients. The average length of follow-up was 7.35 months. Forty-three patients had at least 1 year of follow-up. Skin spacing for the MammoSite applicator was as follows: < 5 mm, 3 patients (1.78%); 5 to 7 mm, 18 patients (10.65%); and > or = 7 mm, 148 patients (87.57%). Patients with a device-to-skin distance of > or = 7 mm had the best cosmetic result. Patients with a device-to-skin distance of > or = 7 mm also had a lower incidence of radiation dermatitis. Data on 43 patients who were followed up for at least 1 year confirmed these findings. Additional adverse events were primarily related to skin changes, with breast infections occurring in five patients (3.16%). No patient in the study has experienced a recurrence. APBI delivered via MammoSite is well tolerated in patients with DCIS, and the lowest toxicity was obtained in patients with the greatest device-to-skin distance. Long-term follow-up data regarding patient satisfaction, cosmesis, and efficacy are needed and will be determined from a recently opened large randomized study.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 08/2006; 13(7):967-76. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of the MammoSite brachytherapy balloon catheter is 1 option for the delivery of accelerated partial breast irradiation during breast cancer therapy. The device can be inserted into the breast using 3 different techniques. This report describes these methods of insertion and correlates the technique with outcome data collected in a multi-institutional registry trial. In the registry trial, MammoSite catheters were inserted either (1) at the time of lumpectomy into an open cavity, (2) after surgery with ultrasound guidance through a separate small lateral incision into a closed cavity, or (3) after surgery by entering directly through the lumpectomy wound (the scar entry technique). Device placement techniques in 1403 patients with early stage breast cancer treated at 87 institutions by 223 different investigators were documented in the registry. Data collected included number of cases of each technique, age of patient, tumor size, skin spacing, catheter pull rates and reasons, infection, radiation recall, cosmesis, and recurrence. Catheter placement at the time of lumpectomy was performed in 619 patients (44%), after surgery with ultrasound guidance in 576 patients (41%), and the scar entry technique technique in 197 patients (14%). The type of technique was not associated with age of patient, tumor size, bra size, catheter size, skin spacing, infection, radiation recall, cosmesis, or recurrence. There was a statistically significant increased incidence of premature catheter removals for pathologically related reasons with the open-cavity technique compared with the 2 postoperative methods secondary to final histology reports disqualifying the patient after MammoSite placement. These registry data show that the MammoSite catheter can be inserted with any 1 of 3 different techniques. A postoperative placement, after the final pathology report is issued, decreases the incidence of premature removal of the catheter because of disqualifying pathology.
    The American Journal of Surgery 11/2005; 190(4):530-8. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eighty-seven institutions participated in a Registry Trial that was designed to collect data on the clinical use of the MammoSite breast brachytherapy catheter for delivering breast irradiation. Patient demographics, technical reproducibility, cosmesis, and early toxicity were evaluated. From May 4, 2002 through July 30, 2004, 1419 patients with Stage 0, I, or II breast carcinoma who were undergoing breast-conserving therapy were enrolled on the trial. The device was placed in 1403 of these patients. The 1237 patients (87% of enrolled patients) who received accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) (34 grays prescribed to 1.0 cm in 10 fractions; 95% of patients who received APBI) constituted the study population; 86% of those patients (1068) had Stages I-II breast carcinoma (median tumor size, 10 mm), and 14% of those patients (169) had Stage 0 breast carcinoma. Ninety-one percent of the patients with invasive carcinoma (977 of 1068 patients) had negative lymph node status, and 99% of all patients had negative margins. The median patient age was 65 years. Systemic chemotherapy alone was administered to 79 patients with invasive carcinoma (7%), hormone therapy was administered to 501 patients (45%), and both were administered to 39 patients (4%). The median follow-up was 5 months. Five hundred fifty-four catheters (45%) were placed with an open cavity at the time of lumpectomy, and 683 catheters (55%) were placed with a closed cavity after lumpectomy. Skin spacing ranged from 2 mm to 75 mm (median, 10 mm). In 89% of patients, there was a minimum balloon-to-skin distance of 7 mm (2% of patients had distances < 5 mm). In terms of cosmetic assessment, 95% of patients (1030 of 1084 patients) who had a cosmetic assessment had a good/excellent result (last follow-up visit). Cosmetic results at 12 months were good/excellent in 92% of 248 evaluable patients. The median skin spacing (> or = 7 mm vs. < 7 mm) was associated significantly with a good/excellent cosmetic result (96.1% vs. 86.8%; P = 0.0001) overall and at 6 months (P = 0.006). Increasing skin spacing was associated with a good/excellent cosmetic result as a continuous variable (P < 0.0001). In total, 92 of 1140 evaluable patients (8.1%) developed an infection in the breast, which was device-related in 5.3% of patients (60 of 1140 patients). Good/excellent cosmetic results were noted in 86% of these patients (last follow-up visit). Fifteen of 442 evaluable patients (3.4%) developed a radiation recall reaction. Good/excellent cosmetic results were noted in 93% of these patients at their last follow-up visit. One local recurrence (0.1%) was reported (new primary carcinoma). Clinical evaluation of the ability of the MammoSite breast brachytherapy catheter to deliver APBI demonstrated acceptable technical reproducibility between multiple institutions and use in appropriate groups of patients. Cosmetic results at 12 months (92% good/excellent) were comparable to those reported with whole-breast RT. Early toxicity rates (infections, radiation recall) appeared to be acceptable.
    Cancer 09/2005; 104(6):1138-48. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The optimal technique and timing for the implantation of a recently developed breast brachytherapy balloon catheter (MammoSite; Proxima Therapeutics, Alpharetta, Georgia) have not been well defined. We hypothesized that placing this postoperatively, utilizing percutaneous ultrasound-guided placement, would be preferable. Patients who met eligibility requirements for breast brachytherapy were implanted with the MammoSite device utilizing percutaneous ultrasound-guided technique. Additionally, to study optimal timing, a historical cohort of patients operated upon for breast cancer by two of the authors were analyzed to compare the intraoperative and postoperative candidacy for MammoSite placement. Twenty-one of 23 patients successfully completed brachytherapy after implantation, with only 2 (9%) requiring catheter removal secondary to unfavorable balloon positioning. There were no serious complications. Of 343 historical patients with breast cancer, 137 were intraoperative candidates for brachytherapy, but final postoperative histology disqualified 40 (29%). Implantation of the MammoSite brachytherapy device is optimally performed postoperatively, after the final pathology is defined, utilizing ultrasound-guided percutaneous technique.
    The American Journal of Surgery 11/2003; 186(4):383-5. · 2.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

403 Citations
54.69 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2012
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Surgical Oncology
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2009
    • Vanderbilt University
      Nashville, Michigan, United States
  • 2005–2007
    • Phoenix Center
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States