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Publications (6)8.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Three studies were conducted to assess the pharmacokinetics, methods of administration and ease of swallowability of etravirine tablets. Methods: Two randomized studies in healthy adults investigated the single-dose pharmacokinetics of etravirine in various dosage strengths and the effects of dispersion in water and film-coating. A third study explored swallowability of etravirine 200-mg tablets in HIV-infected patients. First study: 37 volunteers received 1 × 100-mg non-coated tablet (reference), 4 × 25-mg noncoated tablets and 1 × 100-mg non-coated tablet dispersed in 100 ml water. Second study: 24 volunteers received 2 × 100-mg non-coated tablets (reference), 2 × 100-mg coated tablets, 1 × 200-mg non-coated and 1 × 200-mg coated tablet. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using non-compartmental analysis and least square means (LSM) ratios and 90% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Third study: 49 virologically-suppressed patients already on an etravirine-containing regimen rated the swallowability of two etravirine formulations (200-mg non-coated and 200-mg coated tablets). Results: In the first study LSM ratios (90% CI) for the etravirine area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) administered either as 4 × 25-mg tablets or 100-mg tablet dispersed were: 0.91 (0.85 to 0.98) and 0.97 (0.90 to 1.03), respectively. In the second study, when comparing a 200-mg non-coated and coated tablet to 2 × 100-mg non-coated tablets, LSM ratios for etravirine AUC were 98 to 99%. In the third study, more patients rated the 200-mg than the 100-mg tablets as acceptable to swallow (70% vs. 43%). Conclusions: Comparable etravirine exposures were observed regardless of formulation or method of administration (i.e., dispersion); 200-mg tablets were rated as easier to swallow than 100-mg tablets.
    International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 08/2013; 51(9). DOI:10.5414/CP201770 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor etravirine, approved for use in treatment-experienced, HIV-1-infected patients, is a substrate and inducer of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and a substrate and inhibitor of CYP2C9/CYP2C19. Pharmacokinetic interactions and safety of etravirine 200 mg twice daily coadministered with fluconazole 200 mg daily or voriconazole 200 mg twice daily, both inhibitors of CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19, were evaluated in an open-label, randomized, 3-period crossover trial in 18 HIV-negative volunteers. Based on least squares means (LSM) ratios, coadministration of etravirine with fluconazole or voriconazole resulted in higher etravirine exposures (area under plasma concentration-time curve from 0-12 hours [AUC(12) (h) ] 1.86- and 1.36-fold, respectively). Fluconazole pharmacokinetics were unchanged with etravirine coadministration (AUC(12) (h) LSM ratio: 0.94), and voriconazole plasma concentrations were slightly raised (AUC(12) (h) LSM ratio: 1.14). All treatments and combinations were well tolerated, with no grade 3 or 4 adverse events observed during treatment. There was 1 adverse event-related trial withdrawal during treatment with fluconazole alone (leukocyturia). The most frequent adverse events were headache and blurred vision (11 and 8 volunteers, respectively), with blurred vision occurring exclusively during voriconazole-alone treatment. Pharmacokinetic interactions between etravirine and fluconazole or voriconazole are not expected to be clinically relevant; no dose adjustments are required during coadministration.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 02/2013; 53(1):41-50. DOI:10.1177/0091270011433329 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A previous study investigating coadministration of etravirine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and lopinavir/ritonavir soft-gel formulation resulted in nonclinically relevant changes in etravirine and lopinavir exposure. The current study evaluated the pharmacokinetic interaction between etravirine and the lopinavir/ritonavir melt extrusion formulation. Sixteen human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative volunteers were randomized to either treatment sequence A/B or B/A, with 14 days- washout between treatments (treatment A: etravirine 200 mg bid for 8 days; treatment B: lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg bid for 16 days with etravirine 200 mg bid on days 9-16). Steady-state pharmacokinetics were assessed for all antiretrovirals alone and coadministered; pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by noncompartmental analysis. Safety and tolerability were assessed. Coadministration of etravirine and lopinavir/ritonavir resulted in a 35% decrease in etravirine exposure. Smaller decreases (<13%) were observed in lopinavir and ritonavir exposure. Six volunteers reported headache; 1 grade 3 triglyceride increase was reported. Lopinavir/ritonavir induced etravirine metabolism to a similar extent as most other boosted HIV protease inhibitors. The short-term coadministration of etravirine and lopinavir/ritonavir was well tolerated and did not lead to increased incidences of adverse events.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 02/2013; 53(2):202-10. DOI:10.1177/0091270012445205 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of various meal compositions and the fasted state on the pharmacokinetics of etravirine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Phase I, open-label, randomized, repeated single-dose, three-period crossover trial. Clinical pharmacology unit. Two parallel panels of 12 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative, healthy, male volunteers. Twenty volunteers completed the study; three withdrew consent, and one was lost to follow-up. Intervention. Panel 1 received a single dose of etravirine 100 mg after a standard breakfast, in the fasted state, and after a light breakfast (croissant). Panel 2 received the same treatment after a standard breakfast, after an enhanced-fiber breakfast, and after a high-fat breakfast. Each treatment was separated by a washout period of at least 14 days. For each treatment, full pharmacokinetic profiles of etravirine were determined up to 96 hours after dosing. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental methods and analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model for a crossover design. The least-squares mean ratio for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time of administration to the last time point with a measurable concentration after dosing (AUClast) was 0.49 (90% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-0.61) for the fasted state compared with dosing after a standard breakfast. When dosing occurred after a light or enhanced-fiber breakfast, the corresponding values were 0.80 (90% CI 0.69-0.94) and 0.75 (90% CI 0.63-0.90), respectively. When administered after a high-fat breakfast the least-squares mean ratio of AUC(last) was 1.09 (0.84-1.41), compared with dosing after a standard breakfast. Adverse events were also assessed. Under all conditions, single doses of etravirine 100 mg were generally safe and well tolerated. Administration of etravirine in a fasted state resulted in 51% lower mean exposure compared with dosing after a standard breakfast. Etravirine should be administered following a meal to improve bioavailability; however, differences in exposure after a standard breakfast versus a high-fat, enhanced-fiber, or light breakfast (croissant) were not considered clinically relevant.
    Pharmacotherapy 11/2008; 28(10):1215-22. DOI:10.1592/phco.28.10.1215 · 2.66 Impact Factor