Valeria Garbin

Imperial College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (67)99.11 Total impact

  • Vincent Poulichet, Valeria Garbin
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    ABSTRACT: The self-assembly of solid particles at fluid-fluid interfaces is widely exploited to stabilize emulsions and foams, and in materials synthesis. The self-assembly mechanism is very robust owing to the large capillary energy associated with particle adsorption, of the order of millions of times the thermal energy for micrometer-sized colloids. The microstructure of the interfacial colloid monolayer can also favor stability, for instance in the case of particle-stabilized bubbles, which can be indefinitely stable against dissolution due to jamming of the colloid monolayer. As a result, significant challenges arise when destabilization and particle removal are a requirement. Here we demonstrate ultrafast desorption of colloid monolayers from the interface of particle-stabilized bubbles. We drive the bubbles into periodic compression-expansion using ultrasound waves, causing significant deformation and microstructural changes in the particle monolayer. Using high-speed microscopy we uncover different particle expulsion scenarios depending on the mode of bubble deformation, including highly directional patterns of particle release during shape oscillations. Complete removal of colloid monolayers from bubbles is achieved in under a millisecond. Our method should find a broad range of applications, from nanoparticle recycling in sustainable processes to programmable particle delivery in lab-on-a-chip applications.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2015; 112(19). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1504776112 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles with grafted layers of ligand molecules behave as soft colloids when they adsorb at fluid-fluid interfaces. The ligand brush can deform and reconfigure, adopting a lens-shaped configuration at the interface. This behavior strongly affects the interactions between soft nanoparticles at fluid-fluid interfaces, which have proven challenging to probe experimentally. We measure the surface pressure for a stable 2D interfacial suspension of nanoparticles grafted with ligands, and extract the interaction potential from these data by comparison to Brownian dynamics simulations. A soft repulsive potential with an exponential form accurately reproduces the measured surface pressure data. A more realistic interaction potential model is also fitted to the data to provide insights into the ligand configuration at the interface. The stress of the 2D interfacial suspension upon step compression exhibits a single relaxation time scale, which is also attributable to ligand reconfiguration.
    Physical Review Letters 03/2015; 114(10):108301. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles with grafted layers of ligand molecules behave as soft colloids when they adsorb at fluid-fluid interfaces. The ligand brush can deform and reconfigure, adopting a lens-shaped configuration at the interface. This behavior strongly affects the interactions between soft nanoparticles at fluid-fluid interfaces, which have proven challenging to probe experimentally. We measure the surface pressure for a stable 2D interfacial suspension of nanoparticles grafted with ligands, and extract the interaction potential from these data by comparison to Brownian dynamics simulations. A soft repulsive potential with an exponential form accurately reproduces the measured surface pressure data. A more realistic interaction potential model is also fitted to the data to provide insights into the ligand configuration at the interface. The stress of the 2D interfacial suspension upon step compression exhibits a single relaxation time scale, which is also attributable to ligand reconfiguration.
    Physical Review Letters 03/2015; 114(10). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.108301 · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This fluid dynamics video shows high-frequency capillary waves excited by the volumetric oscillations of microbubbles near a free surface. The frequency of the capillary waves is controlled by the oscillation frequency of the microbubbles, which are driven by an ultrasound field. Radial capillary waves produced by single bubbles and interference patterns generated by the superposition of capillary waves from multiple bubbles are shown.
  • Valeria Garbin
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    ABSTRACT: The spontaneous assembly of nanoparticles at fluid-fluid interfaces is exploited in microfluidic encapsulation, fabrication of nanomaterials, oil recovery, and catalysis. Control over the microstructure formed by interfacial nanoparticles is an important goal in these contexts: the ability to reversibly tune the packing fraction enables for nanomaterials with tunable properties, while control over nanoparticle removal and recycling is desirable for green processes. I will discuss how capping ligands can promote interfacial self-assembly by tuning the interfacial energies of the nanoparticles with the fluids. Ligand-mediated particle interactions at the interface then affect the formation of equilibrium and non-equilibrium two-dimensional phases. Important differences with colloidal interactions in a bulk suspension arise due to the discontinuity in solvent properties at the interface, which cause the ligand brushes to rearrange in asymmetric configurations. I will present experimental results for gold nanoparticles capped with short amphiphilic ligands, which spontaneously adsorb at an oil-water interface. Using pendant drop tensiometry, we measured the surface pressure of the nanoparticle monolayer during adsorption and subsequent compression. In contrast to the commonly observed buckling of solid-like films of interfacial particles, upon compression these nanoparticles are mechanically forced out of the interface and into suspension. Area density measurements by a newly developed optical method reveal that ligand-mediated short-range interparticle repulsion enables desorption upon compression. Brownian dynamics simulations corroborate this picture. Therefore, ligand-mediated interactions also determine the fate of nanoparticle monolayers upon out-of-plane deformation.
  • Source
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the effect of secondary Bjerknes forces on targeted microbubbles using high-speed optical imaging. We observed that targeted microbubbles attached to an underlying surface and subject to secondary Bjerknes forces deform in the direction of their neighboring bubble, thereby tending toward a prolate shape. The deformation induces an elastic restoring force, causing the bubbles to recoil back to their equilibrium position; typically within 100 μs after low-intensity ultrasound application. The temporal dynamics of the recoil was modeled as a simple mass-spring system, from which a value for the effective spring constant k of the order 10(-3) Nm(-1) was obtained. Moreover, the translational dynamics of interacting targeted microbubbles was predicted by a hydrodynamic point particle model, including a value of the spring stiffness k of the very same order as derived experimentally from the recoiling curves. For higher acoustic pressures, secondary Bjerknes forces rupture the molecular adhesion of the bubbles to the surface. We used this mutual attraction to quantify the binding force between a single biotinylated microbubble and an avidin-coated surface, which was found to be between 0.9 and 2 nanonewtons (nN). The observation of patches of lipids left at the initial binding site suggests that lipid anchors are pulled out of the microbubble shell, rather than biotin molecules unbinding from avidin. Understanding the effect of ultrasound application on targeted microbubbles is crucial for further advances in the realm of molecular imaging.
    Ultrasound in medicine & biology 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2012.09.025 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anisotropic microparticles adsorbed at fluid–fluid interfaces create interface deformations and interact because of capillarity. Thus far, much of the work related to this phenomenon has focused on capillary attraction, which is ubiquitous in the far field for microparticles at interfaces. In this paper, we explore capillary repulsion. We study particles at interfaces with contact line undulations having wavelength significantly smaller than the characteristic particle size. By a combination of simulation and experiment, we show that identical microparticles with features in phase attract each other, and microparticles with different wavelengths, under certain conditions, repel each other in the near field, leading to a measurable equilibrium separation. We study these assemblies at air–water and oil–water interfaces. The capillary bond between particles at air–water interfaces is rigid, whereas at oil–water interfaces, the bond between particles with near field repulsion is elastic under perturbation. These results have implications for the capillary assembly of rough microparticles at interfaces, and for the tailoring of mechanics of particle monolayers.
    Soft Matter 12/2012; 9(3):779-786. DOI:10.1039/C2SM27020J · 4.15 Impact Factor
  • Valeria Garbin, John C Crocker, Kathleen J Stebe
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticle self-assembly at fluid-fluid interfaces has been traditionally exploited in emulsification, encapsulation and oil recovery, and more recently in emerging applications including functional nanomaterials and biphasic catalysis. We provide a review of the literature focusing on the open challenges that still hamper the broader applicability of this potentially transformative technology, and we outline strategies to achieve improved control over interfacial self-assembly of nanoparticles. First, we discuss means to promote spontaneous adsorption by tuning the interfacial energies of the nanoparticles with the fluids using capping ligands, and the occurrence of energy barriers. We then examine the interactions between interfacial nanoparticles and how they affect the formation of equilibrium interfacial suspensions versus non-equilibrium two-dimensional phases, such as weakly attractive glasses and gels. Important differences with colloidal interactions in a bulk suspension arise due to the discontinuity in solvent properties at the interface. For instance, ligand brushes rearrange in asymmetric configurations, and thus play a significant role in determining interparticle interactions. Finally, we briefly discuss the link between interfacial microstructure and the dynamic response of particle-laden interfaces, including interfacial rheology and the fate of nanoparticle monolayers upon out-of-plane deformation.
    Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 07/2012; 387(1):1-11. DOI:10.1016/j.jcis.2012.07.047 · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticle-laden interfaces are studied for applications to materials with tunable electronic and optical properties, as emulsion stabilizers, and in catalysis. The mechanical response of nanoparticle monolayers under applied stress is of emerging interest since it impacts the success of these applications. Here we focus on the response of nanoparticle-laden interfaces to compression. A monolayer of nanoparticles is allowed to spontaneously form by adsorption from an aqueous suspension onto a pendant drop of oil. The effective surface pressure π of the composite interface is monitored by pendant drop tensiometry. As the drop is compressed, the nanoparticles are mechanically forced out of the interface into the aqueous phase. A new optical method is developed to measure the nanoparticle area density in situ. We show that desorption occurs at a coverage that corresponds to close packing of the ligand-capped particles, suggesting that ligand-induced repulsion plays a crucial role in the desorption process.
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticle-stabilized emulsions are exploited in energy-related applications such as phase-transfer catalysis and mobility control in enhanced oil recovery. These applications rely on a significant energy barrier that precludes spontaneous desorption of nanoparticles from the fluid interface during the processes that exploit them. On the other hand, this interfacial trapping poses significant challenges to nanoparticle recovery and recycling. In this work, we explore mechanically forced desorption of nanoparticles from oil-water interfaces as a route to nanoparticle recovery. We study gold nanoparticles capped with an uncharged amphiphilic ligand, which spontaneously adsorb from an aqueous solution onto a pendant oil drop. Using pendant drop tensiometry, we measure the evolution of the surface pressure of the nanoparticle monolayer during adsorption and upon subsequent compression. Concomitantly, we use absorbance measurements to monitor in real time the surface coverage of the monolayer. This quantity is typically not directly measurable in systems where nanoparticles spontaneously adsorb to an interface from solution. From these data, we construct pressure-surface concentration isotherms, which display signatures of ligand-mediated repulsive interactions. Upon strong compression beyond maximum coverage, the nanoparticles are forced out of the interface; ligand-mediated repulsion prevents aggregation and allows the particles to desorb and re-disperse in solution. This opens avenues to engineering nanoparticles to promote desorption under strong compression as opposed to monolayer buckling.
    2011 AIChE Annual Meeting; 10/2011
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrasound-activated microbubbles are employed in several current and emerging biomedical applications. They are routinely used as contrast agents for ultrasonography, and can be functionalized with targeting ligands for selective imaging of cells presenting markers of disease. Furthermore, hydrodynamic stresses exerted by ultrasound-activated microbubbles may be harnessed to controllably permeabilize cell membranes. A deeper understanding of the hydrodynamic and acoustic forces acting on, and exerted by, microbubbles in ultrasound, along with knowledge of the mechanics of strongly deforming phospholipid monolayers and membranes, are therefore key to improved medical imaging and drug delivery protocols. The effects of hydrodynamic and acoustic forces on the stability of targeted microbubbles adherent to cell membranes through ligand-receptor interactions are studied here. In particular, we focus on the effects of secondary acoustic radiation force, which causes bubbles to attract each other during activation with ultrasound. Previously, we developed a model to describe the dynamics of bubbles propelled by the secondary acoustic radiation force; the unsteady contribution to the viscous dissipation was found to be crucial to correctly predict bubble displacement. We performed experiments on phospholipid-coated microbubbles (2-3 microns) functionalized with anti-fluorescein antibody and allowed to adhere to a fluorescein-functionalized polystyrene substrate. The bubble dynamics in ultrasound (1.7 to 2.5 MHz) was recorded at 15 million frames per second using a custom ultra-high speed camera. By increasing the ultrasound pressure, and therefore the magnitude of the secondary acoustic radiation force, a threshold was found above which the adhesion of targeted microbubbles was disrupted. This observation points to the fact that the secondary acoustic radiation force may alter the spatial distribution of targeted contrast agents bound to tissues during activation with ultrasound. The net force pulling on the bubbles at the time of unbinding was extracted from the force balance, and was found to be up to 100 nN. While the mechanism of unbinding (rupture of intermolecular bonds, disruption of the phospholipid layer) remains elusive, it is shown that secondary acoustic radiation force can be used to quantify the binding force of targeted microbubbles.
    2011 AIChE Annual Meeting; 10/2011
  • Valeria Garbin, John C Crocker, Kathleen J Stebe
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    ABSTRACT: While nanoparticle adsorption to fluid interfaces has been studied from a fundamental standpoint and exploited in application, the reverse process, that is, desorption and disassembly, remains relatively unexplored. Here we demonstrate the forced desorption of gold nanoparticles capped with amphiphilic ligands from an oil-water interface. A monolayer of nanoparticles is allowed to spontaneously form by adsorption from an aqueous suspension onto a drop of oil and is subsequently compressed by decreasing the drop volume. The surface pressure is monitored by pendant drop tensiometry throughout the process. Upon compression, the nanoparticles are mechanically forced out of the interface into the aqueous phase. An optical method is developed to measure the nanoparticle area density in situ. We show that desorption occurs at a coverage that corresponds to close packing of the ligand-capped particles, suggesting that ligand-induced repulsion plays a crucial role in this process.
    Langmuir 09/2011; 28(3):1663-7. DOI:10.1021/la202954c · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular imaging with ultrasound is a promising noninvasive technique for disease-specific imaging, enabling for instance, the diagnosis of thrombus and inflammation. Selective imaging is performed by using ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles functionalized with ligands, which bind specifically to the target molecules. Here, we investigate in a model system, the influence of adherence at a wall on the dynamics of the microbubbles, in particular, on the frequency of maximum response, by recording the radial response of individual microbubbles as a function of the applied acoustic pressure and frequency. The frequency of maximum response of adherent microbubbles was found to be over 50% lower than for bubbles in the unbounded fluid and over 30% lower than that of a nonadherent bubble in contact with the wall. The change is caused by adhesion of the bubbles to the wall as no influence was found due solely to the presence of the targeting ligands on the bubble dynamics. The shift in the frequency of maximum response may prove to be important for molecular imaging with ultrasound as this application would benefit from an acoustic imaging method to distinguish adherent microbubbles from freely circulating microbubbles.
    Ultrasound in medicine & biology 09/2011; 37(9):1500-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2011.05.025 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Targeted molecular imaging with ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles is achieved by incorporating targeting ligands on the bubble coating and allows for specific imaging of tissues affected by diseases. Improved understanding of the interplay between the acoustic forces acting on the bubbles during insonation with ultrasound and other forces (e.g. shear due to blood flow, binding of targeting ligands to receptors on cell membranes) can help improve the efficacy of this technique. This work focuses on the effects of the secondary acoustic radiation force, which causes bubbles to attract each other and may affect the adhesion of targeted bubbles. First, we examine the translational dynamics of ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles in contact with (but not adherent to) a semi-rigid membrane due to the secondary acoustic radiation force. An equation of motion that effectively accounts for the proximity of the membrane is developed, and the predictions of the model are compared with experimental data extracted from optical recordings at 15 million frames per second. A time-averaged model is also proposed and validated. In the second part of the paper, initial results on the translation due to the secondary acoustic radiation force of targeted, adherent bubbles are presented. Adherent bubbles are also found to move due to secondary acoustic radiation force, and a restoring force is observed that brings them back to their initial positions. For increasing magnitude of the secondary acoustic radiation force, a threshold is reached above which the adhesion of targeted microbubbles is disrupted. This points to the fact that secondary acoustic radiation forces can cause adherent bubbles to detach and alter the spatial distribution of targeted contrast agents bound to tissues during activation with ultrasound. While the details of the rupture of intermolecular bonds remain elusive, this work motivates the use of the secondary acoustic radiation force to measure the strength of adhesion of targeted microbubbles.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 08/2011; 56(19):6161-77. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/56/19/002 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aptamer and antibody mediated adhesion is central to biological function and is valuable in the engineering of "lab on a chip" devices. Single molecule force spectroscopy using optical tweezers enables direct nonequilibrium measurement of these noncovalent interactions for three peptide aptamers selected for glass, polystyrene, and carbon nanotubes. A comprehensive examination of the strong attachment between antifluorescein 4-4-20 and fluorescein was also carried out using the same assay. Bond lifetime, barrier width, and free energy of activation are extracted from unbinding histogram data using three single molecule pulling models. The evaluated aptamers appear to adhere stronger than the fluorescein antibody under no- and low-load conditions, yet weaker than antibodies at loads above ∼25 pN. Comparison to force spectroscopy data of other biological linkages shows the diversity of load dependent binding and provides insight into linkages used in biological processes and those designed for engineered systems.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 04/2011; 115(16):3657-64. DOI:10.1021/jp1031493 · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oscillating phospholipid-coated ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles display a so-called "compression-only" behavior, where it is observed that the bubbles compress efficiently while their expansion is suppressed. Here, a theoretical understanding of the source of this nonlinear behavior is provided through a weakly nonlinear analysis of the shell buckling model proposed by Marmottant et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 3499-3505 (2005)]. It is shown that the radial dynamics of the bubble can be considered as a superposition of a linear response at the fundamental driving frequency and a second-order nonlinear low-frequency response that describes the negative offset of the mean bubble radius. The analytical solution deduced from the weakly nonlinear analysis shows that the compression-only behavior results from a rapid change of the shell elasticity with bubble radius. In addition, the radial dynamics of single phospholipid-coated microbubbles was recorded as a function of both the amplitude and the frequency of the driving pressure pulse. The comparison between the experimental data and the theory shows that the magnitude of compression-only behavior is mainly determined by the initial phospholipids concentration on the bubble surface, which slightly varies from bubble to bubble.
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 04/2011; 129(4):1729-39. DOI:10.1121/1.3505116 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we investigated the translational dynamics of mutually attracting targeted microbubbles during and after ultrasound (US) insonification in more detail and show this mutual attraction can be used to determine the binding force. In general, similar sized microbubbles are known to attract each other during US application as a result of an acoustic radiation force leading to clustering and coalescence. Targeted microbubbles, however, move back to their initial position after US is turned off, implying the presence of an elastic restoring force, which in turn opposes the net pulling force. From the recoiling curves, a value for the effective spring constant k could be obtained, which was of the order of 2.4 mN/m. For higher acoustic pressures the pulling force exceeded the binding force and the bubbles detached. A threshold force for detachment was calculated with the obtained value of the spring constant. For biotinylated microbubbles (R=2-2.5 μm) targeted to a NeutrAvidin coated surface, the threshold force was between 0.9 nN and 2.0 nN. We also show that the translational dynamics of targeted microbubbles during US application can be modelled accurately using a hydrodynamic model [1], including a value for the spring constant k of the very same order as derived experimentally.
    Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS), 2011 IEEE International; 01/2011
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    ABSTRACT: In medical ultrasound imaging, the echo of the blood pool is enhanced using ultrasound contrast agents. The contrast agent studied here consists of a suspension of microbubbles (1 to 5 μm in radius) of an inert gas coated with a phospholipid monolayer, which undergo radial oscillations when excited by the applied ultrasound field. We characterize the dynamics of individual microbubbles through combined manipulation with optical tweezers and ultrahigh speed imaging at 15 million frames per second. The viscoelastic parameters of the monolayer are extracted from a fit to the numerical solution of the evolution equation for the bubble radius. The experiments furthermore reveal that buckling of the phospholipid monolayer increases the nonlinear response of the bubbles at low acoustic pressure, a feature that is highly desirable for contrast enhancement.
    2010 AIChE Annual Meeting; 11/2010
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    ABSTRACT: Coated microbubbles, unlike tissue are able to scatter sound subharmonically. Therefore, the subharmonic behavior of coated microbubbles can be used to enhance the contrast in ultrasound contrast imaging. Theoretically, a threshold amplitude of the driving pressure can be calculated above which subharmonic oscillations of microbubbles are initiated. Interestingly, earlier experimental studies on coated microbubbles demonstrated that the threshold for these bubbles is much lower than predicted by the traditional linear viscoelastic shell models. This paper presents an experimental study on the subharmonic behavior of differently sized individual phospholipid coated microbubbles. The radial subharmonic response of the microbubbles was recorded with the Brandaris ultra high-speed camera as a function of both the amplitude and the frequency of the driving pulse. Threshold pressures for subharmonic generation as low as 5 kPa were found near a driving frequency equal to twice the resonance frequency of the bubble. An explanation for this low threshold pressure is provided by the shell buckling model proposed by Marmottant et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 3499-3505 (2005)]. It is shown that the change in the elasticity of the bubble shell as a function of bubble radius as proposed in this model, enhances the subharmonic behavior of the microbubbles.
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 11/2010; 128(5):3239-52. DOI:10.1121/1.3493443 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this research, we study cylindrical microparticles at fluid interfaces. Cylinders orient and assemble with high reliability to form end-to-end chains in dilute surfaces or dense rectangular lattices in crowded surfaces owing to capillary interactions. In isolation, a cylinder assumes one of two possible equilibrium states, the end-on state, in which the cylinder axis is perpendicular to the interface, or the side-on state, in which the cylinder axis is parallel to the interface. A phase diagram relating aspect ratio and contact angle is constructed to predict the preferred state and verified in experiment. Cylinders in the side-on state create distortions that result in capillary interactions. Overlapping deformations by neighboring particles drive oriented capillary assembly. Interferometry, electron microscopy, and numerical simulations are used to characterize the interface shape around isolated particles. Experiments and numerics show that "side-on" cylinders have concentrated excess area near the end faces, and that the interface distortion resembles an elliptical quadrupole a few radii away from the particle surface. To model the cylinder interactions for separations greater than a few radii, an anisotropic potential is derived based on elliptical quadrupoles. This potential predicts an attractive force and a torque, both of which depend strongly on aspect ratio, in keeping with experiment. Particle trajectories and angular orientations recorded by video microscopy agree with the predicted potential. In particular, the analysis predicts the rate of rotation, a feature lacking in prior analyses. To understand interactions near contact, the concentrated excess area near the cylinder ends is quantified and its role in creating stable end-to-end assemblies is discussed. When a pair of cylinders is near contact, these high excess area regions overlap to form a capillary bridge between the particles. This capillary bridge may stabilize the end-to-end chains. Finally, on densely packed surfaces, cylinder-covered colloidosomes form with particles arranged in regular, rectangular lattices in the interface; this densely packed structure differs significantly from assemblies reported for colloidosomes or particle-stabilized droplets in the literature.
    Langmuir 10/2010; 26(19):15142-54. DOI:10.1021/la1012632 · 4.38 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

536 Citations
99.11 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013–2015
    • Imperial College London
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010–2012
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • William Penn University
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • Universiteit Twente
      Enschede, Overijssel, Netherlands
    • European Synchrotron Radiation Facility
      • Division of Experiments
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2006
    • Samara State Aerospace University
      Kuibyshev, Samara, Russia
    • Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences
      Zenjān, Zanjan, Iran
    • The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda
      • Faculty of Technology and Engineering
      Baroda, Gujarat, India
    • TASC Inc.
      Chantilly, Virginia, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • Università degli Studi di Trieste
      • Department of Physics
      Trst, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Institut Jacques-Monod
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2004
    • Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A.
      Trst, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy