M. Lampton

University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States

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Publications (231)635.81 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Systematic errors associated with astrophysical data used to probe fundamental astrophysical questions, such as SNeIa observations used to constrain dark energy theories, are now rivaling and exceeding the statistical errors associated with these measurements. ACCESS: Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 ‑ 1.7μm bandpass. Achieving this level of accuracy requires characterization and stability of the instrument and detector including a thermal background that contributes less than 1% to the flux per resolution element in the NIR. We will present the instrument and calibration status with a focus on the thermal mechanical design and associated performance data. The detector control and performance will be presented in a companion poster (Morris, et al). NASA APRA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass (companion poster, Kaiser et al.). The flight detector and detector spare have been selected and integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been successfully performed. Further improvements to the flight controller housing have been made. A cryogenic ground test system has been built. Dark current and read noise tests have been performed, yielding results consistent with the initial characterization tests of the detector performed by Goddard Space Flight Center’s Detector Characterization Lab (DCL). Detector control software has been developed and implemented for ground testing. Performance and integration of the detector and controller with the flight software will be presented. NASA APRA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Improvements in the astrophysical flux scale are needed to answer fundamental scientific questions ranging from cosmology to stellar physics. In particular, the precise calibration of the flux scale across the visible-NIR bandpass is fundamental to the precise determination of dark energy parameters based on SNeIa photometry. ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass. The telescope is a Dall-Kirkham Cassegrain with a 15.5-inch primary. The spectrograph is a Rowland circle design, with the grating operating as a low order (m=1-4) echelle, a Fery prism provides cross dispersion, and a HST/WFC3 heritage HAWAII-1R HgCdTe detector is used across the full spectral bandpass. The telescope mirrors have received their flight coatings. The flight detector and detector spare have been integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been performed. Detector characterization testing is in progress (Morris et al.). Fabrication, integration, and automation of the ground-based calibration subsystems are also in progress. The ACCESS design, calibration strategy, and ground-based integration and test results will be presented. Launch is expected this year. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G and DOE DE-FG02-07ER41506 support this work.
    01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass (overview Kaiser et al.). The flight detector and detector spare have been integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been performed. The flight detector controller boards have been installed into a ruggedized flight housing. They have been successfully vacuum tested for periods significantly longer than the flight length, and components have been heat-sunk and reinforced as necessary. Thermal stability tests have been performed, and results will be presented. Goddard Space Flight Center’s Detector Characterization Lab (DCL) executed initial characterization tests for the flight detector in 2007. These were repeated in 2012, to ensure and establish baseline performance. Current lab characterization tests at Johns Hopkins are ongoing, and results will be presented. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.
    01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: BigBOSS is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey over 14,000 square degrees. It has been conditionally accepted by NOAO in response to a call for major new instrumentation and a high-impact science program for the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak. The BigBOSS instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking 5000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 340 nm to 1060 nm, with a resolution R = 3000-4800. Using data from imaging surveys that are already underway, spectroscopic targets are selected that trace the underlying dark matter distribution. In particular, targets include luminous red galaxies (LRGs) up to z = 1.0, extending the BOSS LRG survey in both redshift and survey area. To probe the universe out to even higher redshift, BigBOSS will target bright [OII] emission line galaxies (ELGs) up to z = 1.7. In total, 20 million galaxy redshifts are obtained to measure the BAO feature, trace the matter power spectrum at smaller scales, and detect redshift space distortions. BigBOSS will provide additional constraints on early dark energy and on the curvature of the universe by measuring the Ly-alpha forest in the spectra of over 600,000 2.2 < z < 3.5 quasars. BigBOSS galaxy BAO measurements combined with an analysis of the broadband power, including the Ly-alpha forest in BigBOSS quasar spectra, achieves a FOM of 395 with Planck plus Stage III priors. This FOM is based on conservative assumptions for the analysis of broad band power (kmax = 0.15), and could grow to over 600 if current work allows us to push the analysis to higher wave numbers (kmax = 0.3). BigBOSS will also place constraints on theories of modified gravity and inflation, and will measure the sum of neutrino masses to 0.024 eV accuracy.
    06/2011;
  • Michael Levi, M. Lampton, M. Sholl
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    ABSTRACT: The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope mission (WFIRST) is the Decadal Survey's highest recommended space mission. Its three mandates are (1) to study dark energy via measurement of the expansion history of the universe and the growth of large-scale structure, thereby providing tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy and test the validity of general relativity; (2) to conduct intensive imaging of selected regions for exoplanet microlensing; and (3) to provide a general purpose surveying capability for the near infrared waveband. During the coming year, a Science Definition Team will be empaneled to prioritize the mission payload features and operations plans. To begin the misson definition process, we present four alternative WFIRST concepts and compare their quantitative science yields based on survey rates. We contrast these with alternative missions that have been proposed previously. Our WFIRST calculations are based on a newly developed unobscured focal TMA optical concept offering distinct simultaneous focal lengths for imaging and spectroscopy, reported in a companion poster by Sholl et al, and on a large modular focal plane concept reported on on a companion poster by Jelinsky et al. With these advances, we show that WFIRST can deliver a science yield superior to previously discussed dark energy and exoplanet missions.
    01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a list of 534 objects detected jointly in the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) 100 Å all-sky survey and in the ROSAT X-Ray Telescope 0.25 keV band. The joint selection criterion permits use of a low count rate threshold in each survey. This low threshold is roughly 60% of the threshold used in the previous EUVE all-sky surveys, and 166 of the objects listed here are new EUV sources, appearing in neither the Second EUVE Source Catalog nor the ROSAT Wide Field Camera Second Catalog. The spatial distribution of this all-sky catalog shows three features: an enhanced concentration of objects in Ursa Major, where the Galactic integrated H I column reaches its global minimum; an enhanced concentration in the third quadrant of the Galaxy (lII from 180° to 270°) including the Canis Major tunnel, where particularly low H I columns are found to distances beyond 200 pc; and a particularly low number of faint objects in the direction of the fourth quadrant of the Galaxy, where nearby intervening H I columns are appreciable. Of particular interest is the composition of the 166 detections not previously reported in any EUV catalog. We offer preliminary identifications for 105 of these sources. By far the most numerous (81) of the identifications are late-type stars (F, G, K, M), while 18 are other stellar types, only five are white dwarfs (WDs), and none are extragalactic. The paucity of WDs and extragalactic objects may be explained by a strong horizon effect wherein interstellar absorption strongly limits the effective new-source search volume and, thereby, selectively favors low-luminosity nearby sources over more luminous but distant objects.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 01/2009; 108(2):545. · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anisotropy in the point spread function (PSF) contributes a systematic error to weak lensing measurements. In this study we use a ray tracer that incorporates all the optical elements of the SNAP telescope to estimate this effect. Misalignments in the optics generates PSF anisotropy, which we characterize by its ellipticity. The effect of three time varying effects: thermal drift, guider jitter, and structural vibration on the PSF are estimated for expected parameters of the SNAP telescope. Multiple realizations of a thousand square degree mock survey are then generated to include the systematic error pattern induced by these effects. We quantify their contribution to the power spectrum of the lensing shear. We find that the dominant effect comes from the thermal drift, which peaks at angular wavenumbers l ~ 10^3, but its amplitude is over one order of magnitude smaller than the size of the expected statistical error. While there are significant uncertainties in our modeling, our study indicates that time-varying PSFs will contribute at a smaller level than statistical errors in SNAP's weak lensing measurements.
    11/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: A compact far ultraviolet (FUV) spectrograph has been developed and applied to space observation on a micro-satellite. The dual channel imaging spectrograph utilized two micro-channel plate (MCP) detectors with a single crossed delay line (XDL) anode to record photon arrival events. The unconventional anode design allows for the use of a single set of position encoding electronics for both detector fields, thereby reducing the size, weight, and power of the associated electronics. The ground and on-orbit performance tests verified the successful application of the system for astrophysical observations. In this note, we report the design, the development, and the test results of the system, focusing on the XDL anode system.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 06/2007; 575(3):527-531. · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The EURD instrument has been designed to measure diffuse emission in the extreme ultraviolet (350–1100 Å). This new design provides an unprecedented 4–5 Å spectral resolution and 200 photons/sec/cm2/sr sensitivity after only 100 hours of observations. One of the goals of this project is to search for spectral lines of highly ionized species from the high temperature component (105 – 106 K) of the interstellar medium that fills the Local Bubble. It is expected that EURD will detect lines due to a thermalized hot component of the interstellar medium, and it will also provide critical diagnostics of the physical properties of this gas. With EURD data we could also detect a spectral line due to the decay of massive neutrinos as well as study oxygen lines from the upper atmosphere airglow. EURD is on board the Spanish MINISAT-01 satellite.
    05/2007: pages 41-44;
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    M Lampton, M Sholl
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    ABSTRACT: We compare and contrast the Korsch (1972) full-field three-mirror anastigmat telescope (TMA) to the Korsch (1977) annular-field TMA. Both TMAs offer flat fields with comparably good aberration correction and comparably good telephoto advantage. Both offer good accessibility of the focal plane. The advantages of the FFTMA are its extremely uniform focal length over its field, its nearly telecentric final focus, and the fact that there is no hole in the center of its field. The advantages of the AFTMA are its complete accessible cold stop (essential if a warm telescope is to be used to image the sky at near-IR wavelengths) and its low sensitivity to mirror location error. Either alternative can deliver diffraction-limited visible-wavelength images over a one degree diameter field with a two meter aperture.
    Proc SPIE 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: Global imaging of the heliosphere with ultra-high spectral resolution at 30.4 nm would open a new window on important physical processes in the heliosphere and at its galactic frontier. The radiation reaching an observer includes glow of the interstellar plasma beyond the heliopause, glow of pickup ions in the solar wind, characteristic emissions produced by charge exchange of solar wind alpha-particles on interplanetary atomic hydrogen, and emissions of hot plasmas in the Local Bubble. Global maps will reveal asymmetry of the heliopause and allow monitoring of the three-dimensional flow pattern of the solar wind, including in the regions over the sun's poles. Recent feasibility studies have shown a promising way of meeting challenges of developing the enabling instrumentation. Lunar space would provide an ideal platform for global imaging of the heliosphere, minimizing the interference of the magnetosphere and geocorona and simplifying operations and thermal and attitude control of spacecraft. The Earth-Moon libration points have been considered, but lunar surface observatory offers unique advantages for performing 30.4-nm imaging. The Return to the Moon Program will enable remote exploration of the solar system galactic frontier in EUV and visualize the evolution of the solar wind global flow pattern during the solar cycle.
    AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 12/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: Precision near infrared (NIR) measurements are essential for the next generation of ground and space based instruments. The SuperNova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) will measure thousands of type Ia supernovae up to a redshift of 1.7. The highest redshift supernovae provide the most leverage for determining cosmological parameters, in particular the dark energy equation of state and its possible time evolution. Accurate NIR observations are needed to utilize the full potential of the highest redshift supernovae. Technological improvements in NIR detector fabrication have lead to high quantum efficiency, low noise detectors using a HgCdTe diode with a band-gap that is tuned to cutoff at 1.7 μm. The effects of detector quantum efficiency, read noise, and dark current on lightcurve signal to noise, lightcurve parameter errors, and distance modulus fits are simulated in the SNAPsim framework. Results show that improving quantum efficiency leads to the largest gains in photometric accuracy for type Ia supernovae. High quantum efficiency in the NIR reduces statistical errors and helps control systematic uncertainties at the levels necessary to achieve the primary SNAP science goals.
    Proc SPIE 07/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: Without Abstract
    01/2006: pages 223-228;
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    ABSTRACT: To probe theoretical models of dark energy and predictions of the expansion of the universe, observational techniques are needed that offer reduced random and systematic errors. The SuperNova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) is a spaceborne observatory to study dark energy using type Ia supernovae and gravitational weak lensing. We have baselined a two-meter-class all-reflecting telescope of the annular-field three mirror anastigmat type (Korsch 1977). The benefits of this configuration are its large flat diffraction-limited field of view (1.6 degrees = 620mm diameter) and its compact overall dimensions. A recent thermomechanical study showed that point spread function variability will not be a significant limitation to weak lensing shear determination. Two industry studies are under way to develop plans for telescope fabrication and test to help guide the planning for the SNAP mission. We gratefully acknowledge the support by the Office of Science, U.S Department of Energy, contract DE-AC03-76SF00098.
    11/2005; 37:1283.
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    ABSTRACT: The He+ ion provides a valuable tracer of solar wind dynamics and the heliospheric boundary. Mapping the heliosphere in the 30.4 nm resonance line of the He+ ion with high spectral resolution will open access to the heliopause and reveal the three-dimensional flow of the solar wind. The emission fluxes are however faint, just a few mR, which poses a serious limitation on the mapping rate at high signal-to-noise ratio. We have developed a spectrometer configuration for narrowband EUV emission that offers important advantages over previous designs: high throughput (~1cps/mR), high resolution (several thousand), no moving parts, and modest instrument size and mass. The concept combines a conventional normal-incidence Rowland mount grating and an efficient multilayer coating, with a microchannel plate detector performing two dimensional photon counting. One key innovation is the use of a large-area multi-slit at the spectrometer entrance. This multislit is a one dimensional sequence of open and opaque zones, against which pattern the accumulated spectral image can be correlated to recover the incident spectrum. The other innovation is arranging that each member of the multislit group is curved in such a way that the off-plane grating aberrations (which extend and rotate the image of each object point) do not introduce significant wavelength broadening. The curved slit arrangement yields a large well-corrected image field, and a high throughput for diffuse emission is achieved. The curved-multislit Rowland spectrometer may have a variety of other applications sensing diffuse fluxes with high spectral resolution.
    Proc SPIE 08/2005;
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    ABSTRACT: The glow of interstellar plasma and solar wind pickup ions and solar wind emissions at 30.4 nm provide a way of ex-ploring important physical processes in the heliosphere. Imaging the heliosphere at this wavelength with high spectral resolution will map the heliopause, probe pickup ions in the solar wind, and reveal the three-dimensional flow pattern of the solar wind, including in the regions over the sun's poles. The required high-throughput, high-resolution spectrome-ter for diffuse radiation should be able to measure 1 milli-Rayleigh irradiance in 10000 seconds with a 0.005-nm spec-tral resolution across pixels subtending a few degrees of celestial arc. The desired performance characteristics can be achieved by combining multiple entrance slits with an optimized spectrometer design. We present a concept of a space experiment to image the heliosphere at 30.4 nm and discuss the scientific rationale and required instrumentation.
    Proc SPIE 01/2005; 5901.
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    ABSTRACT: A high-throughput, high-resolution spectrometer for diffuse radiation at 30.4 nm allows a way to map the heliopause and to image the three-dimensional flow pattern of the solar wind, including in the regions over the sun's poles. The radiation reaching an observer would include glow of the interstellar plasma beyond the heliopause and emissions produces by charge exchange of solar wind alpha-particles on interplanetary atomic hydrogen. We show that high spectral resolution would separate these two sources of radiation and distinguish between the high (ecliptic) and slow (polar) solar wind flows. This enabling instrumentation should be able to measure 1 milli-Rayleigh irradiance in 1000 seconds with a 0.005-nm spectral resolution with an angular pixel of a few degrees. The desired performance characteristics can be achieved by combining multiple entrance slits with an optimized spectrometer design.
    AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 12/2004;
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    ABSTRACT: The He+ ion provides a valuable tracer of solar wind dynamics and the heliospheric boundary. Mapping the heliosphere from 1 AU in 30.4nm with high spectral resolution will open access to the heliopause and reveal the three-dimensional flow of the solar wind. The scattered and emission fluxes are however faint, just a few milli-Rayleighs (mR), which poses a serious limitation on the mapping rate at high signal-to-noise ratio. We explore a spectrometer concept for narrowband EUV emission that offers important advantages over previous designs: high throughput (~1cps/mR), high spectral resolution (several thousand), no moving parts, and modest instrument size and mass. The concept combines a conventional normal-incidence Rowland mount grating and an efficient multilayer coating, with a microchannel plate detector performing two dimensional photon counting. One key innovation is the use of a large-area multi-slit at the spectrometer entrance. This multislit is a one dimensional sequence of open and opaque zones, against which pattern the accumulated spectral image can be correlated to recover the incident spectrum. The other innovation is arranging that each member of the multislit group is curved in such a way that the off-plane grating aberrations (which extend and rotate the image of each object point) do not introduce significant wavelength broadening. The curved slit arrangement yields a large well-corrected image field, and a high throughput for diffuse emission is achieved. This presentation concentrates on the design of the wide-field mount that maximizes the working area populated by the slits. The curved-multislit Rowland spectrometer will have a variety of other applications in astrophysics, aeronomy, and space physics sensing diffuse fluxes with high spectral resolution and sensitivity.
    AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 11/2004; -1:1181.
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    ABSTRACT: The Supernova / Acceleration Probe (SNAP) is a proposed space-based experiment designed to study the dark energy and alternative explanations of the acceleration of the Universe's expansion by performing a series of complementary systematics-controlled measurements. We describe a self-consistent reference mission design for building a Type Ia supernova Hubble diagram and for performing a wide-area weak gravitational lensing study. A 2-m wide-field telescope feeds a focal plane consisting of a 0.7 square-degree imager tiled with equal areas of optical CCDs and near infrared sensors, and a high-efficiency low-resolution integral field spectrograph. The SNAP mission will obtain high-signal-to-noise calibrated light-curves and spectra for several thousand supernovae at redshifts between z=0.1 and 1.7. A wide-field survey covering one thousand square degrees resolves ~100 galaxies per square arcminute. If we assume we live in a cosmological-constant-dominated Universe, the matter density, dark energy density, and flatness of space can all be measured with SNAP supernova and weak-lensing measurements to a systematics-limited accuracy of 1%. For a flat universe, the density-to-pressure ratio of dark energy can be similarly measured to 5% for the present value w0 and ~0.1 for the time variation w'. The large survey area, depth, spatial resolution, time-sampling, and nine-band optical to NIR photometry will support additional independent and/or complementary dark-energy measurement approaches as well as a broad range of auxiliary science programs. (Abridged) Comment: 40 pages, 18 figures, submitted to PASP, http://snap.lbl.gov
    05/2004;

Publication Stats

2k Citations
635.81 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1976–2009
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • • Space Sciences Laboratory
      • • Department of Physics
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Southern California
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2004
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 1988
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
  • 1982–1984
    • Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Mexico City, The Federal District, Mexico