ABSTRACT: Brain ischemia is characterized by local inflammation reflected by accumulation of inflammatory cells and a multitude of mediators. Among them, cytokines and chemokines may influence the inflammatory cascade that follows cerebral ischemia. Here we report on brain hemispheric and systemic increase of pro-inflammatory IL-17 and IFN-gamma, the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10, and the chemokines IP-10, IL-8 and MIP-2, 1 h to 6 days after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). IL-17 and IFN-gamma mRNA levels were elevated in the ischemic hemispheres of pMCAO-operated rats compared with corresponding hemispheres of sham-operated rats. Levels were slightly elevated at 1 h, and peaked at 6 days after pMCAO. IL-8 and MIP-2 levels in the ischemic hemispheres peaked at 24 h, whereas IP-10 showed a biphasic profile with two peaks at 6 h and 6 days after pMCAO. IL-4 peaked in the ischemic hemispheres at 6 h, when IL-10 levels were lower than in sham-operated rats, and IL-10 levels peaked at 2 days after pMCAO. Systemically, the numbers of IL-17 and IFN-gamma mRNA expressing blood mononuclear cells were elevated already at 1 h after pMCAO, preceding the changes in the ischemic hemispheres. Altered levels of IL-17 and IFN-gamma after pMCAO may affect outcome of brain ischemia.
Journal of Neuroimmunology 06/2001; 116(1):5-14. · 2.96 Impact Factor