[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM)-induced osteoclast (OC) formation is mainly due to an imbalance of the receptor activator of NF-kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio in favor of RANKL in the bone microenvironment and to the CCL3 production by MM cells. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of the immunomodulatory drugs on RANKL/OPG ratio, the production of pro-osteoclatogenic cytokines and MM-induced OC formation. We found that in vivo concentrations of both Lenalidomide (LEN) and Pomalidomide (POM), significantly blunted RANKL up-regulation normalizing the RANKL/OPG ratio in human osteoprogenitor cells (PreOBs) when co-cultured with MM cells and also inhibited CCL3 production by MM cells. A reduction in CD49d expression, a molecule critically involved in RANKL up-regulation in the MM microenvironment, accompanied this effect. Consistently, the pro-osteoclastogenic property of MM cells co-cultured with PreOBs was reduced by both LEN and POM. We further investigated the effect of these drugs on the transcriptional profile of both MM cells and PreOBs by microarray analysis, which showed that adhesion molecule such as ITGA8, and ICAM2 are significantly down-regulated in MM cells. Our data suggests that LEN and POM inhibits MM-induced OC formation through normalization of the RANKL/OPG ratio targeting the expression of adhesion molecules by MM cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Success with transplantation of autologous hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in patients depends on adequate collection of these cells after mobilization from the bone marrow niche by the cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). However, some patients fail to achieve sufficient HSPC mobilization. Retrospective analysis of bone marrow transplant patient records revealed that diabetes correlated with poor mobilization of CD34+ HSPCs. In mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes (streptozotocin-induced and db/db mice, respectively), we found impaired egress of murine HSPCs from the bone marrow after G-CSF treatment. Furthermore, HSPCs were aberrantly localized in the marrow niche of the diabetic mice, and abnormalities in the number and function of sympathetic nerve termini were associated with this mislocalization. Aberrant responses to β-adrenergic stimulation of the bone marrow included an inability of marrow mesenchymal stem cells expressing the marker nestin to down-modulate the chemokine CXCL12 in response to G-CSF treatment (mesenchymal stem cells are reported to be critical for HSPC mobilization). The HSPC mobilization defect was rescued by direct pharmacological inhibition of the interaction of CXCL12 with its receptor CXCR4 using the drug AMD3100. These data suggest that there are diabetes-induced changes in bone marrow physiology and microanatomy and point to a potential intervention to overcome poor HSPC mobilization in diabetic patients.
Science translational medicine 10/2011; 3(104):104ra101. · 10.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The deregulation of the homeobox genes as homeoboxB (HOXB)-7 has been previously associated to tumor progression and angiogenesis; here we investigated the potential role of HOXB7 in the pro-angiogenic properties of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. We found that HOXB7 was expressed in 10 out of 22 MM patients analyzed at the diagnosis related to high bone marrow angiogenesis and overexpressed in about 40% of myeloma cell lines compared with normal plasma cells. Enforced HOXB7 expression in MM cells by a lentiviral vector significantly modified their transcriptional and angiogenic profile, checked by combined microarray and angiogenesis PCR analyses, upregulating VEGFA, FGF2, MMP2, WNT5a and PDGFA and downregulating thrombospoindin-2. The pro- and anti-angiogenic HOXB7-related gene signature was also validated in a large independent dataset of MM patients. Accordingly, MM-induced vessel formation was significantly increased by HOXB7 overexpression both in vitro angiogenic and chorioallantoic membrane assays, as well as the HOXB7 silencing by small interfering RNA inhibited the production of angiogenic factors, and the pro-angiogenic properties of MM cells. Finally, in SCID-NOD mice we confirmed that HOXB7 overexpression by MM cells stimulated tumor growth, increased MM-associated angiogenesis and the expression of pro-angiogenic genes by microarray analysis supporting the critical role of HOXB7 in the angiogenic switch in MM.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 11/2010; 25(3):527-37. · 10.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) cells are extremely resistant to drug-induced apoptosis due to both intrinsic- and bone marrow (BM) microenvironment-dependent drug resistance particularly supported by bone cells. Growing evidence suggest that the osteoclast inhibitor zoledronic acid (ZOL) exerts both indirect and direct anti-tumoral effects, including an in vitro proapoptotic effect on MM cells, although this property has not yet been clearly observed in MM patients.
In this study, we attempt to better define the cytotoxic effect of ZOL on MM cells in order to identify novel drug combinations able to potentiate its proapoptotic effect.
Our data shows that ZOL at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 μM was able to induce MM cell apoptosis overcoming the prosurvival effect of both stromal cells and osteoclasts and independent of the intrinsic bortezomib resistance of MM cells. Interestingly, we found that the capacity of ZOL to induce apoptosis in bortezomib-resistant cells was associated with a downregulation of the proapoptotic molecule myeloid cell leukemia-1. A transcriptional analysis by microarray was also performed to identify genes specifically modulated by ZOL in bortezomib-resistant MM cells. Finally, we show an additive effect of arsenic trioxide on apoptosis when used in combination with ZOL.
Our in vitro data suggest that the use of ZOL at appropriate doses could be explored clinically in bortezomib-resistant MM patients and combined with arsenic trioxide to increase its proapoptotic effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compared two schedules of low-dose gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) as induction monotherapy for untreated acute myeloid leukaemia in older patients unfit for intensive chemotherapy, to identify the more promising regimen for further study. Patients were randomized to receive either best supportive care or a course of GO according to one of two schedules: 3 mg/m(2) on days 1, 3 and 5 (arm A), or GO 6 mg/m(2) on day 1 and 3 mg/m(2) on day 8 (arm B). Primary endpoint was the rate of disease non-progression (DnP), defined as the proportion of patients either achieving a response or maintaining a stable disease following GO induction in each arm. Fifty-six patients were randomized in the two GO arms (A, n = 29; B, n = 27). The rate of DnP was 38% [90% confidence interval (CI), 23-55] in arm A, and 63% (90% CI, 45-78) in arm B. Peripheral cytopenias were the most common adverse events for both regimens. The all-cause early mortality rate was 14% in arm A and 11% in arm B. The day 1 + 8 schedule, which was associated with the highest rate of DnP, met the statistical criteria to be selected as the preferred regimen for phase III comparison with best supportive care.
British Journal of Haematology 03/2010; 149(3):376-82. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by a high incidence of osteolytic bone lesions, which have been previously correlated with the gene expression profiles of MM cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the transcriptional patterns of cells in the bone microenvironment and their relationships with the presence of osteolysis in MM patients.
Both mesenchymal (MSC) and osteoblastic (OB) cells were isolated directly from bone biopsies of MM patients and controls to perform gene expression profiling by microarrays and real-time polymerase chain reaction on selected bone-related genes.
We identified a series of upregulated and downregulated genes that were differentially expressed in the MSC cells of osteolytic and nonosteolytic patients. Comparison of the osteolytic and nonosteolytic samples also showed that the MSC cells and OB had distinct transcriptional patterns. No significantly modulated genes were found in the OBs of the osteolytic and nonosteolytic patients.
Our data suggest that the gene expression profiles of cells of the bone microenvironment are different in MM patients and controls, and that MSC cells, but not OBs, have a distinct transcriptional pattern associated with the occurrence of bone lesions in MM patients. These data support the idea that alterations in MSC cells may be involved in MM bone disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The p53 tumor suppressor is part of a small family of related proteins that includes two other members, p73 and p63. Interest in the p53 family members, their functions and their complex interactions and regulation, has steadily grown over recent years and does not show signs of waning. p73 is a major determinant of chemosensitivity in humans, and mutant p53 proteins carrying specific polymorphisms can induce drug resistance by inhibiting TAp73. Cooperation between TA (transactivating, proapoptotic, antiproliferative) and Delta N (truncated, antiapoptotic, pro-proliferative) p73 isoforms and among the three family members guarantees equilibrium between proliferation, differentiation, and cell death, thus creating a harmony that is lost in several human cancers. In this article, we review our current knowledge of the role of p73 in cancer chemosensitivity and the real prospect of therapy targeting this molecule. We also draw attention to the crucial role of specific phosphorylation and acetylation events for p73-induced apoptosis and drug chemosensitivity.
Clinical Cancer Research 11/2009; 15(21):6495-502. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 1990 the Italian Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Cooperative Study Group (NHLSG) started a multicenter study on the role of interferon (IFN) in multiple myeloma (MM). The schedule of treatment was based on the assumption that melphalan plus prednisone (MP) would be better for good-prognosis patients, whereas poor-prognosis patients would benefit from polychemotherapy. Accordingly, IFN was included randomly for the induction treatment of good-prognosis patients and randomly as maintenance of the response achieved in both groups. Up to now 78 patients of the 124 enrolled have completed the induction treatment and are evaluable for response and response duration. The overall response rate was 59%. Sixty-two percent of good-prognosis patients obtained objective response, 9/14 (64%) with MP and 9/15 (60%) with MP + IFN. Up to now, with a median follow-up of 9 months from the evaluation of response, no difference has been recorded between the maintenance and no maintenance groups on relapse rate, neither in good- nor in poor-prognosis patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal cells toward osteoprogenitor and osteoblastic cells is tightly regulated by several growth and transcription factors at the molecular level. In this article, we focus on the biological mechanisms involved in the osteoblast inhibition induced by myeloma cells.
Current research on the mechanisms regulating myeloma cell and osteoprogenitor cells interactions and on potential therapeutic targets to treat multiple myeloma bone disease is reviewed.
Runt-related transcription factor 2 is critically involved in this process along with a large number of nuclear coregulators. Wnt signaling has been recently identified as a critical pathway involved in the regulation of osteoblastogenesis. The impairment of osteogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells occurs in multiple myeloma due to the capacity of malignant plasma cells to suppress the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal cells either through the cell contact or the release of soluble factors as interleukin-7, hepatocyte growth factor, interleukin-3, and Wnt inhibitors.
Runt-related transcription factor 2 and Wnt pathways could be therapeutic targets in the treatment of multiple myeloma bone disease to counterbalance the block of osteogenic differentiation induced by multiple myeloma cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) and osteoblasts are the two main non-haematopoietic cellular components of human bone tissue. To identify novel osteoblast-related molecules, we performed a gene expression profiling analysis comparing MSCs and osteoblasts isolated from the same donors. Genes differentially overexpressed in osteoblasts were mainly related to the negative control of cell proliferation, pro-apoptotic processes, protein metabolism and bone remodelling. Notably, we also identified the collagen XV (COL15A1) gene as the most up-regulated gene in osteoblasts compared with MSCs, previously described as being expressed in the basement membrane in other cell types. The expression of collagen type XV was confirmed at the protein level on isolated osteoblasts and we demonstrated that it significantly increases during the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro and that free ionised extracellular calcium significantly down-modulates its expression. Moreover, light and electron microscopy showed that collagen type XV is expressed in bone tissue biopsies mainly by working osteoblasts forming new bone tissue or lining bone trabeculae. To our knowledge, these data represent the first evidence of the expression of collagen type XV in human osteoblasts, a calcium-regulated protein which correlates to a specific functional state of these cells.
Journal of Cellular Physiology 05/2009; 220(2):401-9. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: XIAP is the best characterized and the most potent direct endogenous caspase inhibitor and is considered a key actor in the control of apoptotic threshold in cancer cells. In this report, we specifically addressed XIAP regulation and function in myeloma cells.
XIAP and its endogenous inhibitor XAF-1 protein levels and their regulation were assessed by immunoblot analysis in myeloma cell lines or primary myeloma cells. XIAP knockdown by RNA interference was used to evaluate XIAP impact on in vitro drug sensitivity and in vivo tumor growth.
Our results indicate that myeloma cells expressed high levels of XIAP protein that were tightly regulated during growth factor stimulation or stress condition. Of note, an increased XIAPlevel was evidenced during the blockade of the canonical cap-dependent translation by the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, supporting the hypothesis of a functional IRES sequence in XIAP mRNA. In addition, caspase-mediated XIAP cleavage correlated to an apoptotic process occurring upon cell treatment with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Importantly, XIAP knockdown using RNA interference enhanced drug sensitivity and decreased tumor formation in NOD/SCID mice. Finally, myeloma cells also expressed the XIAP inhibitor XAF-1 that interacted with XIAP in viable myeloma cells.
Altogether, our data argue for a delicate control of XIAP function in myeloma cells and stimulate interest in targeting XIAP in myeloma treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The expression of the chemokine CC-chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20)/macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3alpha and its receptor CC-chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) by multiple myeloma (MM) and microenvironment cells and their potential relationship with osteoclast (OC) formation and osteolytic bone lesions in MM patients was investigated in this study. First, we found that MM cells rarely produce CCL20/MIP-3alpha but up-regulate its production by bone marrow (BM) osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts in coculture with the involvement of soluble factors as interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha. MM cells also stimulate both CCL20/MIP-3alpha and CCR6 expression by OCs in coculture. Thereafter, we showed that CCL20/MIP-3alpha significantly increases both the number of multinucleated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive OCs and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB-positive OC progenitor cells similar to CCL3/MIP-1alpha. Finally, we found that blocking anti-CCL20/MIP-3alpha and anti-CCR6 antibodies significantly inhibits MM-induced OC formation. In vitro data were further expanded in vivo analyzing a total number of 64 MM patients. Significantly higher CCL20/MIP-3alpha levels were detected in MM patients versus monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS) subjects and in MM osteolytic patients versus nonosteolytic ones. Moreover, a significant increase of CCL20/MIP-3alpha-positive osteoblasts in osteolytic MM patients compared with nonosteolytic ones was observed. Interestingly, no significant difference in BM CCL20/MIP-3alpha expression and level was observed between MGUS and nonosteolytic MM patients. Our data indicate that CCL20/MIP-3alpha and its receptor CCR6 are up-regulated in the bone microenvironment by MM cells and contribute to OC formation and osteolytic bone lesions in MM patients.
Cancer Research 09/2008; 68(16):6840-50. · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate that blockade of the MEK/ERK signaling module, using the small-molecule inhibitors PD184352 or PD325901 (PD), strikingly enhances arsenic trioxide (ATO)-induced cytotoxicity in human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs) and in tumor cells from patients with multiple myeloma (MM) through a caspase-dependent mechanism. In HMCLs retaining a functional p53, PD treatment greatly enhances the ATO-induced p53 accumulation and p73, a p53 paralog, cooperates with p53 in caspase activation and apoptosis induction. In HMCLs carrying a nonfunctional p53, cotreatment with PD strikingly elevates the (DR4 + DR5)/(DcR1 + DcR2) tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors ratio and caspase-8 activation of ATO-treated cells. In MM cells, irrespective of p53 status, the combined PD/ATO treatment increases the level of the proapoptotic protein Bim (PD-mediated) and decreases antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 (ATO-mediated). Moreover, Bim physically interacts with both DR4 and DR5 TRAIL receptors in PD/ATO-treated cells, and loss of Bim interferes with the activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in response to PD/ATO. Finally, PD/ATO treatment induces tumor regression, prolongs survival, and is well tolerated in vivo in a human plasmacytoma xenograft model. These preclinical studies provide the framework for testing PD325901 and ATO combination therapy in clinical trials aimed to improve patient outcome in MM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interleukin-12 (IL-12) receptor (R) B2 gene acts as tumor suppressor in human acute and chronic B-cell leukemias/lymphomas and IL-12rb2-deficient mice develop spontaneously localized plasmacytomas. With this background, we investigated the role of IL-12R beta 2 in multiple myeloma (MM) pathogenesis. Here we show the following: (1) IL-12R beta 2 was expressed in primary MM cells but down-regulated compared with normal polyclonal plasmablastic cells and plasma cells (PCs). IL-6 dampened IL-12R beta 2 expression on polyclonal plasmablastic cells and MM cells. (2) IL-12 reduced the proangiogenic activity of primary MM cells in vitro and decreased significantly (P = .001) the tumorigenicity of the NCI-H929 cell line in SCID/NOD mice by inhibiting cell proliferation and angiogenesis. The latter phenomenon was found to depend on abolished expression of a wide panel of proangiogenic genes and up-regulated expression of the antiangiogenic genes IFN-gamma, IFN-alpha, platelet factor-4, and TIMP-2. Inhibition of the angiogenic potential of primary MM cells was related to down-regulated expression of the proangiogenic genes CCL11, vascular endothelial-cadherin, CD13, and AKT and to up-regulation of an IFN-gamma-related antiangiogenic pathway. Thus, IL-12R beta 2 directly restrains MM cell growth, and targeting of IL-12 to tumor cells holds promise as new therapeutic strategy.