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ABSTRACT: Myricetin (3,3',4',5,5',7-hexahydroxyflavone), a flavonoid compound, is present in vegetables and fruits. By means of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin, and type I collagen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we have shown that myricetin exhibits a significant induction of differentiation in MG-63 and hFOB human osteoblasts. Alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin are phenotypic markers for early-stage differentiated osteoblasts and terminally differentiated osteoblasts, respectively. Our results indicate that myricetin stimulates osteoblast differentiation at various stages, from maturation to terminally differentiated osteoblasts. Induction of differentiation by myricetin is associated with increased bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) production. The BMP-2 antagonist noggin blocked myricetin-mediated ALP activity and osteocalcin secretion enhancement, indicating that BMP-2 production is required in myricetin-mediated osteoblast maturation and differentiation. Induction of differentiation by myricetin is associated with increased activation of SMAD1/5/8 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Cotreatment of p38 inhibitor SB203580 inhibited myricetin-mediated ALP upregulation and osteocalcin production. In conclusion, myricetin increased BMP-2 synthesis, and subsequently activated SMAD1/5/8 and p38 MAPK, and this effect may contribute to its action on the induction of osteoblast maturation and differentiation, followed by an increase of bone mass.
Biochemical Pharmacology 03/2007; 73(4):504-14. DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2006.10.020 · 5.01 Impact Factor