[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Levodopa is the most effective symptomatic therapy for Parkinson's disease, but its chronic use could lead to chronic adverse outcomes, such as motor fluctuations, dyskinesia and visual hallucinations. HOMER1 is a protein with pivotal function in glutamate transmission, which has been related to the pathogenesis of these complications. This study investigates whether polymorphisms in the HOMER1 gene promoter region are associated with the occurrence of the chronic complications of levodopa therapy. A total of 205 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were investigated. Patients were genotyped for rs4704559, rs10942891 and rs4704560 by allelic discrimination with Taqman assays. The rs4704559 G allele was associated with a lower prevalence of dyskinesia (prevalence ratio (PR)=0.615, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.426-0.887, P=0.009) and visual hallucinations (PR=0.515, 95% CI 0.295-0.899, P=0.020). Our data suggest that HOMER1 rs4704559 G allele has a protective role for the development of levodopa adverse effects.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 15 October 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.37.
The Pharmacogenomics Journal 10/2013; · 5.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The requirement for dopaminergic drugs in Parkinson's disease (PD) is highly variable. Visual hallucinations are a frequent and serious complication of chronic levodopa therapy. Polymorphisms in the DAT1 gene might affect the reuptake of dopamine in the synaptic cleft, but the influence of this variability on adverse effects or levodopa equivalent dose on PD patients is still poorly investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate DAT1 gene polymorphisms on levodopa equivalent dose and visual hallucination occurrence in PD patients. Altogether, 196 PD patients in treatment with at least 200 mg levodopa equivalent dose for at least 1 yr were included. These patients were genotyped for the -839 C > T and 3' VNTR DAT1 polymorphisms by PCR-based methodologies. Visual hallucinations occurred in 25.5% of the sample. After controlling for confounders, the dopamine transporter (DAT) -839 C allele was associated with visual hallucinations (prevalence ratio 2.5, 95% confidence intervals 1.13-5.5, p = 0.02). Levodopa equivalent dose was lower in carriers of the nine repeat allele of the DAT 3'UTR VNTR (741.2 ± 355.0 vs. 843.4 ± 445.7), explaining 21% of dose variability (p = 0.01). Our results support an effect of DAT1 polymorphisms in adverse effects of anti-Parkinsonian drugs and in levodopa equivalent dose usage.
The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 01/2013; · 5.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Dyskinesia and motor fluctuation are frequent and serious complications of chronic levodopa therapy in patients with Parkinson's disease. Since genetic factors could play a role in determining the occurrence of these problems, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether possible functional polymorphisms among DRD2 and ANKK1 genes are associated with the risk of developing dyskinesia and motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease patients. Patients & methods: One hundred and ninety nine patients in treatment with levodopa were genotyped for the -141CIns/Del, rs2283265, rs1076560, C957T, TaqIA and rs2734849 polymorphisms at the DRD2/ANKK1 gene region. Results: Carriers of the TTCTA haplotype showed an increased risk for the presence of dyskinesia (p = 0.007; 1.538 [95% CI: 1.126-2.101]). Conclusion: Our data suggest an influence of the DRD2/ANKK1 gene region on levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Original submitted 8 May 2012; Revision submitted 29 August 2012.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spinocerebellar ataxia 3 is an untreatable CAG repeat expansion disorder whose natural history is not completely understood. Our aims were to describe the progression of neurological manifestations in a long-term cohort of spinocerebellar ataxia 3, and to verify if CAG expanded repeat, gender, and age at onset were associated with the rate of progression. Patients entered the study between 1998 and 2005 and were seen until 2007. On each visit, the validated NESSCA scale, an inventory of 18 neurological manifestations, was applied. Scores observed in each year of disease duration produced a Growth Curve, which was analyzed through the random coefficients model. Scores obtained in some individual items were described through multi-state Markov models. One hundred fifty-six patients (78 families) were recruited; 28 were lost, and 23 died. Mean (sd) ages at onset and at baseline were 32.8 (10.6) and 40.7 (12.8) years; median (range) expanded CAGn was 74 (67-85). Three hundred fifteen NESSCA evaluations were performed, comprising disease durations from zero to 34 years. The 105 patients who completed the study were seen over 5 (sd = 2.4) years at intervals of 2.5 (sd = 1.5) years. The trajectory of NESSCA obtained for the overall group increased by 1.26 points per year. This slope increased by 0.15 points per each additional CAG in the expanded repeat (p < 0.0002) and decreased by 0.03 points per each additional year of age at onset (p = 0.005). NESSCA worsened steadily, producing linear trajectories, which were faster among patients with longer expanded repeats (>74) and with lower ages at onset (<34 years).
The Cerebellum 05/2010; 9(3):419-28. · 2.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS) is a specific scale for the assessment of sleep disturbances in subjects with Parkinson's Disease (PD). This cross-sectional study set out to validate the PDSS in a Brazilian Portuguese Version (PDSS-BR). Ninety-five patients with PD participated in the study; their PD symptoms were evaluated by Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS sections I-IV) and Hoehn and Yahr scale. Patients completed Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and PDSS-BR. PDSS-BR internal consistency was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha: 0.82; all PDSS-BR items were significantly and positively associated with total score). Test-retest reliability for total PDSS-BR score was 0.94. PDSS-BR score was highly correlated with sleep PSQI scale (r(s) = -0.63; p < 0.0001) and moderately with ESS (r(s) = -0.32; p < 0.001) and UPDRS sections I (r(s) = -0.38; p < 0.0001) and II (r(s) = -0.36; p < 0.0001) and BDI (r(s) = -0.55; p < 0.0001). Depressive symptoms, as determined by the BDI, were associated with significantly worse quality of nocturnal sleep, as measured by the PDSS-BR. The psychometric attributes of the PDSS-BR were satisfactory and consistent with those of previous studies. In summary, PDSS-BR can be useful for clinical and research purposes in Brazil.
Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 02/2009; 15(7):495-9. · 4.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are characterized by a heterogeneous set of clinical manifestations. Our aims were to assess the neurological features of SCA3, and to describe and test the feasibility, reliability, and validity of a comprehensive Neurological Examination Score for Spinocerebellar Ataxia (NESSCA). The NESSCA was administered to molecularly diagnosed SCA3 patients at an outpatient neurogenetics clinic. The scale, based on the standardized neurological examination, consisted of 18 items that yielded a total score ranging from 0 to 40. The score's interrater reliability and internal consistency were investigated, and a principal components analysis and a correlation with external measures were performed. Ninety-nine individuals were evaluated. Interrater reliability ranged from 0.8 to 1 across individual items (P < 0.001); internal consistency, indicated by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.77. NESSCA scores were significantly correlated with measures of disease severity: disease stage (rho = 0.76, P < 0.001), duration (rho = 0.56, P < 0.001), and length of CAG repeat (rho = 0.30, P < 0.05). NESSCA was a reliable measure for the assessment of distinct neurological deficits in SCA3 patients. Global scores correlated with all external variables tested, showing NESSCA to be a comprehensive measure of disease severity that is both clinically useful and scientifically valid.
European Journal of Neurology 04/2008; 15(4):371-6. · 3.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It was the aim of this study to determine the depression scores of Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) patients, their spouses, and individuals at 50% risk for MJD, and second, to verify the existence of a correlation between depressive symptoms and the degree of motor incapacitation.
Two hundred and forty-six individuals aged > or =18 years were studied: 79 MJD patients (group 1), 43 spouses of MJD patients (group 2), 80 individuals at risk for MJD (group 3), and a control group (group 4) composed of 44 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The following two tools were applied: the Beck Depression Inventory and the Barthel index of physical incapacitation, both in an adapted Brazilian Portuguese version.
Moderate to severe depressive scores were found in 33.5% of patients in the MJD families, in 16.3% of the spouses, and in 6.3% of the individuals at risk. This linear reduction between MJD family members was statistically significant (p < 0.0001, ANOVA). Depressive scores were also associated with age and the female sex. A direct correlation between Beck Depression Inventory scores and motor incapacitation was found in MJD patients (r = 0.507, Pearson correlation, p < 0.0001). Although the depressive symptoms in the control group with MS were higher than those found in MJD patients (59% of MS patients showed moderate to severe scores), depression did not correlate with physical incapacitation, age, or education attainment in the MS group.
Depressive symptoms are rather common in MJD patients and in their spouses (caregivers). In this condition, depression seemed to be more reactive than primarily related to the disease process itself.
Community Genetics 02/2007; 10(1):19-26. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a lack of evidence on the clinical efficacy and safety of the recently released Chinese botulinum toxin serotype A (Prosigne) for the treatment of focal dystonias and hemifacial spasm. Determining a more precise role of Prosigne in the treatment of such conditions is of paramount importance, because botulinum toxin type A treatments have a huge economic implication in health services, especially in developing countries. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and safety of Prosigne in the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm in comparison to Botox. We performed a double-blind, randomized, crossover study enrolling 26 patients. There were no significant differences between Prosigne and Botox regarding subjective global improvement, response onset, efficacy duration, and incidence and severity of adverse events. Our results suggest that Prosigne and Botox are comparable with respect to efficacy and safety for the short-term treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NSE and S100B are considered as neuronal and glial peripheral markers of central nervous system pathologies, respectively. We evaluated the potential use of S100B and NSE serum concentrations as peripheral markers of symptomatic patients with Machado Joseph disease (MJD).
We measured S100B and NSE peripheral concentrations of 22 MJD patients and compared with healthy subjects concentrations. The correlations of both markers with CAG repeat size, age of onset, disease duration, and the scores of the Extended Disability Status Scale of Kurtzke, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, and the Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale were also assessed.
S100B serum concentrations between control and MJD subjects were not statistically different, whereas NSE serum concentrations were higher in MJD patients than in control subjects (p=0.00001). S100B presented a moderate correlation with disease duration and depression score, whereas NSE presented a moderate correlation with depression score and a good negative correlation with EDSS score.
Symptomatic MJD patients present increased concentrations of NSE and normal concentrations of S100B in blood.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Machado-Joseph Disease (MJD/SCA3) is an autosomal dominant spinocerebellar degeneration that evolves to disability and death. Experimental data have shown that serotonin is an important cerebellar neurotransmitter and that impairment of the serotoninergic cerebellar system can induce cerebellar ataxia.
To evaluate the efficacy of fluoxetine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in treating neurologic dysfunction in patients with MJD.
Thirteen MJD patients were treated with fluoxetine (20 mg/day) and were followed-up for 6 weeks. Outcome measures included functional capacity, standardized neurologic and cognitive ratings. The Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale was used to control depressive symptoms.
There was no significant improvement in motor abilities after 6 weeks of treatment.
These results suggest that fluoxetine has no benefit in motor function of patients with MJD/SCA3.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 36 year-old black female, complaining of headache of one month's duration presented with nausea, vomiting, somnolence, short memory problems, loss of weight, and no fever history. Smoker, intravenous drugs abuser, promiscuous lifestyle. Physical examination: left homonimous hemianopsia, left hemiparesis, no papilledema, diffuse hyperreflexia, slowness of movements. Brain CT scan: tumor-like lesion in the splenium of the corpus calosum, measuring 3.5 x 1.4 cm, with heterogeneous enhancing pattern, suggesting a primary CNS tumor. Due to the possibility of CNS infection, a lumbar puncture disclosed an opening pressure of 380 mmH(2)0; 11 white cells (lymphocytes); glucose 18 mg/dl (serum glucose 73 mg/dl); proteins 139 mg/dl; presence of Trypanosoma parasites. Serum Elisa-HIV tests turned out to be positive. Treatment with benznidazole dramatically improved clinical and radiographic picture, but the patient died 6 weeks later because of respiratory failure. T. cruzi infection of the CNS is a rare disease, but we have an increasing number of cases in HIV immunocompromised patients. Diagnosis by direct observation of CSF is uncommon, and most of the cases are diagnosed by pathological examination. It is a highly lethal disease, even when properly diagnosed and treated. This article intends to include cerebral trypanosomiasis in the differential diagnosis of intracranial space-occupying lesions, especially in immunocompromised patients from endemic regions.
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria 10/2002; 60(3-B):730-3. · 1.01 Impact Factor