[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Earlier studies have demonstrated that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with aberrant sensitivity to rewards and punishments. Although some studies have focused on real-life decision making in children with ADHD using the Iowa gambling task, the number of good deck choices, a frequently used index of decision-making ability in the gambling task, is insufficient for investigating the complex decision-making strategies in subjects. In the present study, we investigated decision-making strategies in ADHD children, analyzing T-patterns with rewards, with punishments, and without rewards and punishments during the gambling task, and examined the relationship between decision-making strategies and skin conductance responses (SCRs) to rewards and punishments. We hypothesized that ADHD children and normal children would employ different decision-making strategies depending on their sensitivity to rewards and punishments in the gambling task. Our results revealed that ADHD children had fewer T-patterns with punishments and exhibited a significant tendency to have many T-patterns with rewards, thus supporting our hypothesis. Moreover, in contrast to normal children, ADHD children failed to demonstrate differences between reward and punishment SCRs, supporting the idea that they had an aberrant sensitivity to rewards and punishments. Therefore, we concluded that ADHD children would be impaired in decision-making strategies depending on their aberrant sensitivity to rewards and punishments. However, we were unable to specify whether large reward SCRs or small punishment SCRs is generated in ADHD children.
International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 07/2009; 72(3):283-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2009.01.007 · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of lymphangiography as a treatment for various chyle leakages. Pedal lymphangiography was performed in 9 patients (6 men and 3 women; mean age, 59 years) who were unlikely to be cured only by conservative treatment - a low-fat medium-chain triglyceride diet, total parenteral nutrition and insertion of a drainage tube - and in whom chylothorax (n = 5), chylous ascites (n = 2) and lymphatic fistulae (n = 2) were refractory to conservative treatment. In 7 of these 9 patients (78%), we could detect the chyle leakage sites. In 8 of the 9 patients (89%), lymphatic leakage was stopped after lymphangiography, and surgical re-intervention was avoided. No cases had a recurrence of chyle leakage during follow-up (range, 1-54 months). Lymphangiography is effective not only for diagnosis but also as treatment for various chyle leakages. Early lymphangiography is therefore recommended for patients with chyle leakages who are unlikely to be cured by conservative treatment only.
The British journal of radiology 12/2008; 82(976):286-90. DOI:10.1259/bjr/64849421 · 2.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a 34-year-old man with the complication of chylous ascites after retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy that was refractory to various conservative therapies. Because surgical treatment for chylous ascites was considered, lymphangiography was performed to identify the area of leakage of chyle, after which the chylous ascites spontaneously healed.
British Journal of Radiology 10/2005; 78(933):854-7. DOI:10.1259/bjr/61177542 · 2.03 Impact Factor