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Publications (3)11.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade extracellular matrix; MMP activity, particularly of MMP-9, is elevated in the white matter in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The cerebral cortical extracellular matrix includes perineuronal nets (PNs) that surround parvalbumin-positive neurons (PV-positive neurons) and are important for their function. We measured active and total MMP-9 levels in postmortem homogenates of demyelinated and nondemyelinated cerebral cortical regions from 9MS and 7 control cases and assessed Wisteria floribunda agglutin (WFA)-positive PNs in paraffin sections from 15 MS and 6 controls and PV-positive neurons in sections from 26 MS and 6 controls. Active MMP-9 levels were higher in demyelinated than in nondemyelinated or control cortex (p < 0.05). The area fraction positive for WFA was lower in demyelinated than nondemyelinated MS or control cortex; the latter difference was significant (p < 0.05). Most PV-positive neurons in demyelinated but not intact cortex lackeda PN, and some showed perikaryal phosphorylated neurofilament protein accumulation. Loss of WFA-labeled PNs was not associated with reduced PV-positive neurons numbers. Thus, elevated MMP-9 in cortical plaques is associated with loss of PNs; PV-positive neurons are preserved but show abnormal neurofilament accumulations. Matrix metalloproteinase-mediated degradation of PNs in cortical plaques may, therefore, contribute to neuronal dysfunction and degeneration in MS patients.
    Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 10/2008; 67(9):888-99. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have revealed extensive axonal damage in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Axonal damage can be caused by a plethora of factors including the release of proteolytic enzymes and cytotoxic oxidants by activated immune cells and glia within the lesion. Macrophages and microglia are known to express myeloperoxidase (MPO) and generate reactive oxygen species during myelin phagocytosis in the white matter. In the present study we have measured MPO levels in post-mortem homogenates of demyelinated and non-demyelinated regions of white matter from nine patients with MS and seven controls, and assessed MPO immunoreactivity within MS brain. In homogenates of MS white matter, demyelination was associated with significantly elevated MPO activity when compared to controls. Immunohistochemistry showed MPO to be expressed mainly by macrophages within and adjacent to plaques. Demyelination in MS is associated with increased activity of MPO, suggesting that this production of reactive oxygen species may contribute to axonal injury within plaques.
    Neuroscience Letters 09/2008; 444(2):195-8. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have revealed extensive cortical demyelination in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Demyelination in gray matter lesions is associated with activation of microglia. Macrophages and microglia are known to express myeloperoxidase (MPO) and generate reactive oxygen species during myelin phagocytosis in the white matter. In the present study we examined the extent of microglial activation in the cerebral cortex and the relationship of microglial activation and MPO activity to cortical demyelination. Twenty-one cases of neuropathologically confirmed multiple sclerosis, with 34 cortical lesions, were used to assess microglial activation. HLA-DR immunolabeling of activated microglia was significantly higher in demyelinated MS cortex than control cortex and, within the MS cohort, was significantly greater within cortical lesions than in matched non-demyelinated areas of cortex. In homogenates of MS cortex, cortical demyelination was associated with significantly elevated MPO activity. Immunohistochemistry revealed MPO in CD68-positive microglia within cortical plaques, particularly toward the edge of the plaques, but not in microglia in adjacent non-demyelinated cortex. Cortical demyelination in MS is associated with increased activity of MPO, which is expressed by a CD68-positive subset of activated microglia, suggesting that microglial production of reactive oxygen species is likely to be involved in cortical demyelination.
    Brain Pathology 02/2008; 18(1):86-95. · 4.74 Impact Factor