[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PEX19 has been shown to play a central role in the early steps of peroxisomal membrane synthesis. Computational database analysis of the PEX19 sequence revealed three different conserved domains: D1 (aa 1--87), D2 (aa 88--272), and D3 (aa 273--299). However, these domains have not yet been linked to specific biological functions. We elected to functionally characterize the proteins derived from two naturally occurring PEX19 splice variants: PEX19DeltaE2 lacking the N-terminal domain D1 and PEX19DeltaE8 lacking the domain D3. Both interact with peroxisomal ABC transporters (ALDP, ALDRP, PMP70) and with full-length PEX3 as shown by in vitro protein interaction studies. PEX19DeltaE8 also interacts with a PEX3 protein lacking the peroxisomal targeting region located at the N-terminus (Delta66aaPEX3), whereas PEX19DeltaE2 does not. Functional complementation studies in PEX19-deficient human fibroblasts revealed that transfection of PEX19DeltaE8-cDNA leads to restoration of both peroxisomal membranes and of functional peroxisomes, whereas transfection of PEX19DeltaE2-cDNA does not restore peroxisomal biogenesis. Human PEX19 is partly farnesylated in vitro and in vivo. The farnesylation consensus motif CLIM is located in the PEX19 domain D3. The finding that the protein derived from the splice variant lacking D3 is able to interact with several peroxisomal membrane proteins and to restore peroxisomal biogenesis challenges the previous assumption that farnesylation of PEX19 is essential for its biological functionality. The data presented demonstrate a considerable functional diversity of the proteins encoded by two PEX19 splice variants and thereby provide first experimental evidence for specific biological functions of the different predicted domains of the PEX19 protein.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2002; 291(5):1180-6. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA: carboxylase (EC 220.127.116.11; MCC) deficiency is an inborn error of the leucine degradation pathway (MIM *210200) characterized by increased urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and 3-methylcrotonylglycine. The clinical phenotypes are highly variable ranging from asymptomatic to profound metabolic acidosis and death in infancy. Sequence similarity with Glycine max and Arabidopsis thaliana genes encoding the two subunits of MCC permitted us to clone the cDNAs encoding the alpha- and beta-subunits of human MCC. The 2580 bp MCCA cDNA encodes the 725 amino acid biotin-containing alpha-subunit. The MCCA gene is located on chromosome 3q26-q28 and consists of 19 exons. The 2304 bp MCCB cDNA encodes the non-biotin-containing beta-subunit of 563 amino acids. The MCCB gene is located on chromosome 5q13 and consists of 17 exons. We have sequenced both genes in four patients with isolated biotin-unresponsive deficiency of MCC. In two of them we found mutations in the MCCA gene. Compound heterozygosity for a missense mutation (S535F) and a nonsense mutation (V694X) were identified in one patient. One heterozygous mutation (S535F) was found in another patient. The remaining two patients had mutations in the MCCB gene. One consanguineous patient was homozygous for a missense mutation (R268T). In the other we identified a missense mutation in one allele (E99Q) and allelic loss of the other. Mutations were correlated with an almost total lack of enzyme activity in fibroblasts. These data provide evidence that human MCC deficiency is caused by mutations in either the MCCA or MCCB gene.
Human Molecular Genetics 07/2001; 10(12):1299-306. · 7.69 Impact Factor