[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Procedures used by tissue banks in selecting meniscal allografts that will best restore normal contact pressure at the time of surgical implantation into a recipient's knee should be improved. Our objective was to develop regression equations that use dimensions measured from magnetic resonance (MR) images of the contralateral knee to predict values of important meniscal parameters of the injured knee. Another objective was to incorporate these equations into an algorithm for selecting allografts that best match the size and shape of the damaged meniscus (either medial or lateral). In each of 10 knee specimens, four transverse and six cross-sectional parameters of the medial and lateral menisci were quantified from measurements obtained using a laser-based, noncontacting, 3-D coordinate digitizing system. In each of 10 contralateral knee specimens, six transverse and 24 cross-sectional (i.e., perpendicular to transverse plane) dimensions were measured for the medial and lateral menisci from MR images of each knee specimen. Simple linear regression equations related these 10 parameters to each of 38 predictor variables determined from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dimensions and the best regression equation for each parameter was identified. Requiring only 9 of the 30 dimensions as predictor variables, the best regression equations predicted 8 of 10 and 10 of 10 medial and lateral menisci parameters, respectively, with R2 values>0.500. The algorithm for selecting meniscal allografts involves: collecting an inventory of meniscal allografts and determining the 10 meniscus parameter values for all allografts in the inventory; measuring the dimensions as required from MRI scans of the uninjured knee; using the dimensions as inputs to the regression equations to predict values of meniscal parameters; and selecting the meniscal allograft from the inventory that best matches the predicted values of meniscal parameters. Selecting meniscal allografts using our new algorithm may enable allografts to better meet the clinical objectives of meniscal transplantation, which are to reduce pain in some patients following meniscal resection and to inhibit the degeneration of the articular cartilage.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research 07/2006; 24(7):1535-43. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to ready availability, decreased cost, and freedom from transmissible diseases in humans such as hepatitis and AIDS, it would be advantageous to use tendon grafts from farm animals as a substitute for human tendon grafts in in vitro experiments aimed at improving the outcome of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery. Thus the objective of this study was to determine whether an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft composed of two loops of bovine common digital extensor tendon has the same viscoelastic, structural, and material properties as a graft composed of a double loop of semitendinosus and gracilis tendons from humans. To satisfy this objective, grafts were constructed from each tissue source. The cross-sectional area was measured using an area micrometer, and each graft was then pulled using a materials testing system while submerged in a saline bath. Using two groups of tendon grafts (n = 10), viscoelastic tests were conducted over a three-day period during which a constant displacement load relaxation test was followed by a constant amplitude, cyclic load creep test (first day), a constant load creep test (second day), and an incremental cyclic load creep test (third day). Load-to-failure tests were performed on two different groups of grafts (n = 8). When the viscoelastic behavior was compared, there were no significant differences in the rate of load decay or the final load (relaxation test) and rates of displacement increase or final displacements (creep tests) (p > 0.115). To compare both the structural and material properties in the toe region (i.e., < 250 N) of the load-elongation curve, the tangent stiffness and modulus functions were computed from parameters used in an exponential model fit to the load (stress)-elongation (strain) data. Although one of the two parameters in the functions was different statistically, this difference translated into a difference of only 0.03 mm in displacement at 250 N of load. In the linear region (i.e., 50-75 percent of ultimate load) of the load-elongation curve, the linear stiffness of the two graft types compared closely (444 N/mm for bovine and 418 N/mm for human) (p = 0.341). At failure, the ultimate loads (2901 N and 2914 N for bovine and human, respectively) and the ultimate stresses (71.8 MPa and 65.6 MPa for bovine and human, respectively) were not significantly different (p > 0.261). The theoretical effect of any differences in properties between these two grafts on the results of two types of in vitro experiments (i.e., effect of surgical variables on knee laxity and structural properties of fixation devices) are discussed. Despite some statistical differences in the properties evaluated, these differences do not translate into important effects on the dependent variables of interest in the experiments. Thus the bovine tendon graft can be substituted for the human tendon graft in both types of experiments.
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 04/2001; 123(2):162-9. · 1.52 Impact Factor