[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulate cytoplasmic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]c) signaling but the exact role of the IP3 receptors (IP3R) in this process remains unclear. IP3Rs serve as a potential target of ROS produced by both ER and mitochondrial enzymes, which might locally expose IP3Rs at the ER-mitochondrial associations. Also, IP3Rs contain multiple reactive thiols, common molecular targets of ROS. Therefore, we have examined the effect of superoxide anion (O2.-) on IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signaling. In human HepG2, rat RBL-2H3, and chicken DT40 cells, we observed [Ca2+]c spikes and frequency-modulated oscillations evoked by a O2.- donor, xanthine (X)+xanthine oxidase (XO), dose-dependently. The [Ca2+]c signal was mediated by ER Ca2+ mobilization. X+XO added to permeabilized cells promoted the [Ca2+]c rise evoked by submaximal doses of IP3, indicating that O2.- directly sensitizes IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release. In response to X+XO, DT40 cells lacking two out of three IP3R isoforms (DKO) expressing either type 1 (DKO1) or type 2 IP3Rs (DKO2) showed a [Ca2+]c signal, whereas DKO expressing type 3 IP3R (DKO3) did not. By contrast, IgM that stimulates IP3 formation, elicited a [Ca2+]c signal in every DKO. X+XO also facilitated the Ca2+ release evoked by submaximal IP3 in permeabilized DKO1 and DKO2 but was ineffective in DKO3 or in DT40 lacking every IP3R (TKO). However, X+XO could also facilitate the effect of suboptimal IP3 in TKO transfected with rat IP3R3. Although, in silico studies failed to identify a thiol missing in the chicken IP3R3, an X+XO-induced redox change was documented only in the rat IP3R3. Thus, ROS seem to specifically sensitize IP3Rs through a thiol group(s) within the IP3R, which is probably unaccessible in the chicken IP3R3.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ channel-modulatory activities of Polygonum persicaria extracts were investigated by using an automated patch-clamp method, with the aim of identifying natural sources of promising ion channel-blocking compounds. The chloroform extract of the whole plant at 0.1 mg/mL exhibited high G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ channel-inhibitory activity. Fractionation of this extract by vacuum liquid chromatography on RP-silica gel resulted in 6 fractions, which were evaluated for G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ channel-modulatory activity. RP-HPLC of the most active fractions afforded the main compounds 1-4 in pure form and a mixture containing the minor constituents. The structures were identified by means of UV, HRMS, and advanced NMR methods as 3-O-senecioyl-isorhamnetin (1), 3-O-angeloyl-isorhamnetin (2), 5,3',4',5'-tetramethoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone (3), and 3,5,3',4',5'-pentamethoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone (4). Compounds 1-4 are new natural products, though 4 was reported earlier as a synthetic compound. Neither the individual, nor the combined application of compounds 1-4 modified the G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ channel activity. However, a marked G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ current-inhibitory effect was detected on use of the HPLC eluates containing the minor compounds. These results indicate the presence of electrophysiologically active agents among the minor compounds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diterpene alkaloids neoline (1), napelline (2), isotalatizidine (3), karakoline (4), senbusine A (5), senbusine C (6), aconitine (7) and taurenine (8) were identified from Aconitum napellus L. subsp. firmum, four (2-4, 6) of which are reported for the first time from this plant. The structures were determined by means of LC-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC experiments. Electrophysiological effects of the isolated compounds, together with nine diterpene alkaloids previously obtained from Aconitum toxicum and Consolida orientalis were investigated on stable transfected HEK-hERG (Kv11.1) and HEK-GIRK1/4 (Kir3.1 and Kir3.4) cell lines using automated patch clamp equipment. Significant blocking activity on GIRK channel was exerted by aconitine (7) (45% at 10 μM), but no blocking activities of the other investigated compounds were detected. The tested compounds were inactive on hERG channel in the tested concentration. The comparison of the previously reported metabolites of A. napellus subsp. firmum and compounds identified in our experiment reveals substantial variability of the alkaloid profile of this taxon.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We are showing that chlorothiazide, a diuretic, is an ABCG2 substrate. It is a Biopharmaceutics Classification System/Biopharmaceutics Drug Distribution and Classification System (BCS/BDDCS) Class IV drug with low bioavailability. Therefore, we tested if chlorothiazide interacts with major apically located intestinal efflux transporters. Our data show that chlorothiazide is transported by ABCG2 with a K m value of 334.6 µM and does not interact with ABCB1 or ABCC2. The chlorothiazide-ABCG2 interaction results in a vectorial transport in MDCKII-BCRP and Caco-2 cells with efflux ratios of 36 and 8.1 respectively. Inhibition of ABCG2 in Caco-2 cells reduced the efflux ratio to 1.4, suggesting that ABCG2 plays a role in limiting chlorothiazide bioavailability in humans.
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 06/2012; 27(3):349-53. DOI:10.2133/dmpk.DMPK-11-NT-068 · 2.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ATPase assay using membrane preparations from recombinant baculovirus-infected Spodoptera frugiperda ovarian (Sf9) cells is widely used to detect the interaction of compounds with different ATP-binding cassette transporters. However, Sf9 membrane preparations containing the wild-type ABCG2 transporter show an elevated baseline vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity, which cannot be further stimulated by substrates of ABCG2. Therefore, this assay system cannot be used for the detection of ABCG2 substrates. To overcome this difficulty we 1) purified membranes from a selected human cell line expressing wild-type ABCG2, and 2) inhibited the baseline ATPase activity with different inhibitors. In our modified assay, ABCG2 substrates were able to stimulate the baseline ATPase activity of ABCG2 expressed in membranes of human cells. Furthermore, using the specific ABCG2 inhibitors Ko143 or Ko134 allowed us to suppress the baseline vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity. Substrates of ABCG2 could stimulate this suppressed baseline ATPase, resulting in a better signal-to-background ratio and a robust assay to detect substrates of the ABCG2 transporter. The ATPase assay and the direct vesicular transport measurements for estrone-3-sulfate were in good accordance.
Drug Metabolism and Disposition 10/2007; 35(9):1533-42. DOI:10.1124/dmd.106.014605 · 3.25 Impact Factor