Stephen Lumayag

Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States

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Publications (7)26.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The microRNA-183/96/182 cluster is highly expressed in the retina and other sensory organs. To uncover its in vivo functions in the retina, we generated a knockout mouse model, designated "miR-183C(GT/GT)," using a gene-trap embryonic stem cell clone. We provide evidence that inactivation of the cluster results in early-onset and progressive synaptic defects of the photoreceptors, leading to abnormalities of scotopic and photopic electroretinograms with decreased b-wave amplitude as the primary defect and progressive retinal degeneration. In addition, inactivation of the miR-183/96/182 cluster resulted in global changes in retinal gene expression, with enrichment of genes important for synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, photoreceptor morphogenesis, and phototransduction, suggesting that the miR-183/96/182 cluster plays important roles in postnatal functional differentiation and synaptic connectivity of photoreceptors.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of blindness. However, the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in DR are still unknown. The aims of this study were to identify miRNAs involved in early DR and to characterize their roles in the pathogenesis of DR. miRNA-expression profiling was performed in the retina and retinal endothelial cells (RECs) of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats 3 months after the onset of diabetes and miRNAs differentially expressed in diabetic rats were identified and compared with controls. Subsequently, functional annotation analysis was conducted to identify miRNA signatures of pathologic pathways of DR. In addition, in vitro functional assays were used to dissect interactions of miR-146 and NF-κB activation in a conditionally immortalized retinal capillary endothelial cell line, Tr-iBRB. Approximately 350 and 220 miRNAs were detected in the retinas and RECs, respectively, in both control and diabetic rats. At least 86 and 120 miRNAs were differentially expressed (P < 0.01) in the retinas and RECs of diabetic rats and controls, respectively. Upregulation of NF-κB-, VEGF-, and p53-responsive miRNAs constituted key miRNA signatures, reflecting ongoing pathologic changes of early DR. In addition, it was demonstrated that the negative feedback regulation of miR-146 on NF-κB activation may function in Tr-iBRB endothelial cells, suggesting that miR-146 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of DR through its inhibition on NF-κB activation in RECs. miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of DR through the modulation of multiple pathogenetic pathways and may be novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of DR.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 01/2011; 52(7):4402-9. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposition affects the structure and function of the retina of the APPswe/PS1DeltaE9 transgenic (tg) mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Retinas from 12- to 19-month old APPswe/PS1DeltaE9 tg and age-matched non-transgenic (ntg) littermates were single or double stained with thioflavine-S and antibodies against Abeta, glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP), microglial marker F4/80, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and syntaxin 1. Quantification of thioflavine-S positive plaques and retinal layer thickness was analyzed semi-quantitatively, whereas microglial cell size and levels of F4/80 immunoreactivity were evaluated using a densitometry program. Scotopic electroretinogram (ERG) recording was used to investigate retinal physiology in these mice. Thioflavine-S positive plaques appeared at 12 months in the retinas of APPswe/PS1DeltaE9 tg mice with the majority of plaques in the outer and inner plexiform layers. Plaques were embedded in the inner plexiform layer strata displaying syntaxin 1 and ChAT. The number and size of the plaques in the retina increased with age. Plaques appeared earlier and in greater numbers in females than in male tg littermate mice. Microglial activity was significantly increased in the retinas of APPswe/PS1DeltaE9 tg mice. Although we did not detect neuronal degeneration in the retina, ERG recordings revealed a significant reduction in the amplitudes of a- and b-waves in aged APPswe/PS1DeltaE9 tg compared to ntg littermates. The present findings suggest that Abeta deposition disrupts retinal structure and may contribute to the visual deficits seen in aged APPswe/PS1DeltaE9 tg mice. Whether Abeta is involved in other forms of age-related retinal dysfunction is unclear.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 01/2008; 50(2):793-800. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although microRNAs (miRNAs) provide a newly recognized level of regulation of gene expression, the miRNA transcriptome of the retina and the contributions of miRNAs to retinal development and function are largely unknown. To begin to understand the functions of miRNAs in retina, we compared miRNA expression profiles in adult mouse retina, brain, and heart by microarray analysis. Our results show that at least 78 miRNAs are expressed in adult mouse retina, 21 of which are potentially retina-specific. Among these, we identified a polycistronic, sensory organ-specific paralogous miRNA cluster that includes miR-96, miR-182, and miR-183 on mouse chromosome 6qA3 with conservation of synteny to human chromosome 7q32.2. In situ hybridization showed that members of this cluster are expressed in photoreceptors, retinal bipolar and amacrine cells. Consistent with their genomic organization, these miRNAs have a similar expression pattern during development with abundance increasing postnatally and peaking in adult retina. Target prediction and in vitro functional studies showed that MITF, a transcription factor required for the establishment and maintenance of retinal pigmented epithelium, is a direct target of miR-96 and miR-182. Additionally, to identify miRNAs potentially involved in circadian rhythm regulation of the retina, we performed miRNA expression profiling with retinal RNA harvested at noon (Zeitgeber time 5) and midnight (Zeitgeber time 17) and identified a subgroup of 12 miRNAs, including members of the miR-183/96/182 cluster with diurnal variation in expression pattern. Our results suggest that miR-96 and miR-182 are involved in circadian rhythm regulation, perhaps by modulating the expression of adenylyl cyclase VI (ADCY6).
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2007; 282(34):25053-66. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed genome-wide chemical mutagenesis of C57BL/6J mice using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). Electroretinographic screening of the third generation offspring revealed two G3 individuals from one G1 family with a normal a-wave but lacking the b-wave that we named nob4. The mutation was transmitted with a recessive mode of inheritance and mapped to chromosome 11 in a region containing the Grm6 gene, which encodes a metabotropic glutamate receptor protein, mGluR6. Sequencing confirmed a single nucleotide substitution from T to C in the Grm6 gene. The mutation is predicted to result in substitution of Pro for Ser at position 185 within the extracellular, ligand-binding domain and oocytes expressing the homologous mutation in mGluR6 did not display robust glutamate-induced currents. Retinal mRNA levels for Grm6 were not significantly reduced, but no immunoreactivity for mGluR6 protein was found. Histological and fundus evaluations of nob4 showed normal retinal morphology. In contrast, the mutation has severe consequences for visual function. In nob4 mice, fewer retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) responded to the onset (ON) of a bright full field stimulus. When ON responses could be evoked, their onset was significantly delayed. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, measured with optomotor responses, were reduced under both photopic and scotopic conditions. This mutant will be useful because its phenotype is similar to that of human patients with congenital stationary night blindness and will provide a tool for understanding retinal circuitry and the role of ganglion cell encoding of visual information.
    Visual Neuroscience 12/2006; 24(1):111-23. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed genome-wide mutagenesis of C57BL/6J mice using the mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and screened the third generation (G3) offspring for visual system alterations using electroretinography and fundus photography. Several mice in one pedigree showed characteristics of retinal degeneration when tested at 12–14 weeks of age: no recordable electroretinogram (ERG), attenuation of retinal vessels, and speckled pigmentation of the fundus. Histological studies showed that the retinas undergo a photoreceptor degeneration with apoptotic loss of outer nuclear layer nuclei but visual acuity measured using the optomotor response under photopic conditions persists in spite of considerable photoreceptor loss. The Noerg-1 mutation showed an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance in progeny. Studies in early postnatal mice showed degeneration to occur after formation of partially functional rods. The Noerg-1 mutation was mapped genetically to chromosome 6 by crossing C57BL/6J mutants with DBA/2J or BALB/cJ mice to produce an N2 generation and then determining the ERG phenotypes and the genotypes of the N2 offspring at multiple loci using SSLP and SNP markers. Fine mapping was accomplished with a set of closely spaced markers. A nonrecombinant region from 112.8 Mb to 115.1 Mb was identified, encompassing the rhodopsin (Rho) coding region. A single nucleotide transition from G to A was found in the Rho gene that is predicted to result in a substitution of Tyr for Cys at position 110, in an intradiscal loop. This mutation has been found in patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and results in misfolding of rhodopsin expressed in vitro. Thus, ENU mutagenesis is capable of replicating mutations that occur in human patients and is useful for generating de novo models of human inherited eye disease. Furthermore, the availability of the mouse genomic sequence and extensive DNA polymorphisms made the rapid identification of this gene possible, demonstrating that the use of ENU-induced mutations for functional gene identification is now practical for individual laboratories.
    Visual Neuroscience 08/2005; 22(05):619 - 629. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Random mutagenesis combined with phenotypic screening using carefully crafted functional tests has successfully led to the discovery of genes that are essential for a number of functions. This approach does not require prior knowledge of the identity of the genes that are involved and is a way to ascribe function to the nearly 6000 genes for which knowledge of the DNA sequence has been inadequate to determine the function of the gene product. In an effort to identify genes involved in the visual system via this approach, we have tested over 9000 first and third generation offspring of mice treated with the mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) for visual defects, as evidenced by abnormalities in the electroretinogram and appearance of the fundus. We identified 61 putative mutations with this procedure and outline the steps needed to identify the affected genes.
    Vision Research 12/2004; 44(28):3335-45. · 2.14 Impact Factor