[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report that under 'transcriptional stress' in budding yeast, when most pol II activity is acutely inhibited, rapid deposition of nucleosomes occurs within genes, particularly at 3' positions. Whereas histone H3K4 trimethylation normally marks 5' ends of highly transcribed genes, under 'transcriptional stress' induced by 6-azauracil (6-AU) and inactivation of pol II, TFIIE or CTD kinases Kin28 and Ctk1, this mark shifted to the 3' end of the TEF1 gene. H3K4Me3 at 3' positions was dynamic and could be rapidly removed when transcription recovered. Set1 and Chd1 are required for H3K4 trimethylation at 3' positions when transcription is inhibited by 6-AU. Furthermore, Deltachd1 suppressed the growth defect of Deltaset1. We suggest that a 'transcriptional stress' signal sensed through Set1, Chd1, and possibly other factors, causes H3K4 hypermethylation of newly deposited nucleosomes at downstream positions within a gene. This response identifies a new role for H3K4 trimethylation at the 3' end of the gene, as a chromatin mark associated with impaired pol II transcription.
The EMBO Journal 08/2005; 24(13):2379-90. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Capping enzymes bind the phosphorylated pol II CTD permitting cotranscriptional capping of nascent pre-mRNAs. We asked whether these interactions influence pol II function using ChIP in ts mutants of yeast capping enzymes. Pol II occupancy at the 5' ends of PGK1, ENO2, GAL1, and GAL10 was reduced by inactivation of the methyltransferase, Abd1, but not the guanylyltransferase, Ceg1, suggesting that Abd1 contributes to stable promoter binding. At other genes, Abd1 inactivation increased the 5':3' ratio of pol II density in the promoter-proximal region and caused Ser5 hyperphosphorylation of the pol II CTD. These results suggest an additional role for Abd1 in the promoter clearance and/or promoter-proximal elongation steps of transcription. The transcriptional functions of Abd1 are independent of methyltransferase activity. Manipulation of transcription by Abd1 may enhance cotranscriptional capping and also act as a checkpoint to ensure that a nascent transcript has a cap before it can be completed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The RNA polymerase II CTD is essential for 3' end cleavage of metazoan pre-mRNAs and binds 3' end processing factors in vitro. We show genetic and biochemical interactions between the CTD and the Pcf11 subunit of the yeast cleavage/polyadenylation factor, CFIA. In vitro binding to Pcf11 required phosphorylation of the CTD on Ser2 in the YSPTSPS heptad repeats. Deletion of the yeast CTD reduced the efficiency of cleavage at poly(A) sites, and the length of poly(A) tails suggesting that it helps couple 3' end formation with transcription. Consistent with this model, the 3' end processing factors CFIA, CFIB, and PFI were recruited to genes progressively, starting at the 5' end, in a process that required ongoing transcription.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The C-terminal heptad repeat domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (pol II) is proposed to target pre-mRNA processing enzymes to nascent pol II transcripts, but this idea has not been directly tested in vivo. In vitro, the yeast mRNA capping enzymes Ceg1 and Abd1 bind specifically to the phosphorylated CTD. Here we show that yeast capping enzymes cross-link in vivo to the 5' ends of transcribed genes and that this localization requires the CTD. Both the extent of CTD phosphorylation at Ser 5 of the heptad repeat and the binding of capping enzymes decreased as polymerase moved from the 5' to the 3' ends of the ACT1, ENO2, TEF1, GAL1, and GAL10 genes. Ceg1 is released early in elongation, but Abd1 can travel with transcribing pol II as far as the 3' end of a gene. The CTD kinase, Kin28, is required for binding, and the CTD phosphatase, Fcp1, is required for dissociation of capping enzymes from the elongation complex. CTD phosphorylation and dephosphorylation therefore control the association of capping enzymes with pol II as it transcribes a gene.
Genes & Development 11/2000; 14(19):2435-40. · 12.44 Impact Factor