ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) are characterized cytogenetically by 14q32 rearrangements, -13/13q-, and various trisomies. Occasionally, karyotypic patterns characteristic of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/acute myeloid leukemia (AML) occur in MM, often signifying therapy-related (t)-MDS/t-AML. Comparison of cytogenetic features in all published MMs (n = 993) and t-MDS/t-AML post-MM (n = 117) revealed significant differences in complexity and ploidy levels and in most genomic changes. Thus, these features often can be used to distinguish between MM and t-MDS/t-AML. Rarely, myeloid-associated aberrations are detected in MM without any signs of MDS/AML. To characterize such abnormalities in MM/MGUS, we ascertained all 122 MM and 26 MGUS/smoldering MM (SMM) cases analyzed in our department. Sixty-six (54%) MMs and 8 (31%) MGUS/SMMs were karyotypically abnormal, of which 6 (9%) MMs and 3 (38%) MGUS/SMMs displayed myeloid abnormalities, that is, +8 (1 case) and 20q- (8 cases) as the sole anomalies, without any evidence of MDS/AML. One patient developed AML, whereas no MDS/AML occurred in the remaining 8 patients. In one MGUS with del(20q), fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses revealed its presence in CD34+CD38- (hematopoietic stem cells), CD34+CD38+ (progenitors), CD19+ (B cells), and CD15+ (myeloid cells). The present data indicate that 20q- occurs in 10% of karyotypically abnormal MM/MGUS cases and that it might arise at a multipotent progenitor/stem cell level.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 12/2004; 41(3):223-31. · 3.31 Impact Factor