[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ammonia-oxidizing prokaryote (AOP) community in three groundwater treatment plants and connected distribution systems was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and sequence analysis targeting the amoA gene of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA). Results demonstrated that AOB and AOA numbers increased during biological filtration of ammonia-rich anoxic groundwater, and AOP were responsible for ammonium removal during treatment. In one of the treatment trains at plant C, ammonia removal correlated significantly with AOA numbers but not with AOB numbers. Thus, AOA were responsible for ammonia removal in water treatment at one of the studied plants. Furthermore, an observed negative correlation between the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in the water and AOA numbers suggests that high DOC levels might reduce growth of AOA. AOP entered the distribution system in numbers ranging from 1.5 x 10(3) to 6.5 x 10(4) AOPs ml(-1). These numbers did not change during transport in the distribution system despite the absence of a disinfectant residual. Thus, inactive AOP biomass does not seem to be degraded by heterotrophic microorganisms in the distribution system. We conclude from our results that AOA can be commonly present in distribution systems and groundwater treatment, where they can be responsible for the removal of ammonia.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 06/2009; 75(14):4687-95. · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A flow-through fiber-optic-based bacterial monitoring system for online monitoring of toxic pollutants in water has been developed. Two bacterial strains containing fusions of recA (DNA damage) and grpE (heat-shock) promoters to the lux operon (CDABE) were immobilized on a fiber optic and tested for their ability to detect pollutants in flowing tap water and surface water. Conditions for running the system for 24 h were optimized and first experiments with the system show (1-h) response times and response heights similar to the previous static systems. Responses were related to the doses and the sensitivity is good (comparable to static systems), but needs to be increased to be able to monitor whether also the low guideline values are exceeded by pollutants. 24-h measurements in tap water demonstrate the ability of the device to run for such a time period, but in river water loss of functionality of the bacteria was observed. This flow-through fiber-optic-based monitoring system has proven to be a useful next step in the development of a simple on-line real time sensor for relevant human toxicants in flowing water.