[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Six-year-old Levisticum officinale (lovage) hairy root cultures were used to study the effect of eight different NH(4) (+):NO(3) (-) ratios on their growth and volatile components. All cultures were kept at 24 degrees C on orbital shakers at 80 rpm, in darkness or in a 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod. Growth was evaluated by dry and fresh weight determination. The volatiles were isolated by distillation-extraction and analysed by GC and GC-MS. Greater growth was attained in darkness with 10:90 (control, SH medium), 50:50 and 25:75 NH(4) (+):NO(3) (-) ratios, and also with SH control medium under the photoperiod condition, with a 10, 14, 12.5 and 12.5 fold increase of biomass in terms of dry weight, respectively, at the end of 42 days of growth. UPGMA cluster analysis of the mixtures of volatiles isolated from the hairy roots grown with different NH(4) (+):NO(3) (-) ratios confirmed their chemical variability. Although no particular grouping was detected in relation to the NH(4) (+):NO(3) (-) ratios or light conditions studied, most of the mixtures of volatiles isolated from the hairy roots were either dominated by n-octanal, (Z)-falcarinol or both components in about the same relative amounts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The composition of the essential oils isolated from 24 populations of Thymus caespititius collected on Corvo, Flores, São Miguel and Terceira (Azores) and on Madeira were studied by GC and GC–MS. All the oil samples analysed were dominated by their monoterpene fraction (66–89%). In the Azorean populations, the proportion of the oxygenated monoterpenes (51–79%) was higher than that of the monoterpene hydrocarbons (8–27%). In contrast, the monoterpene hydrocarbons and the oxygenated monoterpenes represented 35–44 and 42–43%, respectively, of the total oils from the populations grown on Madeira. Cluster analysis of the identified components with a concentration ≥1% grouped the oils into three main clusters that corresponded with their main components: carvacrol (41–65%), thymol (35–51%) and α-terpineol (33–37%). Although the populations collected on Madeira were grouped in the same cluster, the chiral analysis of sabinene, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol showed that there was a clear chemical polymorphism. Actually, in the oils from two populations (−)-sabinene, (−)-terpinen-4-ol and (+)-α-terpineol were the predominant enantiomers while in that from the third population an opposite ratio was found. The chemical polymorphism of the essential oils from T. caespititius may result either from the genetic variability of the populations or from the influence of edaphic factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transformed root cultures of Levisticum officinale (lovage) were established by inoculation of aseptically grown seedlings with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 carrying plasmid pRiA4::70GUS. Hairy roots growth in four different types of liquid culture media was determined by the dissimilation method and by measuring the fresh and dry weight of the roots. The composition of the essential oils from the hairy roots and from lovage plant roots was analysed by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the oil samples from the hairy roots were falcarinol, (Z)-ligustilide, (Z)-3-butylidenephthalide, trans-beta-farnesene, beta-phellandrene, n-octanal, gamma-elemene and n-heptanal, in varying amounts depending on the culture media tested. The hairy roots essential oil yields ranged from 0.006 to 0.018% (v/fr. wt.). The main components of the oil from the lovage plant roots were (Z)-ligustilide, beta-pinene, pentylcyclohexadiene and alpha-pinene. The yield of the oil front the lovage plant roots was 0.16% (v/fr. wt.). (c) 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Monarda citriodora var. citriodora, Myristica fragrans, Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum, Pelargonium sp. and Thymus zygis were screened for antioxidative properties in a lipid-rich matrix as quantified by spectrophotometry using iron (II) sulphate and 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride as sources of primordial free radicals. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties of M. fragrans, O. vulgare, Pelargonium sp. and T. zygis were screened against 25 different genera of bacteria selected for their agricultural, economic and health significance. The oils demonstrated a range of bioactive properties, with the oils rich in phenolic monoterpenes (M. citriodora and T. zygis) being particularly active in both antioxidant and antibacterial test systems.
Journal of Essential Oil Research 03/2004; 16(2-2):145-150. DOI:10.1080/10412905.2004.9698679 · 0.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The compositions of the essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of 11 populations of Thymus caespititius collected during the flowering phase on Pico, Faial and Graciosa (Azores) were studied by GC and GC-MS. The monoterpene fraction was dominant in all the oils analysed (55-90%) and consisted mainly of oxygen-containing compounds (44-79%). Sesquiterpenes represented an important fraction of the oils from the populations grown on Graciosa (13-28%). In contrast, this fraction was rather small in the oils from the populations grown on Pico and Faial (6-11%). Despite this, oxygen-containing compounds (4-18%) were always dominant. Cluster analysis of all identified oil components grouped the oils into three main clusters that corresponded with their main components. The oils from the 11 populations studied showed a clear chemical polymorphism that, in some cases, was more evident among populations growing on the same island than among those from different islands.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four samples, from two populations, of the liverwort Marchesinia mackaii were collected on Madeira and at the mainland of Portugal, at different collection times. The oil yields determined by hydrodistillation attained 0.5% (v/w). The essential oils isolated by distillation-extraction were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The main components (>5%) were alpha-asarone (23-31%), 2,4,5-trimethoxyallylbenzene (10-23%), (E)-methyl isoeugenol (12-19%), asarone (11-13%) and beta caryophyllene (7-16%).
Journal of Essential Oil Research 11/2002; 14(6-6):439-442. DOI:10.1080/10412905.2002.9699915 · 0.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antioxidants minimize the oxidation of lipid components in cell membranes by scavenging free radicals. However, imbalance between free radical production and removal tends to increase with age causing progressive damage. For the food industry it is of considerable interest to delay the autoxidation of food lipids, which cause the reduction in food quality, affecting color, taste, nutritive value, and functionality. A general orientation toward the use of natural compounds has stimulated research into the potential use of aromatic and medicinal plants as possible antioxidant replacements. This study characterized the antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of thyme oil and a number of its components. The major components identified in thyme oil were found to inhibit ferric-ion-stimulated lipid peroxidation of rat brain homogenates, although none was as effective as the whole oil The order of antioxidant activity was; thyme oil > thymol > carvacrol > γ-terpinene > myrcene > linalool > p-cymene > limonene > 1,8-cineole > α-pinene. Both thyme oil and thymol were also found to inhibit tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-stimulated peroxidation and INT reduction by superoxide radicals generated by the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system. Of these compounds tested only p-cymene, 1,8-cineole and myrcene were found to exhibit pro-oxidant activity, albeit to a very small extent. Overall, the data suggest that thyme oil possesses useful antioxidant properties that may be utilized in the food industry and as a dietary supplement.
Journal of Essential Oil Research 05/2002; 14(3-3):210-215. DOI:10.1080/10412905.2002.9699825 · 0.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transformed root cultures of Anethum graveolens were induced by inoculation of aseptically grown seedlings with Agrobacterium rhizogenes carrying plasmid pRi 1855. The main component of the essential oils from the fruits and from the roots of the parent plant was carvone, whereas -phellandrene and apiole were dominant in the oil from, respectively, the aerial parts and the hairy roots. The essential oils from the fruits, aerial parts and roots of the parent plant were at 2%, 0.3% and 0.06% (v/w), respectively, but only 0.02% (v/w) in the hairy root cultures. Growth of the hairy root cultures reached 600 mg dry wt/50 ml medium after 50 days. The essential oil composition did not change significantly during their growth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcoholic extracts of Goat's Rue (Galega officinalis L.; Papilionaceae) were tested on Gram +ve and Gram −ve bacteria as the plant was claimed to hasten skin healing after surgery. Ethanolic (60%) extract exhibited significant inhibition on growth of both Gram +ve and Gram −ve bacteria.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 10/2001; 77(1-77):111-112. DOI:10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00250-1 · 3.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The essential oils isolated from leaves of ten and from unripe berries of eight populations of Laurus azorica (Seub.) Franco, collected on five islands of the Azorean archipelago, were analysed by GC and GC-MS. All oil samples were dominated by their monoterpene fraction (60-94%), alpha-pinene (15-37%) and 1,8-cineole (12-31%) being the main components of the leaf oils, while trans-beta-ocimene (27-45%) and alpha-pinene (12-22%) were the main components of the oils from the berries. The sesquiterpene fractions of the oils ranged from 3 to 17% and the main components were beta-caryophyllene (traces-8%) and beta-elemene (traces-3%) both in the leaf and berry oils. Some phenylpropanoid components were also present, in total amounting to 17%, trans-cinnamyl acetate (215% of the leaf oils) being the main component of this fraction. Cluster analysis of the enantiomeric composition of alpha- and beta-pinene in the oils from the leaves clearly showed two groups, one constituted by the two populations growing on the island S. Jorge, and the other constituted by the remaining populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The essential oils obtained from Crithmum maritimum L. (marine fennel) and two samples of Foeniculum vulgare Miller (common fennel) were analysed by GC and GC-MS and assayed for their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The antioxidant activity of the oils was evaluated by two lipid model systems: a modified thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) assay and a spectrophotometric detection of hydroperoxydienes from linoleic acid in a micellar system. The oils demonstrated antioxidant capacities, comparable in some cases to that of alpha-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), used as reference antioxidants. Concerning the antimicrobial tests the essential oils were assayed against twenty-five genera of bacteria, including animal and plant pathogens, food poisoning and spoilage bacteria. Oils from the two samples of F. vulgare showed a higher and broader degree of inhibition than that of C. maritimum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three different species of Myrtaceae growing in Australia and New Zealand are known as 'Tea-tree': the Australian Tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), the New Zealand Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) and Kanuka (Kunzea ericoides). All three essential oils are used by aromatherapists, although only Melaleuca has been tested for toxicity, and its antimicrobial effects studied. The pharmacology and antimicrobial activity of the three 'tea-tree' oils was determined using guinea-pig ileum, skeletal muscle (chick biventer muscle and the rat phrenic nerve diaphragm) and also rat uterus in vitro. Differences were shown between the three essential oils in their action on smooth muscle: Manuka had a spasmolytic action, while Kanuka and Melaleuca had an initial spasmogenic action. Using the diaphragm, Manuka and Melaleuca decreased the tension and caused a delayed contracture; Kanuka had no activity at the same concentration. The action on chick biventer muscle was, however, similar for all three oils, as was the action on the uterus, where they caused a decrease in the force of the spontaneous contractions. The latter action suggests caution in the use of these essential oils during childbirth, as cessation of contractions could put the baby, and mother, at risk. The comparative antimicrobial activity showed greater differences between different samples of Manuka and Kanuka than Melaleuca samples. The antifungal activity of Kanuka was inversely proportional to its strong antibacterial activity, whilst Manuka displayed a stronger antifungal effect, though not as potent as Melaleuca. The antioxidant activity of Manuka samples was more consistent than that of Kanuka, while Melaleuca showed no activity. The variability in the Manuka and Kanuka essential oils suggests caution in their usage, as does the fact that the oils have not been tested for toxicity.
Phytotherapy Research 01/2001; 14(8):623-9. DOI:10.1002/1099-1573(200012)14:83.0.CO;2-Z · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The compositions of the essential oils obtained from ten populations of Thymus caespititius grown on S. Jorge (Azores) were studied by GC and GC-MS. All the oils analysed were dominated by their monoterpene fraction (69-9%). The sesquiterpene fraction was rather small (4-17%) and consisted mainly of oxygen-containing compounds (3-13%). Enantiomeric ratio of sabinene and alpha-terpineol was investigated in the oils from some populations. (+)-Sabinene was detected with high enatiomeric purity (96 99%). Although ( +)-alpha terpineol was the predominant enantiomer, its purity varied considerably (66-97%). Cluster analysis of all identified components grouped the oils into four main clusters that corresponded with their major components: alpha-terpineol (43-68%), carvacrol (32-52%), thymol (44-58%) and sabinene (41%). The essential oil from Th. caespititius showed a clear chemical polymorphism, that was particularly evident among four populations growing along a 200 m distance at Pico Verde.