ABSTRACT: X-linked osteopetrosis, anhydrotic ectodermal dysplasia, and immunodeficiency (XL-O-EDA-ID) is a disorder that is caused by hypomorphic mutations in the nuclear factor kappaB essential modulator (NEMO). These mutations lead to an impaired NF-kappaB activation. In vitro analyses and studies in animal models show that inhibition of NF-kappaB leads to a decrease of cytokine production and T-cell proliferation. Patients classically display poor or delayed inflammatory response to infections. We describe a boy with XL-O-EDA-ID, 1167-1168insC NEMO mutation, and recurrent infections. In early infancy, he experienced hemophagocytosis with transient deficiency of natural killer activity. Increased immunoglobulin M levels in blood resulted from a monoclonal immunoglobulin M gammopathy. Blood T-cell numbers were constantly increased, most probably resulting from a peripheral T-cell expansion. Our observations suggest that patients with hypomorphic NEMO mutations and repeated infections may experience inflammatory dysregulation.
PEDIATRICS 06/2006; 117(5):e1049-56. · 4.47 Impact Factor