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ABSTRACT: To identify risk as well as protective factors related to compliance with the gluten-free diet in a cohort of teenagers with celiac disease (CD).
Two hundred four patients with CD (European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition criteria) older than or equal to 13 years and residents of Campania (southern Italy) were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent clinical examination and blood sampling, and were interviewed about school performance, social relationships, family integration, smoking habit, and compliance with a gluten-free diet. Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies were assayed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
One hundred fifty of 204 (73.5%) reported no dietary transgressions, and 54 of 204 (26.5%) reported occasional or frequent transgressions. During the previous month 29 of 54 (53.7%) poor compliers ate from 0.001 to 1 g of gluten per day, 14 (25.9%) from 1 to 5 g, and 11 (20.4%) more than 5 g. The daily intake of gluten was significantly related to anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (chi2 = 38.872, P = 0.000). Height was below the third percentile in 19 of 204 (9.3%), and weight was above the 97th percentile in 20 of 204 (9.8%). Diet compliance did not seem to influence the weight and height. One hundred eleven of 150 good compliers (74%) and 31 of 54 (57.4%) poor compliers were asymptomatic. Most patients reported good family relationships (88.7%), social relationships (91.2%), and school integration (88.2%). Alternatively, 54% of patients reported some limitation in their social life. Compliance was good in patients who reported excellent school integration (83%) and social relationships (81%).
Optimal school integration significantly contributes to the likelihood of good compliance. A better understanding within the school environment about CD-related issues could improve motivation to adhere to a gluten-free diet.
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 08/2009; 50(1):54-60. DOI:10.1097/MPG.0b013e31819de82a · 2.87 Impact Factor
Digestive and Liver Disease 10/2007; 39(10). DOI:10.1016/j.dld.2007.07.139 · 2.89 Impact Factor
Digestive and Liver Disease 10/2006; 38(10). DOI:10.1016/j.dld.2006.07.068 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As much as 1% of the gluten-consuming world is gluten-intolerant. New screening methods are increasingly identifying gluten intolerance in individuals previously free from health problems. The often-abrupt major change in diet may adversely affect the patient's quality of life. Our aim was to evaluate self-perceived quality of life in a large cohort of adult celiac patients after at least one year of a gluten-free diet. In all 581 members (410 females) of five regional celiac societies were on a gluten-free regimen for at least one year. In this cross-sectional study, a modified version of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale was administered to the 581 patients from five Italian regions. Most patients correctly defined celiac disease, and compliance with the gluten-free diet was high, although reporting bias cannot be excluded. Most felt well (83.6% "very well" and "well"); consequently, anxiety and depression scores were low. Happiness also scored low. Most participants did not feel that a gluten-free life differentiated them from the general population. Women and patients diagnosed after 20 years of age had better dietary compliance, but more problems in their social life. Happiness scores were higher in patients diagnosed before 20 years of age. Anxiety and depression were infrequent in this group; however, anxiety was frequently related to feeling different from the general population, and depression to an unsatisfactory sexual life. In conclusion, celiac disease does not appear to be associated to a low level of self-perceived quality of life in members of the Italian Celiac Society.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences 12/2003; 48(11):2216-20. DOI:10.1023/B:DDAS.0000004530.11738.a2 · 2.55 Impact Factor