[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An in vitro study of protein binding has been carried out to observe the influence of atenolol and zinc chloride on the protein binding of amlodipine by equilibrium dialysis method at 37±1 0C and at physiological pH (7.4). It has been found that zinc chloride lowered the affinity and percentage of protein binding of amlodipine to bovine serum albumin but atenolol has no such effect. The Scatchard plots were prepared to reveal the number of binding sites and the affinity for protein binding. It was seen that the highest percentage binding of amlodipine was 91% and the lowest was 74%. In the presence of atenolol, the highest and the lowest value of percentage of protein binding was 90% and 72%, respectively. In the presence of zinc chloride these values were 84% and 65% respectively. It is, thus, inferred that atenolol or its complex with amlodipine has no significant effect on percentage of protein binding of amlodipine. While zinc chloride or its complex with amlodipine can cause a decrease in percentage of protein binding of amlodipine. Complexation of amlodipine with zinc chloride might, therefore, displace the drug from the plasma and the displaced drugs may be redistributed, thus , increasing the free drug in plasma and tissue systems. This may change the pharmacokinetic properties of the drug and may affect the pharmacological and toxic effects. It is thus inferred that care and monitoring must be taken during combination therapy of amlodipine and zinc chloride.
Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 06/2008; 7(1):15-21. · 0.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The samples of secondary packaging items (cartons, labels and package inserts) of 45 essential drug products used at Union health and family welfare center and Thana health complex level, that included 23 solid (tablet and capsule), 34 liquid (syrup, suspension, and injectables) and 4 semisolid (ointment and cream) preparations either manufactured in Bangladesh or imported by local distributing agencies, were thoroughly examined from April 30, 2005 to March 31, 2006 on the basis of 32 parameters which are usually regarded important for the labeling of any pharmaceutical preparation including essential drug products. Many of the products were available simultaneously as solid, liquid and topical (total 74 different) dosage forms and all dosage forms have been considered in this study. The secondary packaging items of a total of 58 pharmaceutical companies for 45 generics of essential drug products have been collected, sorted/arranged and meticulously studied, and packaging parameters were accumulated for analysis. It has been observed that many of the important packaging information were either completely missing or not properly described. This study was aimed at examining the extent of the packaging information provided in the secondary packaging items.